Abstract

Dual-field-of-view Raman lidar measurements, detecting Raman-scattered light with two fields of view simultaneously, are used for the first time to retrieve cloud microphysical properties. The measurements are performed with the Multiwavelength Atmospheric Raman Lidar for Temperature, Humidity, and Aerosol Profiling (MARTHA) at the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research in Leipzig, Germany. Light that is scattered in forward direction by cloud droplets and inelastically backscattered by N2 molecules is detected. A forward iterative algorithm uses the measured signals to derive profiles of the effective cloud droplet radius, extinction coefficient, and liquid-water content of the investigated clouds. The setup, algorithm, error analysis, and a measurement example are presented. The obtained liquid-water path is validated by observations with a microwave radiometer. With the capability to retrieve aerosol properties as well as cloud microphysical properties, the Raman lidar MARTHA is an ideal tool for studies of the aerosol indirect effect.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (3)

G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Kolgotin, I. Mattis, A. Petzold, and A. Stohl, “Vertical profiles of microphysical particle properties derived from inversion with two-dimensional regularization of multiwavelength Raman lidar data: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2069–2079 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “Quantifying error in the radiative forcing of the first aerosol indirect effect,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Possibilities of warm cloud microstructure profiling with multiple-field-of-view Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8419–8427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (4)

2001 (1)

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (1)

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1981 (1)

1977 (1)

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abo, M.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

Ansmann, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Riebesell, and C. Weitkamp, “Measurement of atmospheric aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar,” Opt. Lett. 15, 746–748 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Apituley, A.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arao, K.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Arshinov, Y.

Arshinov, Y. F.

Artaxo, P.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Begbie, R.

Bellouin, N.

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berntsen, T.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Betts, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Bissonnette, L.

Bissonnette, L. R.

Bobrovnikov, S.

Bobrovnikov, S. M.

Bösenberg, J.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boucher, O.

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brenguier, J. L.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

F.-M. Bréon, D. Tanré, and S. Generoso, “Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite,” Science 295, 834–838 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E.

Chaikovski, A.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, P. Y.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Clothiaux, E.

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cober, S. G.

Dorland, R. V.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Fahey, D.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Feingold, G.

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 1031–1049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “Quantifying error in the radiative forcing of the first aerosol indirect effect,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Forster, P.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Fouquart, Y.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Freudenthaler, V.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, “Effects of spatially inhomogeneous photomultiplier sensitivity on lidar signals and remedies,” in Reviewed and revised papers presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC) (ESA Publications Division, 2004), pp. 37–40.

Gates, H.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaussiat, N.

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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
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Hu, H.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Hu, Y.

Hutt, D. L.

Illingworth, A. J.

N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Isaac, G. A.

Iwasaka, Y.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Johnson, D. W.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
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J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Kolgotin, A.

Komguem, L.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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Lean, J.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Li, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Linne, H.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Lowe, D.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Lu, M.-L.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
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A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1080 (2003).
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A. V. Malinka and J. Schmidt, “Overlap function of a lidar with a field stop shifted from the focal plane,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), G. Matvienko and A. Zemlyanov, eds. (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 79–81.

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G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: the German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131(2012).
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D. Müller, A. Kolgotin, I. Mattis, A. Petzold, and A. Stohl, “Vertical profiles of microphysical particle properties derived from inversion with two-dimensional regularization of multiwavelength Raman lidar data: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2069–2079 (2011).
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Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
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U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
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T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Myhre, G.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Nganga, J.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Noel, V.

O’Dowd, C. D.

G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Parol, F.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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Pawlowska, H.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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Pelon, J.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
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J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Penner, J. E.

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

Poutier, L.

Prinn, R.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Quaas, J.

J. Quaas, O. Boucher, N. Bellouin, and S. Kinne, “Satellite-based estimate of the direct and indirect aerosol climate forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D05204 (2008).
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Raga, G.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Ramaswamy, V.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Reichardt, J.

Riebesell, M.

Roy, G.

Roy, N.

Sakai, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
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Sasano, Y.

Sauvage, L.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, J.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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J. Schmidt, “Aufbau und Test von Mehrfachstreukanälen zur Messung der Wolkentröpfchengröße mit einem Ramanlidar,” Master’s thesis (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 2009).

A. V. Malinka and J. Schmidt, “Overlap function of a lidar with a field stop shifted from the focal plane,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), G. Matvienko and A. Zemlyanov, eds. (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 79–81.

Schnell, F.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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Schröder, F.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schüller, L.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, M.

P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

Seifert, P.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
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Seinfeld, J. H.

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
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Serikov, I.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serikov, I. B.

Shibata, T.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Snider, J.

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, P.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, B.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stohl, A.

Sugimoto, N.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

F.-M. Bréon, D. Tanré, and S. Generoso, “Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite,” Science 295, 834–838 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Uno, I.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, G.

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vaughan, M.

Verlinde, J.

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

Wandinger, U.

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: the German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131(2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction-and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D. N.

Wiegner, M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. M.

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, R. N.

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 2001).

Winker, D.

Won, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, S.

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zege, E. P.

Zhou, J.

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (15)

L. R. Bissonnette and D. L. Hutt, “Multiply scattered aerosol lidar returns: inversion method and comparison with in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 34, 6959–6975 (1995).
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L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, L. Poutier, S. G. Cober, and G. A. Isaac, “Multiple-scattering lidar retrieval method: tests on Monte Carlo Simulations and comparisons with in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6307–6324 (2002).
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I. Veselovskii, M. Korenskii, V. Griaznov, D. N. Whiteman, M. McGill, G. Roy, and L. Bissonnette, “Information content of data measured with a multiple-field-of-view lidar,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6839–6848 (2006).
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L. R. Bissonnette, G. Roy, and N. Roy, “Multiple-scattering-based lidar retrieval: method and results of cloud probings,” Appl. Opt. 44, 5565–5581 (2005).
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A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Possibilities of warm cloud microstructure profiling with multiple-field-of-view Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 46, 8419–8427 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger, “Multiple-scattering influence on extinction-and backscatter-coefficient measurements with Raman and high-spectral-resolution lidars,” Appl. Opt. 37, 417–427 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Mattis, A. Ansmann, D. Althausen, V. Jaenisch, U. Wandinger, D. Müller, Y. F. Arshinov, S. M. Bobrovnikov, and I. B. Serikov, “Relative-humidity profiling in the troposphere with a Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6451–6462 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Arshinov, S. Bobrovnikov, I. Serikov, A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, I. Mattis, and D. Müller, “Daytime operation of a pure rotational Raman lidar by use of a Fabry–Perot interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 44, 3593–3603 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Klett, “Stable analytical inversion solution for processing lidar returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211–220 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, U. Wandinger, V. Klein, I. Mattis, B. Hilber, and R. Begbie, “RAMSES: the German Meteorological Service autonomous Raman lidar for water vapor, temperature, aerosol, and cloud measurements,” Appl. Opt. 51, 8111–8131(2012).
[CrossRef]

U. Wandinger and A. Ansmann, “Experimental determination of the lidar overlap profile with Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 41, 511–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Kolgotin, I. Mattis, A. Petzold, and A. Stohl, “Vertical profiles of microphysical particle properties derived from inversion with two-dimensional regularization of multiwavelength Raman lidar data: experiment,” Appl. Opt. 50, 2069–2079 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano and E. Browell, “Light-scattering characteristics of various aerosol types derived from multiple wavelength lidar observations,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1670–1679 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Malinka and E. P. Zege, “Analytical modeling of Raman lidar return, including multiple scattering,” Appl. Opt. 42, 1075–1080 (2003).
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Atmos. Chem. Phys. (1)

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “The scale problem in quantifying aerosol indirect effects,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 12, 1031–1049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech. (1)

G. Martucci and C. D. O’Dowd, “Ground-based retrieval of continental and marine warm cloud microphysics,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 2749–2765 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

A. McComiskey and G. Feingold, “Quantifying error in the radiative forcing of the first aerosol indirect effect,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L02810 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

N. Gaussiat, R. J. Hogan, and A. J. Illingworth, “Accurate liquid water path retrieval from low-cost microwave radiometers using additional information from a lidar ceilometer and operational forecast models,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 24, 1562–1575 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

N. Miles, J. Verlinde, and E. Clothiaux, “Cloud droplet size distributions in low-level stratiform clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 295–311 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Twomey, “Influence of pollution on shortwave albedo of clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 1149–1152 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

A. Ansmann, M. Tesche, P. Seifert, S. Groß, V. Freudenthaler, A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, I. Serikov, H. Linné, B. Heinold, A. Hiebsch, F. Schnell, J. Schmidt, I. Mattis, U. Wandinger, and M. Wiegner, “Ash and fine-mode particle mass profiles from EARLINET-AERONET observations over central Europe after the eruptions of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in 2010,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, D00U02 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Murayama, N. Sugimoto, I. Uno, K. Kinoshita, K. Aoki, N. Hagiwara, Z. Liu, I. Matsui, T. Sakai, T. Shibata, K. Arao, B. Sohn, J. Won, S. Yoon, T. Li, J. Zhou, H. Hu, M. Abo, K. Iokibe, R. Koga, and Y. Iwasaka, “Ground-based network observation of Asian dust events of April 1998 in east Asia,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18345–18359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, J. E. Penner, M. Herzog, and S. Xie, “Investigation of the first and second aerosol indirect effects using data from the May 2003 Intensive Operational Period at the Southern Great Plains,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D15206 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.-L. Lu, G. Feingold, H. H. Jonsson, P. Y. Chuang, H. Gates, R. C. Flagan, and J. H. Seinfeld, “Aerosol-cloud relationships in continental shallow cumulus,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D15201 (2008).
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U. Wandinger, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, A. Chaikovski, V. Freudenthaler, L. Komguem, H. Linne, V. Matthias, J. Pelon, L. Sauvage, P. Sobolewski, G. Vaughan, and M. Wiegner, “Air-mass modification over Europe: EARLINET aerosol observations from Wales to Belarus,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D24205 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

F.-M. Bréon, D. Tanré, and S. Generoso, “Aerosol effect on cloud droplet size monitored from satellite,” Science 295, 834–838 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

J. L. Brenguier, P. Y. Chuang, Y. Fouquart, D. W. Johnson, F. Parol, H. Pawlowska, J. Pelon, L. Schüller, F. Schröder, and J. Snider, “An overview of the ACE-2 CLOUDYCOLUMN closure experiment,” Tellus 52, 815–827 (2000).
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P. Forster, V. Ramaswamy, P. Artaxo, T. Berntsen, R. Betts, D. Fahey, J. Haywood, J. Lean, D. Lowe, G. Myhre, J. Nganga, R. Prinn, G. Raga, M. Schulz, and R. V. Dorland, Climate Change 2007—The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge University, 2007), Chap. 2.

A. V. Malinka and J. Schmidt, “Overlap function of a lidar with a field stop shifted from the focal plane,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC), G. Matvienko and A. Zemlyanov, eds. (Curran Associates, 2010), pp. 79–81.

R. N. Wilson, Reflecting Telescope Optics II (Springer, 2001).

J. Schmidt, “Aufbau und Test von Mehrfachstreukanälen zur Messung der Wolkentröpfchengröße mit einem Ramanlidar,” Master’s thesis (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 2009).

V. Freudenthaler, “Effects of spatially inhomogeneous photomultiplier sensitivity on lidar signals and remedies,” in Reviewed and revised papers presented at the 22nd International Laser Radar Conference (ILRC) (ESA Publications Division, 2004), pp. 37–40.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top: illustration of the mirror diaphragm. Incoming light from the wide, annular FOV is reflected (green rays), incoming light from the narrow FOV is transmitted (blue rays). Red rays are blocked by the elliptical obstruction of the mirror diaphragm. Bottom: beam separation unit of MARTHA including the channels 607 nm (out) and 532 nm (out) for the detection of light from the outer FOV. The detection channels are labeled according to the detected wavelength. In case polarized light is detected the plane of polarization is denoted as well. The channel 532 nm (pp) detects light that is parallel-polarized with respect to the polarization plane of the emitted laser light. Cross-polarized light is detected by the channel 532 nm (cp). The channels 355.4 nm (T1) and 356.3 nm (T2) detect different parts of the rotational Raman spectrum for the retrieval of temperature profiles.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Overlap functions of MARTHA from ray-tracing simulations with ideal field stop (blue) and mirror field stop (green) as well as from measurement (red) for a FOV of 0.5 mrad.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Overlap functions for MARTHA from ray-tracing simulations with and without a tilt of the laser beam of 0.115 and 0.205 mrad for a FOV of 0.5 and 0.78 mrad, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distribution of angles of incidence on interference filters. Rays from the outer FOV have larger angles of incidence than rays from the inner FOV.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Overlap functions derived experimentally, analytically, and from raytracing for inner FOVs of 0.5 and 0.78 mrad.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Time–height cross section of the range-corrected lidar signal at 532 nm, inner FOV. The time period used for the cloud forward iteration is indicated by purple lines. Profiles with cloud gaps, indicated by light blue colors above the cloud layer, were not used for the forward iteration.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Left: count rates in mega counts per second of signal measured at 532 nm in the inner FOV. The cloud base height is at about 2.9 km altitude. The signal decrease in the middle of the cloud is due to dead-time effects. Center and right: count rates of Raman signals from measurement (black line and squares) and cloud forward iterations (blue circles) from the inner and outer FOVs.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Cloud microphysical properties retrieved with the forward iterative algorithm. The retrieved extinction coefficient (black lines) is compared with the extinction coefficient calculated with the Raman method not considering multiple scattering (red line).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

LWP from MWR measurement and its average (red) compared to the LWP calculated from the LWC from the forward iteration (blue). The error bars of the average values are indicated by the hatched areas.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Left: relative errors of the forward iterative results presented in Fig. 8. Black symbols denote statistical errors (stat.), red symbols show the averaged errors obtained from input variations (i.v.). Squares indicate errors of the extinction coefficient α. The errors of the effective radius re are displayed by triangles. Right: ratio of the statistical errors to the errors from input variation of the extinction coefficient α (green) and effective radius re (blue). For the lowest penetration depth the statistical errors dominate. For greater penetration depth both errors have the same magnitude with the statistical error often being slightly larger.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Overlap functions for a FOV of 0.5 mrad and for the measurement geometry usually used for the forward iteration (blue) as well as slightly modified measurement geometries listed in Table 4 (orange and green).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Cloud microphysical properties retrieved with the measurement geometry being generally used for forward iterations (blue) as well as the varied measurement geometries listed in Table 4 (orange and green).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Suitability of dual-FOV measurements for forward iteration in dependence of signal strength at the cloud base. The signal strength is represented by the sum of both FOV’s count rates at the cloud base.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters Used for Ray-Tracing Simulations of Overlap Functions Shown in Fig. 2a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Inner and Outer FOVs, Conjugate Diameters for Mirror Diaphragms That can Be Employed at MARTHA and Cloud Base Heights for Dual-FOV Measurements With MARTHA, Considering a Tilt of the Laser Beam and Not Doing Soa

Tables Icon

Table 3. Parameters for Ray-Tracing Simulation and Analytical Calculation of the Overlap Functiona

Tables Icon

Table 4. Variations of Tilt and Divergence of Laser Beam for Ray-Tracing Simulations for Investigation of Sensitivity of the Forward Iterative Algorithm Toward the Measurement Geometry

Tables Icon

Table 5. Measurements Analyzed for Study of Necessary Averaging Time of Dual-FOV Measurements

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ1<γin<γ2
γ1=max{γs,Drz+H,Dsz+H},
γ2=γs+Drz+H+Dsz+H
γout=0.01zH.
d=1nk=0n(lnNkmeaslnNkcalc)2
wL(z)=23ρre(z)α.
α=0n(r)Qext(x,m)πr2dr
x=2πrλ,
0n(r)r2dr=0n(r)r3dr1re
wL=4π3ρ0n(r)r3dr,

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