Abstract

Dual-field-of-view Raman lidar measurements, detecting Raman-scattered light with two fields of view simultaneously, are used for the first time to retrieve cloud microphysical properties. The measurements are performed with the Multiwavelength Atmospheric Raman Lidar for Temperature, Humidity, and Aerosol Profiling (MARTHA) at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig, Germany. Light that is scattered in forward direction by cloud droplets and inelastically backscattered by N2 molecules is detected. A forward iterative algorithm uses the measured signals to derive profiles of the effective cloud droplet radius, extinction coefficient, and liquid-water content of the investigated clouds. The setup, algorithm, error analysis, and a measurement example are presented. The obtained liquid-water path is validated by observations with a microwave radiometer. With the capability to retrieve aerosol properties as well as cloud microphysical properties, the Raman lidar MARTHA is an ideal tool for studies of the aerosol indirect effect.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (3)

D. Müller, A. Kolgotin, I. Mattis, A. Petzold, and A. Stohl, “Vertical profiles of microphysical particle properties derived from inversion with two-dimensional regularization of multiwavelength Raman lidar data: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2069–2079 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “Quantifying error in the radiative forcing of the first aerosol indirect effect,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Possibilities of warm cloud microstructure profiling with multiple-field-of-view Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8419–8427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Apituley, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arshinov, Y.

Arshinov, Y. F.

Artaxo, P.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Begbie, R.

Bellouin, N.

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berntsen, T.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Betts, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Bissonnette, L.

Bissonnette, L. R.

Bobrovnikov, S.

Bobrovnikov, S. M.

Bösenberg, J.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, O.

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brenguier, J. L.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

F.-M. Bréon, D. Tanré, and S. Generoso, “Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite,” Science 295, 834–838 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E.

Chaikovski, A.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, P. Y.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clothiaux, E.

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cober, S. G.

Dorland, R. V.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Fahey, D.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Feingold, G.

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 1031–1049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “Quantifying error in the radiative forcing of the first aerosol indirect effect,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forster, P.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Fouquart, Y.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, “Effects of spatially inhomogeneous photomultiplier sensitivity on lidar signals and remedies,” in Reviewed and revised papers presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC) (ESA Publications Division, 2004), pp. 37–40.

Gates, H.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaussiat, N.

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H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
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Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Hu, Y.

Hutt, D. L.

Illingworth, A. J.

N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Isaac, G. A.

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Johnson, D. W.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
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J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Kolgotin, A.

Komguem, L.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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Lean, J.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Linne, H.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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Linné, H.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Lowe, D.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Lu, M.-L.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
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A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1080 (2003).
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A. V. Malinka and J. Schmidt, “Overlap function of a lidar with a field stop shifted from the focal plane,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), G. Matvienko and A. Zemlyanov, eds. (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 79–81.

Martucci, G.

G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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Mattis, I.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: the German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131(2012).
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Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
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U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Myhre, G.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Nganga, J.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Noel, V.

O’Dowd, C. D.

G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parol, F.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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Pawlowska, H.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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Pelon, J.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Penner, J. E.

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

Poutier, L.

Prinn, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Quaas, J.

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
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Raga, G.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Ramaswamy, V.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Reichardt, J.

Riebesell, M.

Roy, G.

Roy, N.

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Sasano, Y.

Sauvage, L.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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J. Schmidt, “Aufbau und Test von Mehrfachstreukanälen zur Messung der Wolkentröpfchengröße mit einem Ramanlidar,” Master’s thesis (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 2009).

A. V. Malinka and J. Schmidt, “Overlap function of a lidar with a field stop shifted from the focal plane,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), G. Matvienko and A. Zemlyanov, eds. (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 79–81.

Schnell, F.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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Schröder, F.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schüller, L.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Seifert, P.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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Seinfeld, J. H.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Serikov, I.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serikov, I. B.

Shibata, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snider, J.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, P.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stohl, A.

Sugimoto, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

F.-M. Bréon, D. Tanré, and S. Generoso, “Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite,” Science 295, 834–838 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

Verlinde, J.

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

Wandinger, U.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: the German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131(2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction-and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D. N.

Wiegner, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 2001).

Winker, D.

Won, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (15)

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Y. Sasano and E. Browell, “Light-scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
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A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bissonnette and D. L. Hutt, “Multiply scattered aerosol lidar returns: inversion method and comparison with in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6959–6975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction-and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, L. Poutier, S. G. Cober, and G. A. Isaac, “Multiple-scattering lidar retrieval method: tests on Monte Carlo Simulations and comparisons with in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6307–6324 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1080 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and N. Roy, “Multiple-scattering-based lidar retrieval: method and results of cloud probings,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5565–5581 (2005).
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I. Veselovskii, M. Korenskii, V. Griaznov, D. N. Whiteman, M. McGill, G. Roy, and L. Bissonnette, “Information content of data measured with a multiple-field-of-view lidar,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6839–6848 (2006).
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A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Possibilities of warm cloud microstructure profiling with multiple-field-of-view Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8419–8427 (2007).
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D. Müller, A. Kolgotin, I. Mattis, A. Petzold, and A. Stohl, “Vertical profiles of microphysical particle properties derived from inversion with two-dimensional regularization of multiwavelength Raman lidar data: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2069–2079 (2011).
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J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: the German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131(2012).
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Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 1031–1049 (2012).
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Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “Quantifying error in the radiative forcing of the first aerosol indirect effect,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02810 (2008).
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J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
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J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

F.-M. Bréon, D. Tanré, and S. Generoso, “Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite,” Science 295, 834–838 (2002).
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J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 2001).

J. Schmidt, “Aufbau und Test von Mehrfachstreukanälen zur Messung der Wolkentröpfchengröße mit einem Ramanlidar,” Master’s thesis (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 2009).

V. Freudenthaler, “Effects of spatially inhomogeneous photomultiplier sensitivity on lidar signals and remedies,” in Reviewed and revised papers presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC) (ESA Publications Division, 2004), pp. 37–40.

A. V. Malinka and J. Schmidt, “Overlap function of a lidar with a field stop shifted from the focal plane,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), G. Matvienko and A. Zemlyanov, eds. (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 79–81.

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