Abstract

We developed a volumetric display that uses a rotating prism sheet as an optical scanner. A cross-sectional image of a three-dimensional (3D) object was moved laterally by the rotating prism sheet. A stack of the cross-sectional images constructed a 3D volume image that satisfies all requirements of stereoscopic vision. Since the mechanical load of the proposed scanning method was small, it is easy to enlarge the effective area of the scanner and its scanning area. We used a concave mirror to collimate rays emitted from each point to reduce the aberration caused at the prism sheet. A displayed 3D image had a size of 7cm×5cm×7cm and a resolution of 1024×768×200 voxels.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23, 191–201 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Kim, D. Kane, and M. S. Banks, “Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 828811 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems (Wiley, 2000).
  5. D. L. MacFarlane, “Volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7453–7457 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Grossman and R. Balakrishnan, “An evaluation of depth perception on volumetric displays,” in Proceedings of The 8th International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (PARC Publications, 2006), pp. 193–200.
  7. G. E. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. G. Giovinco, and J. Napoli, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 227–235 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1244–1250(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. E. P. Berlin, “Three-dimensional display,” U.S. patent 4,160,973 (11Oct.1977).
  13. M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, and L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 503–514 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. C. Traub, “Stereoscopic display using varifocal mirror oscillations,” Appl. Opt. 6, 1085–1087 (1967).
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  15. A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).
  16. D. Miyazaki and K. Matsushita, “Volume-scanning three-dimensional display that uses an inclined image plane,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3354–3358 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, Y. Maeda, K. Ohno, and S. Maekawa, “Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240N (2010).
  18. D. Miyazaki, K. Ohno, and T. Mukai, “Real-time updatable volumetric display system based on inclined-image scanning,” in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 684–687.
  19. Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, and S. Maekawa, “Three-dimensional display using a roof mirror grid array and a prism sheet,” in Proceedings of The 17th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1301–1304.
  20. Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, and T. Mukai, “Volumetric display using a rotating prism sheet and two concave mirrors,” presented at the First Korea-Japan Workshop on Digital Holography and Information Photonics, Seoul, Korea, November 2011.
  21. H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 15, 4814–4822 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  22. POV Team, “Persistency of Vision Ray Tracer (POV-Ray),” http://www.povray.org .
  23. Y. Ishihara and M. Ishihara, “Correcting distorted objects formed in a concave mirror,” in Proceedings of 21st ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (ACM, 2008), pp. 77–78.
  24. S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Transmissive optical imaging device with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920E (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Advances in passive imaging elements with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030B (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J. Kim, D. Kane, and M. S. Banks, “Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 828811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S.-N. Yang and J. E. Sheedy, “Effects of vergence and accommodative responses on viewer’s comfort in viewing 3D stimuli,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630Q (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, and L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, Y. Maeda, K. Ohno, and S. Maekawa, “Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240N (2010).

2008 (1)

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Advances in passive imaging elements with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030B (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 15, 4814–4822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1244–1250(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Transmissive optical imaging device with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920E (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).

2002 (3)

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23, 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

G. E. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. G. Giovinco, and J. Napoli, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 227–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Miyazaki and K. Matsushita, “Volume-scanning three-dimensional display that uses an inclined image plane,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3354–3358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1967 (1)

Ardey, G.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bahr, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, R.

T. Grossman and R. Balakrishnan, “An evaluation of depth perception on volumetric displays,” in Proceedings of The 8th International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (PARC Publications, 2006), pp. 193–200.

Banks, M. S.

J. Kim, D. Kane, and M. S. Banks, “Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 828811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berlin, E. P.

E. P. Berlin, “Three-dimensional display,” U.S. patent 4,160,973 (11Oct.1977).

Bezecny, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blundell, B. G.

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems (Wiley, 2000).

Chun, W. S.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

Cossairt, O. S.

Dohi, T.

H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 15, 4814–4822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorval, R. K.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1244–1250(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. G. Giovinco, and J. Napoli, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 227–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Favalora, G. E.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1244–1250(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. G. Giovinco, and J. Napoli, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 227–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gately, M.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, and L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gerken, M.

D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Giovinco, M. G.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. G. Giovinco, and J. Napoli, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 227–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, T.

T. Grossman and R. Balakrishnan, “An evaluation of depth perception on volumetric displays,” in Proceedings of The 8th International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces (PARC Publications, 2006), pp. 193–200.

Guill, C.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. M.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. G. Giovinco, and J. Napoli, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 227–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hill, S. L.

Hirano, N.

D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, Y. Maeda, K. Ohno, and S. Maekawa, “Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240N (2010).

Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, and S. Maekawa, “Three-dimensional display using a roof mirror grid array and a prism sheet,” in Proceedings of The 17th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1301–1304.

Homann, D.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ide, S.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23, 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, M.

Y. Ishihara and M. Ishihara, “Correcting distorted objects formed in a concave mirror,” in Proceedings of 21st ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (ACM, 2008), pp. 77–78.

Ishihara, Y.

Y. Ishihara and M. Ishihara, “Correcting distorted objects formed in a concave mirror,” in Proceedings of 21st ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (ACM, 2008), pp. 77–78.

Iwahara, M.

H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 15, 4814–4822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D.

J. Kim, D. Kane, and M. S. Banks, “Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 828811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. Kane, and M. S. Banks, “Visual discomfort and the temporal properties of the vergence-accommodation conflict,” Proc. SPIE 8288, 828811 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Langhans, K.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.

H. Liao, T. Dohi, and M. Iwahara, “Improved viewing resolution of integral videography by use of rotated prism sheets,” Opt. Mater. Express 15, 4814–4822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, D. L.

Maeda, Y.

D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, Y. Maeda, K. Ohno, and S. Maekawa, “Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240N (2010).

Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, and T. Mukai, “Volumetric display using a rotating prism sheet and two concave mirrors,” presented at the First Korea-Japan Workshop on Digital Holography and Information Photonics, Seoul, Korea, November 2011.

Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, and S. Maekawa, “Three-dimensional display using a roof mirror grid array and a prism sheet,” in Proceedings of The 17th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1301–1304.

Maekawa, S.

D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, Y. Maeda, K. Ohno, and S. Maekawa, “Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240N (2010).

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Advances in passive imaging elements with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030B (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Transmissive optical imaging device with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, and S. Maekawa, “Three-dimensional display using a roof mirror grid array and a prism sheet,” in Proceedings of The 17th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1301–1304.

Matoba, O.

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Advances in passive imaging elements with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030B (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Transmissive optical imaging device with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsushita, K.

Mitsuhashi, T.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23, 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, D.

D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, Y. Maeda, K. Ohno, and S. Maekawa, “Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240N (2010).

D. Miyazaki and K. Matsushita, “Volume-scanning three-dimensional display that uses an inclined image plane,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3354–3358 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Miyazaki, K. Ohno, and T. Mukai, “Real-time updatable volumetric display system based on inclined-image scanning,” in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 684–687.

Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, and S. Maekawa, “Three-dimensional display using a roof mirror grid array and a prism sheet,” in Proceedings of The 17th International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, 2010), pp. 1301–1304.

Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, and T. Mukai, “Volumetric display using a rotating prism sheet and two concave mirrors,” presented at the First Korea-Japan Workshop on Digital Holography and Information Photonics, Seoul, Korea, November 2011.

Mukai, T.

Y. Maeda, D. Miyazaki, and T. Mukai, “Volumetric display using a rotating prism sheet and two concave mirrors,” presented at the First Korea-Japan Workshop on Digital Holography and Information Photonics, Seoul, Korea, November 2011.

D. Miyazaki, K. Ohno, and T. Mukai, “Real-time updatable volumetric display system based on inclined-image scanning,” in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 684–687.

Napoli, J.

O. S. Cossairt, J. Napoli, S. L. Hill, R. K. Dorval, and G. E. Favalora, “Occlusion-capable multiview volumetric three-dimensional display,” Appl. Opt. 46, 1244–1250(2007).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Favalora, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, M. G. Giovinco, and J. Napoli, “Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware,” Proc. SPIE 4297, 227–235 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, K.

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Advances in passive imaging elements with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6803, 68030B (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Maekawa, K. Nitta, and O. Matoba, “Transmissive optical imaging device with micromirror array,” Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920E (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, K.

D. Miyazaki, N. Hirano, Y. Maeda, K. Ohno, and S. Maekawa, “Volumetric display using a roof mirror grid array,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240N (2010).

D. Miyazaki, K. Ohno, and T. Mukai, “Real-time updatable volumetric display system based on inclined-image scanning,” in Proceedings of The Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing (IEEE, 2010), pp. 684–687.

Oltmann, K.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, E.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, and L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, M. J.

G. E. Favalora, J. Napoli, D. M. Hall, R. K. Dorval, M. G. Giovinco, M. J. Richmond, and W. S. Chun, “100 million-voxel volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 4712, 300–312(2002).
[CrossRef]

Rieper, E.

K. Langhans, D. Bahr, D. Bezecny, D. Homann, K. Oltmann, K. Oltmann, C. Guill, E. Rieper, and G. Ardey, “FELIX 3D display: an interactive tool for volumetric imaging,” Proc. SPIE 4660, 176–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sawalha, L.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, and L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, A. J.

B. G. Blundell and A. J. Schwarz, Volumetric Three-Dimensional Display Systems (Wiley, 2000).

Sheedy, J. E.

S.-N. Yang and J. E. Sheedy, “Effects of vergence and accommodative responses on viewer’s comfort in viewing 3D stimuli,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630Q (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

A. Sullivan, “DepthCube solid-state 3D volumetric display,” Proc. SPIE 5291, 279–284 (2004).

Thwaites, H.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23, 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Traub, A. C.

Vogt, C.

D. Bahr, K. Langhans, M. Gerken, C. Vogt, D. Bezecny, and D. Homann, “FELIX: A volumetric 3D laser display,” Proc. SPIE 2650, 265–273 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.-N.

S.-N. Yang and J. E. Sheedy, “Effects of vergence and accommodative responses on viewer’s comfort in viewing 3D stimuli,” Proc. SPIE 7863, 78630Q (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yano, S.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23, 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yeary, M.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, and L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhai, Y.

M. Gately, Y. Zhai, M. Yeary, E. Petrich, and L. Sawalha, “A three-dimensional swept volume display based on LED arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7, 503–514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Displays (1)

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23, 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

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Opt. Mater. Express (1)

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Proc. SPIE (10)

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of a volumetric display based on 3D scanning of an inclined optical image.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of a prism sheet. (a) Side view of the prism sheet. (b) Schematic of refraction. The polygonal arrow shows ray passing through the prism sheet.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Diagram of the ray scanning by a rotating prism sheet. The incident ray (straight red arrow) is scanned roundly (upper, arrowed blue circle) by the rotating (under, arrowed green circle) prism sheet.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Displacement of the imaging position when diffused rays are entered to the prism sheet.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Removal of the displacement of the imaging position due to collimate the rays before entering the prism sheet.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Fundamental optical setup of our volumetric display system.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Schematic layouts of the volumetric display system using two concave mirrors. (a) Side view and (b) front view.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Photograph of our volumetric display.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Rendered image from CT scan images of a skull.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Example of the cross-sectional images of the skull.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Result of 3D displaying of the skull having the size of 7 cm × 5 cm × 7 cm .

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Verification of the displacement of the imaging position depending on the viewing angle. The horizontal dashed red lines are drawn for ease of comparison. (a) Wire-frame Cube rendered by POV-Ray. (b) 3D wire-frame cube displayed by the optical system using two concave mirrors. (c) 3D wire-frame cube displayed by the optical system using one concave mirror.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Measurements of the Displacement

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Table 2. Difference of the Displacement between the 3D Images Obtained by the Two Optical Systems and the Rendered Image from POV-Ray

Equations (3)

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θ = sin [ n sin { sin - 1 ( sin θ n ) + θ p } ] θ p ,
θ p x y = θ p cos θ r , θ p y z = θ p sin θ r .
[ x y z ] = A [ tan ( sin 1 [ n sin { sin 1 ( sin θ x y n ) + θ p x y } ] θ p x y ) tan ( sin 1 [ n sin { sin 1 ( sin θ y z n ) + θ p y z } ] θ p ) ] ,

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