Abstract

A method is introduced to derive integral properties of the aerosol size distribution, e.g., aerosol mass, from tropospheric multiwavelength Raman lidar aerosol extinction and backscatter data, using an adapted form of the principal component analysis (PCA) technique. Since the refractive index of general tropospheric aerosols is variable and aerosol types can vary within one profile, an inversion technique applied in the troposphere should account for varying aerosol refractive indices. Using PCA, if a sufficiently complete set of appropriate refractive index dependent kernels is used, no a priori information about the aerosol type is necessary for the inversion of integral properties. In principle, the refractive index itself can be retrieved, but this quantity is more sensitive to measurement errors than the various integral properties of the aerosol size distribution. Here, the PCA technique adapted for use in the troposphere is introduced, the refractive index information content of the kernel sets is investigated, and error analyses are presented. The technique is then applied to actual tropospheric Raman lidar measurements.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2009

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, B. Mielke, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, and C. Sivaraman, “Simultaneous analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3903–3914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

2005

U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, “Global indirect aerosol effects: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715–737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

2004

2003

R. R. Draxler, “Evaluation of an ensemble dispersion calculation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 42, 308–317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

S. Nickovic, G. Kallas, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18113–18129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, and D. D. Turner, “Turnkey Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

G. K. Yue, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, D. Baumgardner, and J. E. Dye, “Aerosol surface areas deduced from early 1993 sage II data and comparisons with stratospheric photochemistry, aerosols, and dynamics expedition measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

L. W. Thomason and L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23003–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

Alados Arboledas, L.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Allakhverdiev, K.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Althausen, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Amodeo, A.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Apituley, A.

M. de Graaf, D. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Aerosol microphysical properties from inversion of tropospheric optical Raman lidar data,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

M. de Graaf, D. P. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Saharan desert dust microphysical properties from principal component analysis (PCA) inversion of Raman lidar data over western Europe,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Lidar Radar Conference (ILRC25), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July2010.

M. de Graaf, D. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Refractive index and integral aerosol properties retrieval from Raman lidar data using principal component analysis,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference—Reviewed and Revised Papers, Boulder, Colorado, 23–27 June2008.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP 8), Delft, 18–23 October2009.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balis, D.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baumgardner, D.

G. K. Yue, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, D. Baumgardner, and J. E. Dye, “Aerosol surface areas deduced from early 1993 sage II data and comparisons with stratospheric photochemistry, aerosols, and dynamics expedition measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berthier, S.

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Bisson, S. E.

Blair, F. H.

Buras, R.

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Burton, S. P.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. F.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

Chaikovsky, A.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, M.

Cook, A. L.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D’Amico, G.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de Graaf, M.

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G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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M. de Graaf, D. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Refractive index and integral aerosol properties retrieval from Raman lidar data using principal component analysis,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference—Reviewed and Revised Papers, Boulder, Colorado, 23–27 June2008.

M. de Graaf, D. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Aerosol microphysical properties from inversion of tropospheric optical Raman lidar data,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

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M. de Graaf, D. P. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Saharan desert dust microphysical properties from principal component analysis (PCA) inversion of Raman lidar data over western Europe,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Lidar Radar Conference (ILRC25), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July2010.

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K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Esselborn, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

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Ferrare, R. A.

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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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Franke, K.

Freudenthaler, V.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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Froyd, K. D.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
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Garhammer, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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Gasteiger, J.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Giannakaki, E.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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Giunta, A.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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Goldsmith, J. E. M.

Griaznov, V.

Grigorov, I.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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Hair, J. W.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
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Harper, D. B.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
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Heese, B.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

Hess, M.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
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G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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Hofmann, H.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
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Hostetler, C. A.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
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Huseyinoglu, F.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
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Iarlori, M.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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Jäckel, S.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
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Jaenicke, R.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
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Kakaliagou, O.

S. Nickovic, G. Kallas, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18113–18129 (2001).
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Kallas, G.

S. Nickovic, G. Kallas, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18113–18129 (2001).
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Kandler, K.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
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M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

Knippertz, P.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
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V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
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Koepke, P.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
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Kolgotin, A.

Korenskiy, M.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
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Lajas, D.

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Lieke, K.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
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Linn’e, H.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
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Liu, Z.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
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Lohmann, U.

U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, “Global indirect aerosol effects: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715–737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Madonna, F.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mamouri, R.-E.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Massling, A.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mattis, I.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, B.

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Melfi, S. H.

Michaelis, W.

Mielke, B.

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mona, L.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Kolgotin and D. Müller, “Theory of inversion with two-dimensional regularization: profiles of microphysical particle properties derived from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4472–4490 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1180–1195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nasti, L.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Newsom, R. K.

Nickovic, S.

S. Nickovic, G. Kallas, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18113–18129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Obland, M. D.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Omar, A.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Osborn, M. T.

L. W. Thomason and M. T. Osborn, “Lidar conversion parameters derived from sage II extinction measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1655–1658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Papadopoulos, A.

S. Nickovic, G. Kallas, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18113–18129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Papayannis, A.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pappalardo, G.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, A.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Pietruczuk, A.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pisani, G.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poole, L. R.

G. K. Yue, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, D. Baumgardner, and J. E. Dye, “Aerosol surface areas deduced from early 1993 sage II data and comparisons with stratospheric photochemistry, aerosols, and dynamics expedition measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason and L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23003–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Potma, C.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP 8), Delft, 18–23 October2009.

Pujadas, M.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rasp, K.

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

Riebesell, M.

Rizi, V.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rocadenbosch, F.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R. R.

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Russo, F.

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, and R. M. Hoff, “Validation of the Raman lidar algorithm for quantifying aerosol extinction,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7073–7088 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schladitz, A.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, F.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schult, I.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schütz, L.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seefeldner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seifert, P.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sivaraman, C.

Spinelli, N.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomason, L. W.

G. K. Yue, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, D. Baumgardner, and J. E. Dye, “Aerosol surface areas deduced from early 1993 sage II data and comparisons with stratospheric photochemistry, aerosols, and dynamics expedition measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason and L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23003–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason and M. T. Osborn, “Lidar conversion parameters derived from sage II extinction measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1655–1658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toledano, C.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D. D.

Twomey, S. A.

S. A. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, 1977).

van Zadelhoff, G.-J.

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Vaughan, M.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Veselovskii, I.

Volten, H.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP 8), Delft, 18–23 October2009.

Wandinger, U.

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.-H.

G. K. Yue, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, D. Baumgardner, and J. E. Dye, “Aerosol surface areas deduced from early 1993 sage II data and comparisons with stratospheric photochemistry, aerosols, and dynamics expedition measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wehr, T.

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Weinbruch, S.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weinzierl, B.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

Weitkamp, C.

Whiteman, D. N.

Wiedensohler, A.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. M.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP 8), Delft, 18–23 October2009.

Wirth, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

G. K. Yue, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, D. Baumgardner, and J. E. Dye, “Aerosol surface areas deduced from early 1993 sage II data and comparisons with stratospheric photochemistry, aerosols, and dynamics expedition measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, S.

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Advanc. Meteor.

L. Mona, Z. Liu, D. Müller, A. Omar, A. Papayannis, G. Pappalardo, N. Sugimoto, and M. Vaughan, “Lidar measurements for desert dust characterization: an overview,” Advanc. Meteor. 2012, 356265 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

R. K. Newsom, D. D. Turner, B. Mielke, M. Clayton, R. Ferrare, and C. Sivaraman, “Simultaneous analog and photon counting detection for Raman lidar,” Appl. Opt. 48, 3903–3914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Russo, D. N. Whiteman, B. Demoz, and R. M. Hoff, “Validation of the Raman lidar algorithm for quantifying aerosol extinction,” Appl. Opt. 45, 7073–7088 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E. M. Goldsmith, F. H. Blair, S. E. Bisson, and D. D. Turner, “Turnkey Raman lidar for profiling atmospheric water vapor, clouds, and aerosols,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4979–4990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Whiteman, S. H. Melfi, and R. A. Ferrare, “Raman lidar system for the measurement of water vapor and aerosols in the earth’s atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 31, 3068–3082 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Ansmann, U. Wandinger, M. Riebesell, C. Weitkamp, and W. Michaelis, “Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar,” Appl. Opt. 31, 7113–7131 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Donovan and A. I. Carswell, “Principal component analysis applied to multiwavelength lidar aerosol backscatter and extinction measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9406–9424 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and A. Ansmann, “Microphysical particle parameters from extinction and backscatter lidar data by inversion with regularization: theory,” Appl. Opt. 38, 2346–2357 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, U. Wandinger, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion with regularization for the retrieval of tropospheric aerosol parameters from multiwavelength lidar sounding,” Appl. Opt. 41, 3685–3699 (2002).
[CrossRef]

I. Veselovskii, A. Kolgotin, V. Griaznov, D. Müller, K. Franke, and D. N. Whiteman, “Inversion of multiwavelength Raman lidar data for retrieval of bimodal aerosol size distribution,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1180–1195 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Kolgotin and D. Müller, “Theory of inversion with two-dimensional regularization: profiles of microphysical particle properties derived from multiwavelength lidar measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 4472–4490 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Chem. Phys.

U. Lohmann and J. Feichter, “Global indirect aerosol effects: a review,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 715–737 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Meas. Tech.

I. Veselovskii, O. Dubovik, A. Kolgotin, M. Korenskiy, D. N. Whiteman, K. Allakhverdiev, and F. Huseyinoglu, “Linear estimation of particle bulk parameters from multi-wavelength lidar measurements,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 1135–1145 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Burton, R. A. Ferrare, C. A. Hostetler, J. W. Hair, R. R. Rogers, M. D. Obland, C. F. Butler, A. L. Cook, D. B. Harper, and K. D. Froyd, “Aerosol classification using airborne high spectral resolution lidar measurements methodology and examples,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 5, 73–98 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

G. K. Yue, L. W. Thomason, L. R. Poole, P.-H. Wang, D. Baumgardner, and J. E. Dye, “Aerosol surface areas deduced from early 1993 sage II data and comparisons with stratospheric photochemistry, aerosols, and dynamics expedition measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2933–2936 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason and M. T. Osborn, “Lidar conversion parameters derived from sage II extinction measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1655–1658 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol.

R. R. Draxler, “Evaluation of an ensemble dispersion calculation,” J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 42, 308–317 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

S. Nickovic, G. Kallas, A. Papadopoulos, and O. Kakaliagou, “A model for prediction of desert dust cycle in the atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18113–18129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Thomason and L. R. Poole, “Use of stratospheric aerosol properties as diagnostics of Antarctic vortex processes,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 23003–23012 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

M. I. Mishchenko and L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tellus, Ser. B

K. Kandler, L. Schütz, C. Deutscher, M. Ebert, H. Hofmann, S. Jäckel, R. Jaenicke, P. Knippertz, K. Lieke, A. Massling, A. Petzold, A. Schladitz, B. Weinzierl, A. Wiedensohler, S. Zorn, and S. Weinbruch, “Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 32–50 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, K. Kandler, B. Weinzierl, K. Rasp, M. Esselborn, V. Freudenthaler, B. Heese, C. Toledano, M. Tesche, and D. Althausen, “Numerical simulations of optical properties of Saharan dust aerosols with emphasis on lidar applications,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 180–194 (2005).

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus, Ser. B 61, 165–179 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. de Graaf, D. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Aerosol microphysical properties from inversion of tropospheric optical Raman lidar data,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling, Delft, The Netherlands, 18–23 October2009.

D. Müller, A. Ansmann, I. Mattis, M. Tesche, U. Wandinger, D. Althausen, and G. Pisani, “Aerosol-type-dependent lidar ratios observed with Raman lidar,” J. Geophys. Res.112, D16202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. de Graaf, D. P. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Saharan desert dust microphysical properties from principal component analysis (PCA) inversion of Raman lidar data over western Europe,” in Proceedings of the 25th International Lidar Radar Conference (ILRC25), St. Petersburg, Russia, 5–9 July2010.

M. de Graaf, D. Donovan, and A. Apituley, “Refractive index and integral aerosol properties retrieval from Raman lidar data using principal component analysis,” in 24th International Laser Radar Conference—Reviewed and Revised Papers, Boulder, Colorado, 23–27 June2008.

A. Apituley, K. M. Wilson, C. Potma, H. Volten, and M. de Graaf, “Performance assessment and application of Caeli—a high-performance Raman lidar for diurnal profiling of water vapour, aerosols and clouds,” in Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Tropospheric Profiling (ISTP 8), Delft, 18–23 October2009.

A. Petzold, M. Esselborn, B. Weinzierl, G. Ehret, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Donovan, G.-J. van Zadelhoff, S. Berthier, M. Wiegner, J. Gasteiger, R. Buras, B. Mayer, D. Lajas, and T. Wehr, “ICAROHS inter-comparison of aerosol retrievals and observational requirements for multi-wavelength HSRL systems,” in Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet Symposium 2010, H. Lacoste-Francis, ed., Vol. SP-686 (European Space Agency, 2010), p. 102.

S. A. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, 1977).

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Climate Change 2001, The Scientific Basis (Cambridge University, 2001).

G. Pappalardo, U. Wandinger, L. Mona, A. Hiebsch, I. Mattis, A. Amodeo, A. Ansmann, P. Seifert, H. Linn’e, A. Apituley, L. Alados Arboledas, D. Balis, A. Chaikovsky, G. D’Amico, F. De Tomasi, V. Freudenthaler, E. Giannakaki, A. Giunta, I. Grigorov, M. Iarlori, F. Madonna, R.-E. Mamouri, L. Nasti, A. Papayannis, A. Pietruczuk, M. Pujadas, V. Rizi, F. Rocadenbosch, F. Russo, F. Schnell, N. Spinelli, X. Wang, and M. Wiegner, “Earlinet correlative measurements for calipso: first intercomparison results,” J. Geophys. Res.115, D00H19 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Normalized volume kernels (extinction and backscatter coefficients) for different aerosol types, soot (solid black), mineral dust aerosol, computed using randomly oriented spheroids (dashed red), Mie theory (fine solid red), water soluble aerosol (green), and sea salt (blue). Top two panels show the extinction kernels averaged over the emitted and Raman shifted wavelength, the bottom three panels show the backscatter kernels at the emitted wavelengths.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Retrieval of total volume and optimum kernel set as a function of effective particle radius for soot, desert dust, water soluble and sea salt (top to bottom panels, respectively). Retrievals from the four different kernel sets are shown as lines, while the selected optimum kernel set is indicated by symbols for different effective particle radius.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Average error magnification for aerosol volume for the different aerosol models shown in Fig. 2. Error magnification is reduced when the principal components corresponding to the smallest eigenvalues are removed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Left panel: synthetic lidar signals simulating Raman lidar returns from an atmosphere containing three layers of aerosols: a water soluble aerosol layer with aerosol optical thickness (AOT) of 1 at 355 nm from 1.5 to 4.5 km in altitude, a Gaussian-shaped aerosol layer (σ=1.5km) of large mineral dust particles centered around 7 km in altitude (AOT=0.5 at 355 nm at 7 km), and a Gaussian-shaped aerosol layer (σ=1.5km) of small soot particles centered around 11 km in altitude (AOT=0.5 at 355 nm at 11 km). Middle panel: backscatter profiles from the signals in the left panels. Right panel: extinction profiles from the signals in the left panel.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PCA retrieval of the synthetic signals of Fig. 4. First, left most, panel shows the selected model for each point, the second panel shows the total volume retrieval, the third the surface area retrieval and the fourth, right most, panel shows the effective radius retrieval. Solid lines show the retrieved values, the dashed lines the true values. In panel two, the retrieval results for the four different models are shown for reference. Combination of panel two and the selected models of panel one give the retrieved result of the total volume for each point, as shown by the thick solid line in panel two.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Caeli range-corrected returned signal at 1064 nm (arbitrary units) from 0 to 5 km on 28 June 2010, from 21:03 to 21:43 UTC at CESAR, Cabauw, The Netherlands (51.97° N, 4.92° E).

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Left panel: Caeli extinction and backscatter measurements on 28 June 2010, averaged from 21:03 to 21:43 UTC, at (51.97° N, 4.92° E, from 3.2 to 4.5 km altitude. Right panel: aerosol microphysical property retrievals from these measurements using PCA. First panel shows the selected optimum aerosol model as a function of height, the next panels show the retrieved total volume, total surface area, and effective radius as a function of height using this selected optimal model, respectively.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Aerosol microphysical property retrievals for 28 June 2010, with different numbers of principal components. From left to right the retrieved total volume, total surface area, and effective radius as a function of height, are shown. Retrieval with five components is the same as that shown in Fig. 7. Selection of the inversion model is not changed, so all inversions are done using the model selection profile shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Left panel: Caeli extinction and backscatter measurements on 11 April 2011, averaged from 14:58 to 16:40 UTC, at 52° N, 5° E, from 0 to 5 km in altitude. Right panel: aerosol microphysical property retrievals from these measurements using PCA. First panel shows the selected optimum aerosol model as a function of height, the next panels show the retrieved total volume, total surface area, and effective radius as a function of height, using the selected model, respectively.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Left panel: extinction and backscatter measurements from Caeli at Leipzig (51.35° N, 12.43° E), on 25 May 2009, averaged from 17:00 to 19:45 UTC, from 0 to 5 km in altitude. Right panel: aerosol microphysical property retrievals from these measurements using PCA. First panel shows the selected optimum aerosol model as a function of height, the next panels show the retrieved total volume, total surface area, and effective radius as a function of height, using these selected model, respectively.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Refractive Indices for Various Kernels Sets

Tables Icon

Table 2. Aspect Ratio Distribution for Dust (from [18])

Tables Icon

Table 3. Elements of a in Eq. (11) Using Volume Weights, with (a) Full Number of Principal Components and (b) Smallest Two Principal Components Removed, for the Four Different Aerosol Models

Tables Icon

Table 4. Aerosol Layer Parameters

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α(λ)=0πr2Qα,λ(r)dn(r)drdr
βπ(λ)=0πr2Qβπ,λ(r)dn(r)drdr,
gi=0Ki(λ,r,m)dV(r)drdr,
Ki=3Qα,λi(r)/4r(extinction)=3Qβπ,λi(r)/4r(backscatter).
dV(r)dr=i=1NyiKi(r)+ψ(r),
gi=0j=1j=NKi(r)Kj(r)yjdr+0Ki(r)ψ(r)dr.
g¯=Cy¯.
C=ULUt,
y¯=C1g¯=UL1Utg¯.
v¯=Kty¯=KtUL1Utg¯.
P=a¯tg¯+w¯tψ¯,
a¯t=w¯tKtUL1Ut.
wj=1(volume)wj=3/rj(surface)wj=3/4πrj3(number density)wj=3Qα,λ(rj)/4rj(aerosol extinction)wj=3Qβπ,λ(rj)/4rj(aerosol backscatter).
v¯=ϕ¯(r)tL1/2Utg,
w¯tKtUL1Ut=I,
{α¯t,β¯πt}t=w¯rtKrtUrLr1Urt·g¯r,
ϵ=|g¯{α¯t,β¯πt}t|.
P+δP=w¯tKtUL1Ut·(g¯+e¯).
γ=δPP·|g¯||e¯|,
L=Nr2πln(σ)exp12(ln(r)ln(rg)ln(σ))2,
reff=0rπr2(r)n(r)dr0πr2(r)n(r)dr,
νeff=1reff20rπr2(r)n(r)dr,
reff=rgexp(5σ/2),νeff=exp(σ2)1.

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