Abstract

A calibration method is introduced to transfer calibration constants from the reference to secondary sunphotometers using a laboratory integrating sphere as a light source, instead of the traditional transferring approach performed at specific calibration sites based on sunlight. The viewing solid angle and spectral response effects of the photometer are taken into account in the transfer, and thus the method can be applied to different types of sunphotometers widely used in the field of atmospheric observation. A laboratory experiment is performed to illustrate this approach for four types of CIMEL CE318 sunphotometers belonging to the aerosol robotic network (AERONET). The laboratory calibration method shows an average difference of 1.4% from the AERONET operational calibration results, while a detailed error analysis suggests that the uncertainty agrees with the estimation and could be further improved. Using this laboratory calibration approach is expected to avoid weather influences and decrease data interruption due to operationally required periodic calibration operations. It also provides a basis for establishing a network including different sunphotometers for worldwide aerosol measurements, based on a single standard calibration reference.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Z. Q. Li, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, P. Goloub, J. P. Buis, and J. P. Morel, “Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL sun–sky radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1368–1377(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

C. A. Gueymard, “Reference solar spectra: their evolution, standardization issues, and comparison to recent measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 323–340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. A. Gueymard, “The Sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76, 423–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Ópt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303–3308 (2004).

M. Campanelli, T. Nakajima, and B. Olivieri, “Determination of the solar calibration constant for a sun–sky radiometer: proposal of an in-situ procedure,” Appl. Opt. 43, 651–659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sunphotometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54–66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

1993

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976

G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength Sun photometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1–14 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Allen, D.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, J. C.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berkheiser, W. E.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J. L.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blarel, L.

Z. Q. Li, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, P. Goloub, J. P. Buis, and J. P. Morel, “Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL sun–sky radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1368–1377(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Box, M. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buis, J. P.

Z. Q. Li, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, P. Goloub, J. P. Buis, and J. P. Morel, “Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL sun–sky radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1368–1377(2008).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Campanelli, M.

Chatenet, B.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Croot, P.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, E.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Defoor, T. E.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deroo, C.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eck, T. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Estelles, V.

Forgan, B. W.

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sunphotometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54–66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giles, D. M.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goes, J. I.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goloub, P.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Li, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, P. Goloub, J. P. Buis, and J. P. Morel, “Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL sun–sky radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1368–1377(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gueymard, C. A.

C. A. Gueymard, “Reference solar spectra: their evolution, standardization issues, and comparison to recent measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 323–340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Gueymard, “The Sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76, 423–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L. C.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, M.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jourdin, F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S. A.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Larouche, P.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larson, N. R.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Laulainen, N. S.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lecoq, R.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. J.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Q.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Li, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, P. Goloub, J. P. Buis, and J. P. Morel, “Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL sun–sky radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1368–1377(2008).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, J. M.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Macke, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malvestuto, V.

Martinez-Lozano, J. A.

Matarrese, R.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michalsky, J. J.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, R. M.

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sunphotometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54–66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moorthy, K. K.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morel, J. P.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Q. Li, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, P. Goloub, J. P. Buis, and J. P. Morel, “Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL sun–sky radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1368–1377(2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

M. Campanelli, V. Estelles, C. Tomasi, T. Nakajima, V. Malvestuto, and J. A. Martinez-Lozano, “Application of the SKYRAD improved Langley plot method for the in situ calibration of CIMEL sun–sky photometers,” Appl. Opt. 46, 2688–2702 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Ópt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303–3308 (2004).

M. Campanelli, T. Nakajima, and B. Olivieri, “Determination of the solar calibration constant for a sun–sky radiometer: proposal of an in-situ procedure,” Appl. Opt. 43, 651–659 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. B.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

Olivieri, B.

Piketh, S.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pilewskie, P.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Podvin, T.

Z. Q. Li, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, P. Goloub, J. P. Buis, and J. P. Morel, “Transferring the calibration of direct solar irradiance to diffuse-sky radiance measurements for CIMEL sun–sky radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1368–1377(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proshutinsky, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pueschel, R. F.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, P. K.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Radionov, V. F.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, R.

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J. S.

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, E. J.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sakerin, S. M.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schlemmer, F. A.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, B.

Sciare, J.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength Sun photometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1–14 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smyth, T. J.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takamura, T.

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Ópt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303–3308 (2004).

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tomasi, C.

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wehrli, C.

Xu, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X. B.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zibordi, G.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zielinski, T.

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Space Res.

C. A. Gueymard, “Reference solar spectra: their evolution, standardization issues, and comparison to recent measurements,” Adv. Space Res. 37, 323–340 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

G. E. Shaw, “Sun photometry,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 64, 4–10 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

G. E. Shaw, J. A. Reagan, and B. M. Herman, “Investigations of atmospheric extinction using direct solar radiation measurements made with a multiple wavelength radiometer,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 12, 374–380 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

R. M. Mitchell and B. W. Forgan, “Aerosol measurement in the Australian outback: intercomparison of sunphotometers,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 20, 54–66 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

J. J. Michalsky, F. A. Schlemmer, W. E. Berkheiser, J. L. Berndt, L. C. Harrison, N. S. Laulainen, N. R. Larson, and J. C. Barnard, “Multiyear measurements of aerosol optical depth in the atmospheric radiation measurement and quantitative links programs,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12099–12107 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Eck, B. N. Holben, J. S. Reid, O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, N. T. O’Neill, I. Slutsker, and S. Kinne, “Wavelength dependence of the optical depth of biomass burning, urban, and desert dust aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31333–31349(1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.

P. B. Russell, J. M. Livingston, E. G. Dutton, R. F. Pueschel, J. A. Reagan, T. E. Defoor, M. A. Box, D. Allen, P. Pilewskie, B. M. Herman, S. A. Kinne, and D. J. Hofmann, “Pinatubo and pre-Pinatubo optical-depth spectra—Mauna-Loa measurements, comparisons, inferred particle-size distributions, radiative effects, and relationship to LIDAR data,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 98, 22969–22985 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. M. Giles, C. R. McClain, T. F. Eck, S. M. Sakerin, A. Macke, P. Croot, G. Zibordi, P. K. Quinn, J. Sciare, S. Kinne, M. Harvey, T. J. Smyth, S. Piketh, T. Zielinski, A. Proshutinsky, J. I. Goes, N. B. Nelson, P. Larouche, V. F. Radionov, P. Goloub, K. K. Moorthy, R. Matarrese, E. J. Robertson, and F. Jourdin, “Maritime aerosol network as a component of aerosol robotic network,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114, D06204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ópt. Pura Apl.

T. Takamura and T. Nakajima, “Overview of SKYNET and its activities,” Ópt. Pura Apl. 37, 3303–3308 (2004).

Proc. SPIE

P. Goloub, Z. Li, O. Dubovik, L. Blarel, T. Podvin, I. Jankowiak, R. Lecoq, C. Deroo, B. Chatenet, J. P. Morel, E. Cuevas, and R. Ramos, “PHOTONS/AERONET sunphotometer network overview. Description—activities—results—art. no. 69360 V,” Proc. SPIE 6936, 9360 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Geophys.

G. E. Shaw, “Error analysis of multi-wavelength Sun photometry,” Pure Appl. Geophys. 114, 1–14 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

Q. Y. Xu, X. B. Zheng, Z. Q. Li, W. Zhang, X. H. Wang, J. J. Li, and X. Li, “Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 033103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

C. A. Gueymard, “The Sun’s total and spectral irradiance for solar energy applications and solar radiation models,” Sol. Energy 76, 423–453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

ASTM2000 Standard Extraterrestrial Spectrum Reference E-490-00 ( http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/spectra/am0/ASTM2000.html ).

“WMO/GAW aerosol measurement procedures guidelines and recommendations,” WMO TD No. 1178 (Global Atmospheric Watch, 2003).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

440 nm band transmittance profiles of sunphotometers and the extraterrestrial solar spectra (ASTM2000 versus Gueymard).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Integrating sphere radiance (Sph9) and the blackbody radiation curve calculated using 3000 K brightness temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Correction factor R(ξ)/R(ψ) of master (No. 542) and secondary (No. 719) instruments.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Different Types of CE318 Instruments Used in the Laboratory Intercalibration.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Parameters of the NE Type CE318 No. 542 (the Reference Instrument)

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Table 3. σ(E0) and σ(L) Correction Factors Calculated at 440 nm Bands

Tables Icon

Table 4. Transferring V0 from Master (No. 542) to Secondary Instruments (No. 50, No. 116, No. 356, and No. 719)

Tables Icon

Table 5. Error Estimation on the Laboratory V0 Intercalibration Experiment and the Expectation after Improvements

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V=(d0d)2·V0·exp(m·τ),
ln(V/(d0/d)2)=lnV0m·τ.
L=Ca·Va,
Ωc=E0Ca·V0·GsGa,
L=Ca·Va=λ1λ2I(λ)·R(λ)·dλλ1λ2R(λ)·dλ=R(ξ)·λ1λ2I(λ)·dλλ1λ2R(λ)·dλ,
L=Ca·Va=λ1λ2I(λ)·R(λ)·dλλ1λ2R(λ)·dλ=R(ξ)·λ1λ2I(λ)·dλλ1λ2R(λ)·dλ,
σ(L)=R(ξ)·λ1λ2R(λ)·dλR(ξ)·λ1λ2R(λ)·dλ,
VaVa=σ(L)·CaCa.
V¯aVa=G¯aGaV¯aV¯a=G¯aGa.
V¯aV¯a=σ(L)·CaCa·GaGa·G¯aG¯a.
V0=σ(L)σ(E0)·ΩcΩc·GsGs·G¯aG¯a·V¯aV¯a·V0,
σ(E0)=R(ψ)·λ1λ2R(λ)·dλR(ψ)·λ1λ2R(λ)·dλ,
σ(L)σ(E0)=R(ξ)R(ψ)·R(ψ)R(ξ).
ΔV0V0=(Δ(σ(L)/σ(E0))σ(L)/σ(E0))2+(ΔΩcΩc)2+(ΔΩcΩc)2+(ΔGG)2+(ΔV¯aV¯a)2+(ΔV¯aV¯a)2+(ΔV0V0)2.

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