Abstract

We have designed a single thin planar diffractive optical element (DOE) based on the principle of diffractive optics to simultaneously split and concentrate the incident light into several energy ranges for lateral multijunction solar cells. A prototype with the maximum thickness of 6.95 μm and 32 quantized levels in depth was fabricated by photolithographic technology. The spectrum-splitting and concentrating performance of the prototype, which were measured quantitatively, show good agreement with the simulation results. As mass production of a DOE can be produced by imprint technology, our design provides a feasible means for low-cost, large-scale, and high-efficiency photovoltaic applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 11, 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Stefancich, A. Zayan, M. Chiesa, S. Rampino, D. Roncati, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Single element spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells CPV system,” Opt. Express 20, 9004–9018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Fisher and J. Biddle, “Luminescent spectral splitting: efficient spatial division of solar spectrum at low concentration,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 1741–1755 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. A. Green and A. Ho-Baillie, “Forty three per cent composite split-spectrum concentrator solar cell efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Castro, D. M. Zhang, B. Myer, and R. K. Kostuk, “Energy collection efficiency of holographic planar solar concentrators,” Appl. Opt. 49, 858–870 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

H. Angelskar, I. R. Johansen, M. Lacolle, H. Sagberg, and A. S. Sudbo, “Spectral uniformity of two- and four-level diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 10206–10222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Vincenzi, A. Busato, M. Stefancich, and G. Martinelli, “Concentrating PV system based on spectral separation of solar radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 206, 375–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Herbjornrod, K. Schjolberg-Henriksen, H. Angelskar, and M. Lacolle, “Resist evaluation for fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with sub-micron resolution in a MEMS production line,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

O. Lovhaugen, I. R. Johansen, K. A. H. Bakke, B. G. Fismen, and S. Nicolas, “Dedicated spectrometers based on diffractive optics: design, modeling and evaluation,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2203–2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Imenes, and D. Mills, “Spectral beam splitting technology for increased conversion efficiency in solar concentrating systems: a review,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84, 19–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

1961 (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p–n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, D.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Angelskar, H.

A. Herbjornrod, K. Schjolberg-Henriksen, H. Angelskar, and M. Lacolle, “Resist evaluation for fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with sub-micron resolution in a MEMS production line,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Angelskar, I. R. Johansen, M. Lacolle, H. Sagberg, and A. S. Sudbo, “Spectral uniformity of two- and four-level diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 10206–10222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 11, 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bakke, K. A. H.

O. Lovhaugen, I. R. Johansen, K. A. H. Bakke, B. G. Fismen, and S. Nicolas, “Dedicated spectrometers based on diffractive optics: design, modeling and evaluation,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2203–2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, and C. Honsberg, “New US ultra high efficiency R&D programme,” presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Spain, 4–8 September2006.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Bekey, I.

C. R. Lewis, W. M. Phillips, V. B. Shields, P. M. Stella, and I. Bekey, “Multi-bandgap high efficiency converter (rainbow),” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion Engineering (IEEE, 1997), pp. 401–406.

Benick, J.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A. W.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Biddle, J.

B. Fisher and J. Biddle, “Luminescent spectral splitting: efficient spatial division of solar spectrum at low concentration,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 1741–1755 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, S.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Buelow, R.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Busato, A.

D. Vincenzi, A. Busato, M. Stefancich, and G. Martinelli, “Concentrating PV system based on spectral separation of solar radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 206, 375–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, D.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Castro, J. M.

Chang, M. P.

Chen, M. L.

Chen, Y. S.

Chiesa, M.

Christensen, E. L.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clark, E. B.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Cui, X. M.

Dimroth, F.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Dong, B. Z.

Dunlop, E. D.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Emergy, K.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Emery, K.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K. A.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ersoy, O. K.

Farn, M. W.

Fisher, B.

B. Fisher and J. Biddle, “Luminescent spectral splitting: efficient spatial division of solar spectrum at low concentration,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 1741–1755 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fismen, B. G.

O. Lovhaugen, I. R. Johansen, K. A. H. Bakke, B. G. Fismen, and S. Nicolas, “Dedicated spectrometers based on diffractive optics: design, modeling and evaluation,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2203–2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gandy, T.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

George, B.

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Glunz, S. W.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Goldschmidt, J.

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Goldschmidt, J. C.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gray, A. L.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green and A. Ho-Baillie, “Forty three per cent composite split-spectrum concentrator solar cell efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Groß, B.

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Gu, B. Y.

Guter, W.

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Herbjornrod, A.

A. Herbjornrod, K. Schjolberg-Henriksen, H. Angelskar, and M. Lacolle, “Resist evaluation for fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with sub-micron resolution in a MEMS production line,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hishikawa, Y.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ho-Baillie, A.

M. A. Green and A. Ho-Baillie, “Forty three per cent composite split-spectrum concentrator solar cell efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, and C. Honsberg, “New US ultra high efficiency R&D programme,” presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Spain, 4–8 September2006.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Ichioka, Y.

Imenes, A.

A. Imenes, and D. Mills, “Spectral beam splitting technology for increased conversion efficiency in solar concentrating systems: a review,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84, 19–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, E. D.

E. D. Jackson, “Solar energy converter,” U.S. patent 2,949,498 (16August1960).

Johansen, I. R.

H. Angelskar, I. R. Johansen, M. Lacolle, H. Sagberg, and A. S. Sudbo, “Spectral uniformity of two- and four-level diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 10206–10222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Lovhaugen, I. R. Johansen, K. A. H. Bakke, B. G. Fismen, and S. Nicolas, “Dedicated spectrometers based on diffractive optics: design, modeling and evaluation,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2203–2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khan, O.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Kimerling, L.

Kirkpatrick, D.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, and C. Honsberg, “New US ultra high efficiency R&D programme,” presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Spain, 4–8 September2006.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Klinger, V.

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Kostuk, R. K.

Lacolle, M.

H. Angelskar, I. R. Johansen, M. Lacolle, H. Sagberg, and A. S. Sudbo, “Spectral uniformity of two- and four-level diffractive optical elements for spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17, 10206–10222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Herbjornrod, K. Schjolberg-Henriksen, H. Angelskar, and M. Lacolle, “Resist evaluation for fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with sub-micron resolution in a MEMS production line,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. R.

C. R. Lewis, W. M. Phillips, V. B. Shields, P. M. Stella, and I. Bekey, “Multi-bandgap high efficiency converter (rainbow),” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion Engineering (IEEE, 1997), pp. 401–406.

Li, D. H.

Liu, H. D.

Lovhaugen, O.

O. Lovhaugen, I. R. Johansen, K. A. H. Bakke, B. G. Fismen, and S. Nicolas, “Dedicated spectrometers based on diffractive optics: design, modeling and evaluation,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2203–2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mardesich, N.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Martinelli, G.

D. Vincenzi, A. Busato, M. Stefancich, and G. Martinelli, “Concentrating PV system based on spectral separation of solar radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 206, 375–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McCambridge, J. D.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

McCollum, T. A.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Medeiros, S. S.

Michel, J.

Mills, D.

A. Imenes, and D. Mills, “Spectral beam splitting technology for increased conversion efficiency in solar concentrating systems: a review,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84, 19–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, B.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moore, D.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Myer, B.

Nicolas, S.

O. Lovhaugen, I. R. Johansen, K. A. H. Bakke, B. G. Fismen, and S. Nicolas, “Dedicated spectrometers based on diffractive optics: design, modeling and evaluation,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2203–2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, Y.

Ortabasi, U.

U. Ortabasi, “Concentrating photovoltaic cavity converters for extreme solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies,” U.S. patent 6,689,949 (10February2004).

Pal, A.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Peharz, G.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Penn, J. P.

J. P. Penn, “High concentration spectrum splitting solar collector,” U.S. patent 6,469,241 (22October2002).

Peters, M.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Phillips, W. M.

C. R. Lewis, W. M. Phillips, V. B. Shields, P. M. Stella, and I. Bekey, “Multi-bandgap high efficiency converter (rainbow),” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion Engineering (IEEE, 1997), pp. 401–406.

Polman, A.

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 11, 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p–n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rampino, S.

Roncati, D.

Sagberg, H.

Scheiman, D. A.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Schjolberg-Henriksen, K.

A. Herbjornrod, K. Schjolberg-Henriksen, H. Angelskar, and M. Lacolle, “Resist evaluation for fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with sub-micron resolution in a MEMS production line,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Shields, V. B.

C. R. Lewis, W. M. Phillips, V. B. Shields, P. M. Stella, and I. Bekey, “Multi-bandgap high efficiency converter (rainbow),” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion Engineering (IEEE, 1997), pp. 401–406.

Shirai, N.

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p–n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Siefer, G.

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Sinharoy, S.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Smith, M. A.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Stefancich, M.

M. Stefancich, A. Zayan, M. Chiesa, S. Rampino, D. Roncati, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Single element spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells CPV system,” Opt. Express 20, 9004–9018 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Vincenzi, A. Busato, M. Stefancich, and G. Martinelli, “Concentrating PV system based on spectral separation of solar radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 206, 375–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, M.

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

Steiner, M. A.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stella, P. M.

C. R. Lewis, W. M. Phillips, V. B. Shields, P. M. Stella, and I. Bekey, “Multi-bandgap high efficiency converter (rainbow),” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion Engineering (IEEE, 1997), pp. 401–406.

Stern, M. B.

Sudbo, A. S.

Takacs, L.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanida, J.

Unger, B. L.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Veldkamp, W. B.

Vincenzi, D.

D. Vincenzi, A. Busato, M. Stefancich, and G. Martinelli, “Concentrating PV system based on spectral separation of solar radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 206, 375–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wanlass, M.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

Wanlass, M. W.

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Warta, W.

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weizer, V. G.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Wilt, D. M.

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

Yang, G. Z.

Yuen, H.

H. Yuen, “High efficiency solar cells at solar junction,” in Renewable Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper SRWB3(2011).

Zayan, A.

Zhang, D. M.

Zhang, G. Q.

Zheng, S. H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p–n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. Herbjornrod, K. Schjolberg-Henriksen, H. Angelskar, and M. Lacolle, “Resist evaluation for fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with sub-micron resolution in a MEMS production line,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19, 125022 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

O. Lovhaugen, I. R. Johansen, K. A. H. Bakke, B. G. Fismen, and S. Nicolas, “Dedicated spectrometers based on diffractive optics: design, modeling and evaluation,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 2203–2222 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. Polman and H. A. Atwater, “Photonic design principles for ultrahigh-efficiency photovoltaics,” Nat. Mater. 11, 174–177 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

D. Vincenzi, A. Busato, M. Stefancich, and G. Martinelli, “Concentrating PV system based on spectral separation of solar radiation,” Phys. Status Solidi 206, 375–378 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics (5)

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emery, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Very high efficiency solar cell modules,” Prog. Photovoltaics 17, 75–83 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green and A. Ho-Baillie, “Forty three per cent composite split-spectrum concentrator solar cell efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 18, 42–47 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. D. McCambridge, M. A. Steiner, B. L. Unger, K. A. Emery, E. L. Christensen, M. W. Wanlass, A. L. Gray, L. Takacs, R. Buelow, and T. A. McCollum, “Compact spectrum splitting photovoltaic module with high efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 352–360 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, K. Emery, Y. Hishikawa, W. Warta, and E. D. Dunlop, “Solar cell efficiency tables (version 39),” Prog. Photovoltaics 20, 12–20 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Mitchell, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, T. Gandy, J. C. Goldschmidt, J. Benick, S. W. Glunz, A. W. Bett, and F. Dimroth, “Four-junction spectral beam-splitting photovoltaic receiver with high optical efficiency,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 61–72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

A. Imenes, and D. Mills, “Spectral beam splitting technology for increased conversion efficiency in solar concentrating systems: a review,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 84, 19–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Fisher and J. Biddle, “Luminescent spectral splitting: efficient spatial division of solar spectrum at low concentration,” Solar Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 1741–1755 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

C. R. Lewis, W. M. Phillips, V. B. Shields, P. M. Stella, and I. Bekey, “Multi-bandgap high efficiency converter (rainbow),” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Energy Conversion Engineering (IEEE, 1997), pp. 401–406.

U. Ortabasi, “Concentrating photovoltaic cavity converters for extreme solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies,” U.S. patent 6,689,949 (10February2004).

M. A. Smith, S. Sinharoy, V. G. Weizer, O. Khan, A. Pal, E. B. Clark, D. M. Wilt, D. A. Scheiman, and N. Mardesich, “Solar cells for NASA RAINBOW concentrator,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists (IEEE, 2000), pp. 1139–1141.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, D. Moore, M. Wanlass, K. Emergy, R. Schwartz, D. Carlson, S. Bowden, and D. Aiken, “Milestones toward 50% efficient solar cell modules,” presented at the 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3September2007.

B. Groβ, G. Peharz, G. Siefer, M. Peters, J. Goldschmidt, M. Steiner, W. Guter, V. Klinger, B. George, and F. Dimroth, “Highly efficient light splitting photovoltaic receiver,” in 24th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (EU PCSEC Conference Proceedings) (2009), pp. 130–134.

J. P. Penn, “High concentration spectrum splitting solar collector,” U.S. patent 6,469,241 (22October2002).

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, and C. Honsberg, “New US ultra high efficiency R&D programme,” presented at the 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Spain, 4–8 September2006.

H. Yuen, “High efficiency solar cells at solar junction,” in Renewable Energy and the Environment, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011) paper SRWB3(2011).

E. D. Jackson, “Solar energy converter,” U.S. patent 2,949,498 (16August1960).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scheme of the lateral multijunction solar cell architecture with DOE as a spectrum-splitting solar concentrator. (b) Sectional view of the corresponding architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Modulation-thickness distribution of the designed surface-relief DOE with 32 quantized levels. The required etch thickness for each step is 0.224 μm, the width (along the x axis) of each sampling pixel is 5.18 μm, and the total number of the pixels is 4096. (b) Partial three-dimensional schematic diagram of the designed DOE.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photographic masks for the 32 quantized levels DOE.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Fabricated DOE, (b) and (c) are the partial surface morphology of the DOE in 30× and 50× magnification obtained by optical microscope, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup: M1, M2, mirrors (totally reflective at wavelengths 400–700 nm); L1, f=50mm, diameter=25.4mm; L2, f=200mm, diameter=40mm; S, split; D, laser energy meter.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Optical transmittance spectrum of the fabricated DOE.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Optical efficiency η for the wavelength 550 nm versus the maximum thickness of the DOE. (b) Optical efficiency ηcell_i curve as a function of wavelength λ for each of the three stripes of solar cells.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Simulation results of a 32-level quantized DOE for five wavelengths (λ1=450nm, λ2=500nm, λ3=550nm, λ4=600nm, λ5=650nm) with maximum thickness of 6.95 μm. (a) Output light intensity distribution on P2 and (b) optical efficiency η with different half-width.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Experimental result and (b) simulation result of the energy distribution on the output plane for these five wavelengths: λ1=450nm, λ2=500nm, λ3=550nm, λ4=600nm, λ5=650nm. The width of the detecting window is 0.2 mm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Output pattern generated by DOE under actual sunlight illumination. (b) Color spectrum.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of Focal Positions on P2 between Simulation and Experimental Results.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of Optical Efficiency between Simulation and Experimental Results with Half-Width of 0.65 mm.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

U1(x1,y1,λ)=ρ1(x1,y1,λ)exp[iϕ1(x1,y1,λ)],
U1k(λ)=ρ1k(λ)exp[i2πhk(nλ1)/λ],k=1,2,3,,N1,
U2m=k=1N1G^mk(λ)U1k(λ),m=1,2,3,,N2.
I2(m,λ)=|U2m(m,λ)|2.
η(λ)=x2w/2x2+w/2|U2(x2,λ)|2dx2|U1(x1,λ)|2dx1×100%,
ηcell_i(λ)=cell_i|U2(x2,λ)|2dx2|U1(x1,λ)|2dx1×100%.

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