Abstract

Ocean color measured from satellites provides daily, global estimates of marine inherent optical properties (IOPs). Semi-analytical algorithms (SAAs) provide one mechanism for inverting the color of the water observed by the satellite into IOPs. While numerous SAAs exist, most are similarly constructed and few are appropriately parameterized for all water masses for all seasons. To initiate community-wide discussion of these limitations, NASA organized two workshops that deconstructed SAAs to identify similarities and uniqueness and to progress toward consensus on a unified SAA. This effort resulted in the development of the generalized IOP (GIOP) model software that allows for the construction of different SAAs at runtime by selection from an assortment of model parameterizations. As such, GIOP permits isolation and evaluation of specific modeling assumptions, construction of SAAs, development of regionally tuned SAAs, and execution of ensemble inversion modeling. Working groups associated with the workshops proposed a preliminary default configuration for GIOP (GIOP-DC), with alternative model parameterizations and features defined for subsequent evaluation. In this paper, we: (1) describe the theoretical basis of GIOP; (2) present GIOP-DC and verify its comparable performance to other popular SAAs using both in situ and synthetic data sets; and, (3) quantify the sensitivities of their output to their parameterization. We use the latter to develop a hierarchical sensitivity of SAAs to various model parameterizations, to identify components of SAAs that merit focus in future research, and to provide material for discussion on algorithm uncertainties and future emsemble applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  58. E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, and T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]

2012

V. E. Brando, A. G. Dekker, Y. J. Park, and T. Schroeder, “Adaptive semianalytic inversion of ocean color radiometry in optically complex waters,” Appl. Opt. 51, 2808–2833 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Sauer, C. S. Roesler, P. J. Werdell, and A. Barnard, “Under the hood of satellite empirical chlorophyll-a algorithms: revealing the dependencies of maximum band ratio algorithms on inherent optical properties,” Opt. Express 20, 20920–20933 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Vantrepotte, H. Loisel, D. Dessailly, and X. Mériaux, “Optical classification of constrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 123, 306–323 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 310–319 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, F. Mélin, and J. F. Berthon, “Intra-annual variations of biases in remote sensing primary ocean color products at a coastal site,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 624–636 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

2009

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and S. Djavidnia, “Merged series of normalized water leaving radiances obtained from multiple satellite missions for the Mediterranean Sea,” Adv. Space Res. 43, 423–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Moore, J. W. Campbell, and M. D. Dowell, “A class-based approach to characterizing and mapping the uncertainty of the MODIS ocean chlorophyll product,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 2424–2430 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, I. Shulman, B. Penta, M. A. M. Friedrichs, R. Helber, and R. A. Arnone, “Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment,” J. Mar. Syst. 76, 64–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, S. W. Bailey, B. A. Franz, L. W. Harding, G. C. Feldman, and C. R. McClain, “Regional and seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a in Chesapeake Bay as observed by SeaWiFS and MODIS-Aqua,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113, 1319–1330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Hu, and M.-X. He, “Scattering by pure seawater: effect of salinity,” Opt. Express 17, 5698–5710 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, D. McKee, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, M. Chami, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations of light scattering by marine particles in coastal waters, from visible to near infrared,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1257–1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Werdell, “Global bio-optical algorithms for ocean color satellite applications,” EOS Trans. AGU 90, 4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Defoin-Platel and M. Chami, “How ambiguous is the inverse problem of ocean color in coastal waters?” J. Geophys. Res. 112, C03004 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Mélin, G. Zibordi, and J. F. Berthon, “Assessment of satellite ocean color products at a coastal site,” Remote Sens. Environ. 110, 192–215 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, S. J. Lavender, M. P. Gall, K. Oubelkheir, K. M. Richardson, P. W. Boyd, and J. Aiken, “A method for estimating inherent optical properties of New Zealand continental shelf waters from satellite ocean colour measurements,” N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 40, 227–247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, and T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, “Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8116–8131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ciotti and A. Bricaud, “Retrievals of a size parameter for phytoplankton and spectral light absorption by colored detrital matter from water-leaving radiances at SeaWiFS channels in a continental shelf region off Brazil,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 237–253 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Bailey and P. J. Werdell, “A multi-sensor approach for the on-orbit validation of ocean color satellite data products,” Remote Sens. Environ 102, 12–23 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. J. Werdell and S. W. Bailey, “An improved in-situ bio-optical data set for ocean color algorithm development and satellite data product validation,” Remote Sens. Environ. 98, 122–140 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wang, E. Boss, and C. S. Roesler, “Uncertainties of inherent optical properties obtained from semi-analytical inversions of ocean color,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4074–4085 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Magnuson, L. W. Harding, M. E. Mallonee, and J. E. Adolf, “Bio-optical model for Chesapeake Bay and the middle Atlantic bight,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf. Sci. 61, 403–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, and S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS Project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean bio-optical time series,” Deep Sea Res. II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, V. I. Haltrin, and W. Goode, “Uniqueness in remote sensing of the inherent optical properties of ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2156–2162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” EOS Trans. AGU 84, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

A. Morel and S. Maritorena, “Bio-optical properties of oceanic waters: a reappraisal,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7163–7180 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, and C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS. Trans. AGU 82, 202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Taylor, “Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7183–7192 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

1999

A. M. Ciotti, J. J. Cullen, and M. R. Lewis, “A semi-analytical model of the influence of phytoplankton community structure on the relationship between light attenuation and ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 1559–1578 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. M. Pope and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Garver and D. A. Siegel, “Inherent optical property inversion of ocean color spectra and its biogeochemical interpretation 1. Time series from the Sargasso Sea,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 18607–18625 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. E. Hoge and P. E. Lyon, “Satellite retrieval of inherent optical properties by linear matrix inversion of oceanic radiance models: an analysis of model and radiance measurement errors,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16631–16648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

S. Sugihara and M. Kishino, “An algorithm for estimating the water quality parameters from irradiance just below the sea surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10857–10862 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, O. B. Brown, R. H. Evans, J. W. Brown, R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, and D. K. Clark, “A semianalytic radiance model of ocean color,” J. Geophys. Res. 93, 10909–10924 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

1984

J. T. O. Kirk, “Dependence of relationship between inherent and apparent optical properties of water on solar altitude,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 29, 350–356 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adolf, J. E.

A. Magnuson, L. W. Harding, M. E. Mallonee, and J. E. Adolf, “Bio-optical model for Chesapeake Bay and the middle Atlantic bight,” Estuar. Coast. Shelf. Sci. 61, 403–424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aiken, J.

T. J. Smyth, G. F. Moore, T. Hirata, and J. Aiken, “Semianalytical model for the derivation of ocean color inherent optical properties: description, implementation, and performance assessment,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8116–8131 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, S. J. Lavender, M. P. Gall, K. Oubelkheir, K. M. Richardson, P. W. Boyd, and J. Aiken, “A method for estimating inherent optical properties of New Zealand continental shelf waters from satellite ocean colour measurements,” N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 40, 227–247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allali, K.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

Arnone, R.

Arnone, R. A.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, I. Shulman, B. Penta, M. A. M. Friedrichs, R. Helber, and R. A. Arnone, “Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment,” J. Mar. Syst. 76, 64–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Sydor, R. W. Gould, R. A. Arnone, V. I. Haltrin, and W. Goode, “Uniqueness in remote sensing of the inherent optical properties of ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2156–2162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Babin, M.

D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, D. McKee, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, M. Chami, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations of light scattering by marine particles in coastal waters, from visible to near infrared,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1257–1271 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, M. Babin, K. Allali, and H. Claustre, “Variations in light absorption by suspended particles with chlorophyll a concentration in oceanic (case 1) waters: analysis and implications for bio-optical models,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 31033–31044 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” EOS Trans. AGU 84, 377 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

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P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” EOS Trans. AGU 84, 377 (2003).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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G. Meister, B. A. Franz, E. J. Kwiatkowska, and C. R. McClain, “Corrections to the calibration of MODIS aqua ocean color bands derived from SeaWiFS data,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 50, 310–319 (2012).
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Mériaux, X.

V. Vantrepotte, H. Loisel, D. Dessailly, and X. Mériaux, “Optical classification of constrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 123, 306–323 (2012).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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Moore, T. S.

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H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, S. J. Lavender, M. P. Gall, K. Oubelkheir, K. M. Richardson, P. W. Boyd, and J. Aiken, “A method for estimating inherent optical properties of New Zealand continental shelf waters from satellite ocean colour measurements,” N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 40, 227–247 (2006).
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Penta, B.

J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, I. Shulman, B. Penta, M. A. M. Friedrichs, R. Helber, and R. A. Arnone, “Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment,” J. Mar. Syst. 76, 64–82 (2009).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

Peterson, A.

Pietras, C.

P. J. Werdell, S. Bailey, G. Fargion, C. Pietras, K. Knobelspiesse, G. Feldman, and C. McClain, “Unique data repository facilitates ocean color satellite validation,” EOS Trans. AGU 84, 377 (2003).
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M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, S. J. Lavender, M. P. Gall, K. Oubelkheir, K. M. Richardson, P. W. Boyd, and J. Aiken, “A method for estimating inherent optical properties of New Zealand continental shelf waters from satellite ocean colour measurements,” N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 40, 227–247 (2006).
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E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, and T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Inversion based on a semi-analytical reflectance model,” in Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group No. 5, Z.-P. Lee, ed. (IOCCG, 2006), pp. 87–94.

Pope, R. M.

Poteau, A.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

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M. H. Pinkerton, G. F. Moore, S. J. Lavender, M. P. Gall, K. Oubelkheir, K. M. Richardson, P. W. Boyd, and J. Aiken, “A method for estimating inherent optical properties of New Zealand continental shelf waters from satellite ocean colour measurements,” N. Z. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 40, 227–247 (2006).
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M. J. Sauer, C. S. Roesler, P. J. Werdell, and A. Barnard, “Under the hood of satellite empirical chlorophyll-a algorithms: revealing the dependencies of maximum band ratio algorithms on inherent optical properties,” Opt. Express 20, 20920–20933 (2012).
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C. S. Roesler and M. J. Perry, “In situ phytoplankton absorption, fluorescence emission, and particulate backscattering spectra determined from reflectance,” J. Geophys. Res. 100, 13279–13294 (1995).
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C. S. Roesler, M. J. Perry, and K. L. Carder, “Modeling in situ phytoplankton absorption from total absorption spectra in productive inland marine waters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1510–1523 (1989).
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Ruddick, K.

D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, D. McKee, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, M. Chami, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations of light scattering by marine particles in coastal waters, from visible to near infrared,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1257–1271 (2009).
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Sathyendranath, S.

R. J. W. Brewin, E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, S. J. Lavender, and N. J. Hardman-Mountford, “Model of phytoplankton absorption based on three size classes,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4535–4549 (2011).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, and T. Platt, “Inversion based on a semi-analytical reflectance model,” in Reports of the International Ocean-Colour Coordinating Group No. 5, Z.-P. Lee, ed. (IOCCG, 2006), pp. 87–94.

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Schroeder, T.

Sciandra, A.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
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J. K. Jolliff, J. C. Kindle, I. Shulman, B. Penta, M. A. M. Friedrichs, R. Helber, and R. A. Arnone, “Summary diagrams for coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model skill assessment,” J. Mar. Syst. 76, 64–82 (2009).
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S. Maritorena, O. H. F. d’Andon, A. Mangin, and D. A. Siegel, “Merged satellite ocean color data products using a bio-optical model: characteristics, benefits, and uses,” Rem. Sens. Environ. 114, 1791–1804 (2010).
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S. Maritorena, D. A. Siegel, and A. Peterson, “Optimization of a semi-analytic ocean color model for global scale applications,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2705–2714 (2002).
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J. E. O’Reilly, S. Maritorena, B. G. Mitchell, D. A. Siegel, K. L. Carder, S. A. Garver, M. Kahru, and C. R. McClain, “Ocean color chlorophyll algorithms for SeaWiFS,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 24937–24953 (1998).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

Smyth, T. J.

Steinmetz, F.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

Stramski, D.

H. Loisel, J.-M. Nicolas, A. Sciandra, D. Stramski, and A. Poteau, “Spectral dependency of optical backscattering by marine particles from satellite remote sensing of the global ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C09024 (2006).
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H. Loisel and D. Stramski, “Estimation of the inherent optical properties of natural waters from the irradiance attenuation coefficient and reflectance in the presence of Raman scattering,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3001–3011 (2000).
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E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, and T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).
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R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

Sydor, M.

Szeto, M.

M. Szeto, P. J. Werdell, T. S. Moore, and J. W. Campbell, “Are the world’s oceans optically different?,” J. Geophys. Res. 116, C00H04 (2011).
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Tailliez, D.

D. Doxaran, K. Ruddick, D. McKee, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, M. Chami, and M. Babin, “Spectral variations of light scattering by marine particles in coastal waters, from visible to near infrared,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 54, 1257–1271 (2009).
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E. Devred, S. Sathyendranath, V. Stuart, H. Maass, O. Ulloa, and T. Platt, “A two-component model of phytoplankton absorption in the open ocean: Theory and applications,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, C03011 (2006).
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Vantrepotte, V.

Voss, K. J.

Wang, P.

Weidemann, A.

Werdell, J.

R. J. W. Brewin, S. Sathyendranath, D. Müeller, C. Brockmann, P.-Y. Deschamps, E. Devred, R. Doerffer, N. Fomferra, B. Franz, M. Grant, S. Groom, A. Horseman, C. Hu, H. Krasemann, Z.-P. Lee, S. Maritorena, F. Mélin, M. Peters, T. Platt, P. Regner, T. Smyth, F. Steinmetz, J. Swinton, J. Werdell, and G. N. White, “The ocean colour climate change initiative: a round-robin comparison of in-water bio-optical algorithms,” Rem. Sens. Environ. (2012) (to be published).

Werdell, P. J.

M. J. Sauer, C. S. Roesler, P. J. Werdell, and A. Barnard, “Under the hood of satellite empirical chlorophyll-a algorithms: revealing the dependencies of maximum band ratio algorithms on inherent optical properties,” Opt. Express 20, 20920–20933 (2012).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of GIOP-DC and ground truth (in situ) IOPs at 443 nm from NOMAD (black) and the IOCCG data set (red). The left column shows scatter plots for regression analyses. The right column shows ratios of GIOP-DC to ground truth. See Table 2 for accompanying statistics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of GIOP-DC and ground truth (in situ) IOPs at 443 nm from SeaWiFS (black) and MODISA (red). See Table 3 for accompanying statistic.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Frequency distributions of Δ R rs from NOMAD (black) and the IOCCG data set (red) for the all available data (“All”) and subsetted into three trophic levels. The main text provides definitions for the oligo-, meso-, and eutrophic subsets. See Table 4 for accompanying statistics.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Frequency distributions of Δ IOP from NOMAD (black) and the IOCCG data set (red) for all available data. See Table 4 for accompanying statistics.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Taylor and Target diagrams for IOPs at 412 nm from the IOCCG data set for the 12 alternate parameterizations of GIOP compared to GIOP-DC. uRMSD is the unbiased root mean square difference. Symbols indicate the following: blue cross = S d g 33 % ( = 0.012 nm 1 ); red cross = S d g + 33 % ( = 0.024 nm 1 ); green circle = S d g dynamically calculated using Lee et al. [7]; blue square = S b p from Lee et al. [7] 33 % ; black square = S b p from Lee et al. [7] + 33 % ; red circle = OC - derived C a 33 % prior to input into Bricaud et al. [14]; black circle = OC - derived C a + 33 % prior to input into Bricaud et al. [14]; green square = a ϕ * ( λ ) from Bricaud et al. [14] with C a fixed at 0.18 mg m 3 ; blue circle = a ϕ * ( λ ) from Ciotti and Bricaud [17] with a size fraction of 0.5; black cross = G ( λ ) from Morel et al. [22]; orange cross = optimization using linear matrix inversion; and green cross = optimization considering only 400 λ 600 nm .

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

As in Fig. 5, but for IOPs at 443 nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

As in Fig. 5, but for IOPs at 555 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of GIOP-DC and in situ measurements of C a (panels A and C) and a ϕ ( 443 ) (panels B and D) from NOMAD using G ( λ ) parameterized by Gordon et al. [21] (panels A and B) and Morel et al. [22] (panels C and D). The black line indicates a 1 1 relationship. The red line indicates the best fit. The slopes of the best fit lines are 0.84, 1.06, 0.91, and 1.16 for panels A–D, respectively.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

MODISA Δ R rs for GIOP-DC (panel A) and GSM (run using GIOP; panel B). GIOP was applied to the monthly MODISA level-3 bin file for March 2010. Units are nondimensional ( 0.1 = 10 % ).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

MODISA b b p ( 443 ) for GIOP-DC (panel A), GSM (run using GIOP; panel B), and QAA (panel C). The algorithms were applied to the monthly MODISA level-3 bin file for March 2010. Units are m 1 .

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

As in Figure 10, but for a d g ( 443 ) . Units are m 1 .

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

As in Figure 10, but for a ϕ ( 443 ) . Units are m 1 .

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Eigenvectors Available for Use in GIOP (as of March 2011)a

Tables Icon

Table 2. Regression Statistics for GIOP-DC Using the NOMAD and IOCCG Data Setsa

Tables Icon

Table 3. Regression Statistics for GIOP-DC Using the SeaWiFS and MODISA Match-Up Data Sets

Tables Icon

Table 4. Delta Statistics for Various Trophic Levelsa

Tables Icon

Table 5. Delta Statistics for the Sensitivity Analysesa

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r rs ( λ , 0 ) = R rs ( λ ) 0.52 + 1.7 R rs ( λ ) .
r rs ( λ , 0 ) = G 1 ( λ ) u ( λ ) + G 2 ( λ ) u ( λ ) 2 ,
u ( λ ) = b b ( λ ) a ( λ ) + b b ( λ ) ,
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + i = 1 N ϕ A ϕ i a ϕ i * ( λ ) + i = 1 N d A d i a d i * ( λ ) + i = 1 N g A g i a g i * ( λ ) ,
a d , g * ( λ ) = exp ( S d , g λ ) ,
a ( λ ) = a w ( λ ) + i = 1 N ϕ A ϕ i a ϕ i * ( λ ) + i = 1 N d g A d g i a d g i * ( λ ) ,
b b ( λ ) = b b w ( λ ) + i = 1 N b p B b p i b b p i * ( λ ) ,
b b p * ( λ ) = λ S b p ,
u ( λ ) = b b w ( λ ) + B b p b b p * ( λ ) b b w ( λ ) + B b p b b p * ( λ ) + a w ( λ ) + A d g a d g * ( λ ) + A ϕ a ϕ * ( λ ) .
Δ R rs = 100 % N λ i = 1 N λ | R ^ rs ( λ i ) R rs ( λ i ) | R rs ( λ i ) ,
χ 2 = i = 1 N λ ( R ^ rs ( λ i ) R rs ( λ i ) ) 2 σ 2 ( λ i ) ,
σ 2 = 1 N λ i = 1 N λ ( R ^ rs ( λ i ) R rs ( λ i ) ) 2 .
Δ IOP = 200 % N λ i = 1 N λ | IOP ^ ( λ i ) IOP ( λ i ) | IOP ^ ( λ i ) + IOP ( λ i ) ,

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