Abstract

In off-axis interferometry, we usually have to deal with the unwrapping process, which is very computationally intensive and prevents us from real time phase reconstruction. The wrapping problem usually occurs when imaging thick objects, which introduce phase shifts of more than 2π radians. However, in off-axis interferometry, the nonzero angle of interference of the two beams creates a ramp in the phase across the image that can produce phase wrapping errors. In this paper, we propose a simple technique that avoids the need for the unwrapping step in reconstructing quantitative phase images in white light diffraction phase microscopy of thin samples. We show that this approach can improve significantly the phase reconstruction speed and allow high impact applications, such as real-time blood testing.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  2. G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” in Methods in Cell Biology, B. P. Jena, ed. (Academic, 2008), pp. 87–115.
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    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116017 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19, 19907–19918 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport,” Opt. Express 19, 20571–20579 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30(2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. B. Bhaduri and G. Popescu, “Derivative method for phase retrieval in off-axis quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1868–1870 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. Pham, H. F. Ding, N. Sobh, M. Do, S. Patel, and G. Popescu, “Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1781–1793 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 8263–8268 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19, 1016–1026 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051117 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 208–210 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1094–1096 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (4)

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30(2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1094–1096 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhaduri and G. Popescu, “Derivative method for phase retrieval in off-axis quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1868–1870 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19, 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Pham, N. Ding, N. Sobh, M. Do, S. Patel, and G. Popescu, “Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1781–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Pham, H. F. Ding, N. Sobh, M. Do, S. Patel, and G. Popescu, “Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1781–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19, 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport,” Opt. Express 19, 20571–20579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Debnath and Y. Park, “Real-time quantitative phase imaging with a spatial phase-shifting algorithm,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4677–4679 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Rinehart, N. T. Shaked, N. J. Jenness, R. L. Clark, and A. Wax, “Simultaneous two-wavelength transmission quantitative phase microscopy with a color camera,” Opt. Lett. 35, 2612–2614 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Arbabi, A.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30(2012).
[CrossRef]

Ash, W. M.

Auth, T.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Babacan, S. D.

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balla, A.

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bashir, R.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bednarz, M.

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Best, C. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bhaduri, B.

Boppart, S. A.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Braun, P. V.

Carney, P. S.

Choi, W.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chun, I. S.

Clark, R. L.

Cui, X. Q.

Dasari, R. R.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Debnath, S. K.

Depeursinge, C.

C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography applied to microscopy,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T.-C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006), p. 98.

Diez-Silva, M.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Ding, H. F.

H. Pham, H. F. Ding, N. Sobh, M. Do, S. Patel, and G. Popescu, “Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1781–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ding, N.

Do, M.

Do, M. N.

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, C.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30(2012).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gillette, M.

Gillette, M. U.

Goddard, L. L.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30(2012).
[CrossRef]

Golding, I.

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gov, N.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heng, X.

Henle, M. L.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

Jenness, N. J.

Kim, M. K.

Krzewina, L.

Kuriabova, T.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Levine, A. J.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport,” Opt. Express 19, 20571–20579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. L.

Lykotrafitis, G.

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marks, D. L.

Mihi, A.

Millet, L.

Millet, L. J.

Mir, M.

B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1094–1096 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19, 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, F.

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ong, Z. Y.

Park, Y.

Park, Y. K.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patel, S.

Pham, H.

Pop, E.

Popescu, G.

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30(2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhaduri and G. Popescu, “Derivative method for phase retrieval in off-axis quantitative phase imaging,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1868–1870 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bhaduri, H. Pham, M. Mir, and G. Popescu, “Diffraction phase microscopy with white light,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1094–1096 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19, 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19, 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Pham, H. F. Ding, N. Sobh, M. Do, S. Patel, and G. Popescu, “Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1781–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Pham, N. Ding, N. Sobh, M. Do, S. Patel, and G. Popescu, “Off-axis quantitative phase imaging processing using CUDA: toward real-time applications,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 1781–1793 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport,” Opt. Express 19, 20571–20579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31, 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, G. Popescu, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase and fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Express 14, 8263–8268 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” in Methods in Cell Biology, B. P. Jena, ed. (Academic, 2008), pp. 87–115.

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-Hill, 2011), p. 385.

Prasanth, S. G.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19, 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rinehart, M. T.

Rogers, J. A.

Safran, S. A.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shaked, N. T.

Shen, Z.

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19, 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sobh, N.

Suresh, S.

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tangella, K.

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Unarunotai, S.

Wang, R.

Wang, Z.

R. Wang, Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Dispersion-relation phase spectroscopy of intracellular transport,” Opt. Express 19, 20571–20579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, L. J. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. A. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express 19, 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express 19, 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, I. S. Chun, X. L. Li, Z. Y. Ong, E. Pop, L. Millet, M. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Topography and refractometry of nanostructures using spatial light interference microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35, 208–210 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wax, A.

Wu, J. G.

Yang, C. H.

Yaqoob, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Z. Wang and G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging with broadband fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 051117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express (2)

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

Z. Wang, K. Tangella, A. Balla, and G. Popescu, “Tissue refractive index as marker of disease,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16, 116017 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

C. Edwards, A. Arbabi, G. Popescu, and L. L. Goddard, “Optically monitoring and controlling nanoscale topography during semiconductor etching,” Light Sci. Appl. 1, e30(2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. F. Ding, Z. Wang, F. Nguyen, S. A. Boppart, and G. Popescu, “Fourier transform light scattering of inhomogeneous and dynamic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 238102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

PLoS ONE (1)

M. Mir, S. D. Babacan, M. Bednarz, M. N. Do, I. Golding, and G. Popescu, “Visualizing Escherichia coli sub-cellular structure using sparse deconvolution spatial light interference tomography,” PLoS ONE 7, e39816 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (4)

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, T. Auth, N. Gov, S. A. Safran, G. Popescu, S. Suresh, and M. S. Feld, “Metabolic remodeling of the human red blood cell membrane,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 1289–1294 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, M. Diez-Silva, G. Popescu, G. Lykotrafitis, W. Choi, M. S. Feld, and S. Suresh, “Refractive index maps and membrane dynamics of human red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105, 13730–13735 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Mir, Z. Wang, Z. Shen, M. Bednarz, R. Bashir, I. Golding, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Optical measurement of cycle-dependent cell growth,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13124–13129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Park, C. A. Best, K. Badizadegan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, T. Kuriabova, M. L. Henle, A. J. Levine, and G. Popescu, “Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 6731–6736(2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Popescu, Quantitative Phase Imaging of Cells and Tissues (McGraw-Hill, 2011), p. 385.

G. Popescu, “Quantitative phase imaging of nanoscale cell structure and dynamics,” in Methods in Cell Biology, B. P. Jena, ed. (Academic, 2008), pp. 87–115.

C. Depeursinge, “Digital holography applied to microscopy,” in Digital Holography and Three-Dimensional Display, T.-C. Poon, ed. (Springer, 2006), p. 98.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of wDPM.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Phase reconstruction in wDPM. (a) Interferogram from the CCD camera, (b) power spectrum of (a), (c) circular shifted power spectrum to move the first-order to the center, (d) wrapped phase image, (e) unwrapped phase images, (f) background subtracted phase image.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of the phase reconstructions of Hilbert based method and the proposed method: (a) Phase map of a red blood cell obtained by the original Hilbert based method, (b) phase map of a red blood cell obtained by the new method, (c) profile plots at the lines across the cell in (a) and (b), (d) subtraction method without using phase unwrapping.

Equations (6)

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I(x,y)=|Ui(x,y)|2+|Ur|2+2|Ur|·|Ui(x,y)|·cos[kx+ϕ(x,y)].
I(x,y)=|Ui(x,y)|2+|Ur|2+2|Ur|·|Ur(x,y)|·cos[kx+ϕ(x,y)+φbg(x,y)+φn(x,y)],
I(x,y)=|Ui(x,y)|2+|Ur|2+2|Ur|·|Ur(x,y)|·cos[kx+φbg(x,y)+φn(x,y)].
2|Ur|·|Ui(x,y)|·exp[i(φbg(x,y)+φn(x,y)].
2|Ur|·|Ui(x,y)|·exp[i(Δϕ(x,y)+φbg(x,y)+φn(x,y)].
exp[iΔϕ(x,y)].

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