Abstract

An advanced phosphor conformal coating technology is proposed, good correlated color temperature (CCT) and chromaticity uniformity samples are fabricated through phosphor spray painting technology. Spray painting technology is also suitable for phosphor conformal coating of whole LED wafers. The samples of different CCTs are obtained through controlling the phosphor film thickness in the range of 6–80 μm; CCT variation of samples can be controlled in the range of ±200K. The experimental Δuv reveals that the spray painting method can obtain a much smaller CCT variation (Δuv of 1.36e3) than the conventional dispensing method (Δuv of 11.86e-3) when the light is emitted at angles from 90° to +90°, and chromaticity area uniformity is also improved significantly.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. Liu and X. B. Luo, LED Packaging for Lighting Applications: Design, Manufacturing and Testing, (Wiley, 2011).
  2. Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).
  3. L. Yang, Z. C. Lv, M. X. Chen, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of YAG glass ceramic and its application for light emitting diodes,” in International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2012).
  4. W. D. Collins, M. R. Krames, and G. J. Verhoeckx, “Using electrophoresis to produce a conformal coated phosphor converted light emitting semiconductor,” U.S. patent 6,576,488 (11June2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride in solid state lighting and displays,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. T. Huang, C. C. Tsai, and Y. P. Huang, “Conformal phosphor coating using pulsed spray to reduce color deviation of white LEDs,” Opt. Express 18, A201–A206 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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2010 (1)

2008 (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).

2007 (1)

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride in solid state lighting and displays,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, P.

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” U.S. patent 2,008,079,017A1 (3April2008).

Braune, B.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. X.

L. Yang, Z. C. Lv, M. X. Chen, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of YAG glass ceramic and its application for light emitting diodes,” in International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2012).

Collins, W. D.

W. D. Collins, M. R. Krames, and G. J. Verhoeckx, “Using electrophoresis to produce a conformal coated phosphor converted light emitting semiconductor,” U.S. patent 6,576,488 (11June2001).

Fu, Y.

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” U.S. patent 2,008,079,017A1 (3April2008).

Huang, H. T.

Huang, Y. P.

Kaempf, M.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

W. D. Collins, M. R. Krames, and G. J. Verhoeckx, “Using electrophoresis to produce a conformal coated phosphor converted light emitting semiconductor,” U.S. patent 6,576,488 (11June2001).

Kromotis, P.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laughner, M.

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” U.S. patent 2,008,079,017A1 (3April2008).

Lee, S.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride in solid state lighting and displays,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Letoquin, R.

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” U.S. patent 2,008,079,017A1 (3April2008).

Lindner, P.

T. Uhrmann, T. Matthias, and P. Lindner, “Silicon-based wafer-level packaging for cost reduction of high brightness LEDs,” Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2011).

Liu, S.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).

L. Yang, Z. C. Lv, M. X. Chen, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of YAG glass ceramic and its application for light emitting diodes,” in International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2012).

S. Liu and X. B. Luo, LED Packaging for Lighting Applications: Design, Manufacturing and Testing, (Wiley, 2011).

Liu, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).

Loh, B. P.

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” U.S. patent 2,008,079,017A1 (3April2008).

Luo, X. B.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).

S. Liu and X. B. Luo, LED Packaging for Lighting Applications: Design, Manufacturing and Testing, (Wiley, 2011).

Lv, Z. C.

L. Yang, Z. C. Lv, M. X. Chen, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of YAG glass ceramic and its application for light emitting diodes,” in International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2012).

Matthias, T.

T. Uhrmann, T. Matthias, and P. Lindner, “Silicon-based wafer-level packaging for cost reduction of high brightness LEDs,” Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2011).

Medendorp, N. W.

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” U.S. patent 2,008,079,017A1 (3April2008).

Petersen, K.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-Y.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride in solid state lighting and displays,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, J.

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sung, Y.-E.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride in solid state lighting and displays,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

Uhrmann, T.

T. Uhrmann, T. Matthias, and P. Lindner, “Silicon-based wafer-level packaging for cost reduction of high brightness LEDs,” Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2011).

Verhoeckx, G. J.

W. D. Collins, M. R. Krames, and G. J. Verhoeckx, “Using electrophoresis to produce a conformal coated phosphor converted light emitting semiconductor,” U.S. patent 6,576,488 (11June2001).

Wang, K.

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).

Yang, L.

L. Yang, Z. C. Lv, M. X. Chen, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of YAG glass ceramic and its application for light emitting diodes,” in International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2012).

Yum, J.-H.

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride in solid state lighting and displays,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Optical analysis of color distribution in white LEDs with various packaging methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 2027–2029 (2008).

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

B. Braune, K. Petersen, J. Strauss, P. Kromotis, and M. Kaempf, “A new wafer level coating technique to reduce the color distribution of LEDs,” Proc. SPIE 6486, 64860X (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Yum, S.-Y. Seo, S. Lee, and Y.-E. Sung, “Comparison of Y3Al5O12:Ce0.05 phosphor coating methods for white-light-emitting diode on gallium nitride in solid state lighting and displays,” Proc. SPIE 4445, 60–69 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

T. Uhrmann, T. Matthias, and P. Lindner, “Silicon-based wafer-level packaging for cost reduction of high brightness LEDs,” Proceedings of IEEE Electronic Components and Technology Conference (IEEE, 2011).

S. Liu and X. B. Luo, LED Packaging for Lighting Applications: Design, Manufacturing and Testing, (Wiley, 2011).

L. Yang, Z. C. Lv, M. X. Chen, and S. Liu, “Fabrication of YAG glass ceramic and its application for light emitting diodes,” in International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology (IEEE, 2012).

W. D. Collins, M. R. Krames, and G. J. Verhoeckx, “Using electrophoresis to produce a conformal coated phosphor converted light emitting semiconductor,” U.S. patent 6,576,488 (11June2001).

B. P. Loh, N. W. Medendorp, P. Andrews, Y. Fu, M. Laughner, and R. Letoquin, “Method of uniform phosphor chip coating and LED package fabricated using method,” U.S. patent 2,008,079,017A1 (3April2008).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of phosphor coating procedures. (a) Conventional dispensing and (b) Spray painting.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

COB product process using LED wafer level spray painting technology.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images of phosphor coating using spray painting for a COB LED. (a) Optical image of phosphor coating on an LED chip, (b) SEM image of phosphor coating on an LED chip, (c) SEM image of phosphor particles dispersing in phosphor coating film, and (d) Cross section image of the phosphor coating layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Relative spectrum intensity distribution of phosphor conformal coating by spray painting and (b) image of phosphor coating sample.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of CCT uniformity of spray painting LED sample and conventional dispensing LED sample.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Chromaticity distribution of conventional dispensing LED samples. (b) Chromaticity distribution of Spray painting LED samples.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ui=4x2x+12y+3,
vi=6y2x+12y+3,
Δui=1n1=ui=2nui=1n1,
Δvi=1n1=vi=2nvi=1n1,
Δuv=1ni=1n(Δu2+Δv2),

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