Abstract

Speckles are inherently an interference phenomenon produced when an optically rough surface or a turbulent medium introduces some degree of randomness to a reflected or a transmitted electromagnetic field. Speckles are often nuisance in coherent image formation. Speckle patterns are however a useful tool for displacement and deformation as well as vibration and stress analysis. The development of speckle photography to speckle interferometry and digital holographic interferometry is described in this paper.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  72. Y. Y. Hung and C. Y. Liang, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface strains,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1046–1051 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. E. Ward, D. P. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 1855–1864 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2003 (2)

2001 (3)

1999 (3)

1998 (4)

1997 (7)

J. M. Huntley and H. Saldner, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 249–256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Rastogi, ed., special issue on “Speckle and speckle shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 83–278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations using multi directional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjödahl, “Accuracy in electronic speckle photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2875–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Bothe, J. Burke, and H. Helmers, “Spatial phase-shifting in electronic speckle pattern interferometry: minimization of phase reconstruction errors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5310–5316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of digital shearing interferograms using the spatial carrier method,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

U. Schnars, “Direct phase determination in hologram interferometry with use of digitally recorded holograms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2011–2015 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing divergent dual beam illumination,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1637–1652 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and B. Franze, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7305–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Krishna, K. Mohan, and R. S. Sirohi, “Real-time speckle photography with two wave mixing in photo refractive BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1989–1995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, “Digital recording and reconstruction of holograms in hologram interferometry and shearography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4373–4377 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani,” Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7857–7863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

J. M. Huntley and J. Saldner, “Temporal phase un-wrapping for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3047–3052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, and H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulsed electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

1990 (2)

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and P. Pfister, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing dual beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. Kerr, F. M. Santoyo, and J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 820–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

C. Joenathan, C. S. Narayanmurthy, and R. S. Sirohi, “Radial and rotational slope contours in speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 56, 309–312 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1984 (1)

O. J. Lokberg, “ESPI—the ultimate holographic tool for vibration analysis,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 1783–1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

M. Takeda, I. Hideki, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 156–160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Peters and W. F. Ranson, “Digital imaging technique in experimental stress analysis,” Opt. Eng. 21, 213427 (1982).

H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time metrology with BSO crystals,” Opt. Acta 29, 463–470 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonhardt, and J. Klenk, “Real-time displacement and tilt analysis by a speckle technique using Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 34, 327–331 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

A. E. Ennos, “Speckle interferometry,” Prog. Opt. 16, 233–288 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

K. A. Stetson, “A review of speckle photography and speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 14, 482–489 (1975).

1973 (1)

J. A. Leendertz and J. N. Butters, “An image-shearing speckle pattern interferometer for measuring bending moments,” J. Phys. E 6, 1107–1110 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

H. J. Tiziani, “Analysis of mechanical oscillation by speckling,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2911–2917 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “A study of the use of laser speckle to measure small tilts of optical rough surfaces accurately,” Opt. Commun. 5, 271–276 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

J. N. Butters and J. A. Leendertz, “A double-exposure technique for speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Phys. E 4, 277–279 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, and A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1964 (1)

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, A. K.

Alexeenko, I.

Archbold, E.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, and A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Bothe, T.

Boyer, K.

Buckberry, C. H.

J. C. Davies, and C. H. Buckberry, “Television holography and its applications,” in Optical Methods in Engineering Metrology, D. C. Williams, ed. (Chapman and Hall, 1993), pp. 275–338.

Burch, J. M.

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, and A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Burke, J.

Butters, J. N.

J. A. Leendertz and J. N. Butters, “An image-shearing speckle pattern interferometer for measuring bending moments,” J. Phys. E 6, 1107–1110 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Butters and J. A. Leendertz, “A double-exposure technique for speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Phys. E 4, 277–279 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Butters, R. C. Jones, and C. Wykes, “Electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), pp. 111–157.

Creath, K.

Cullen, D.

Dainty, J. C.

J. C. Dainty, “Introduction,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1984).

Davies, J. C.

J. C. Davies, and C. H. Buckberry, “Television holography and its applications,” in Optical Methods in Engineering Metrology, D. C. Williams, ed. (Chapman and Hall, 1993), pp. 275–338.

Diao, H.

Ennos, A. E.

A. E. Ennos, “Speckle interferometry,” Prog. Opt. 16, 233–288 (1978).
[CrossRef]

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, and A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Enomoto, H.

E. Okada, H. Enomoto, and H. Miniamitani, “Speckle methodology with liquid crystal television and position sensitive device,” in Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation, 1994 (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 890–893.

Fessler, H.

Franze, B.

Froening, Ph.

Fröning, Ph.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Speckle Phenomena in Optics: Theory and Applications (Roberts, 2007).

J. W. Goodman, “Statistical properties of laser speckle patterns,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), Chap. 2, pp. 9–75.

Gusev, M. E.

Haddad, W. S.

Haible, P.

Hand, D. P.

Helmers, H.

Hideki, I.

M. Takeda, I. Hideki, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 156–160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hinsch, K. D.

P. Meinschmidt, K. D. Hinsch, and R. S. Sirohi, Selected Papers on Speckle Pattern Interferometry—Principles and Practice, SPIE Milestone series, MS 132 (SPIE, 1996).

Hung, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Hung and C. Y. Liang, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface strains,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1046–1051 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung, “Displacement and strain measurement,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), pp. 51–71.

Huntley, J. M.

J. M. Huntley and H. Saldner, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Huntley and J. Saldner, “Temporal phase un-wrapping for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3047–3052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Joenathan, C.

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle interferometry with temporal phase evaluation: effect of speckle size, decorrelation and nonlinearity of the camera,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1169–1178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Novel temporal Fourier transform speckle pattern shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1790–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle interferometry with temporal phase evaluation for measuring large object deformation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2608–2614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Shape measurement by use of temporal Fourier transform in dual-beam illumination speckle interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3385–3390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and B. Franze, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7305–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and P. Pfister, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing dual beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, C. S. Narayanmurthy, and R. S. Sirohi, “Radial and rotational slope contours in speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 56, 309–312 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle and speckle metrology,” in The Optics Encyclopedia: Basic Foundation and Practical Applications (Wiley, 2004), Vol. 4.

Jones, J. D. C.

Jones, R.

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 1989).

Jones, R. C.

J. N. Butters, R. C. Jones, and C. Wykes, “Electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), pp. 111–157.

Jüptner, W.

Kadono, H.

Kaufmann, J.

Kelly, D. P.

J. E. Ward, D. P. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 1855–1864 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, D.

R. Rodriguez-Vera, D. Kerr, and F. M. Mendoza-Santoyo, “Electronic speckle contouring,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 2000–2008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Kerr, F. M. Santoyo, and J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 820–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Klenk, J.

H. J. Tiziani and J. Klenk, “Vibration analysis by speckle techniques in real time,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1467–1470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonhardt, and J. Klenk, “Real-time displacement and tilt analysis by a speckle technique using Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 34, 327–331 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

M. Takeda, I. Hideki, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 156–160 (1982).
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Th. Kreis, Holographic Interferometry, Principles and Methods (Akademie Verlag, 1996).

Krishna, R. S.

R. S. Krishna, K. Mohan, and R. S. Sirohi, “Real-time speckle photography with two wave mixing in photo refractive BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1989–1995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, R. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Leendertz, J. A.

J. A. Leendertz and J. N. Butters, “An image-shearing speckle pattern interferometer for measuring bending moments,” J. Phys. E 6, 1107–1110 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Butters and J. A. Leendertz, “A double-exposure technique for speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Phys. E 4, 277–279 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Leith, E. N.

Leonhardt, K.

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonhardt, and J. Klenk, “Real-time displacement and tilt analysis by a speckle technique using Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 34, 327–331 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Liang, C. Y.

Lokberg, O. J.

O. J. Lokberg, “ESPI—the ultimate holographic tool for vibration analysis,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 1783–1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

O. J. Lokberg, “Recent developments in video speckle interferometry,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Dekker, 1993), pp. 157–194.

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Madjarova, D. V.

McKechnie, T. S.

T. S. McKechnie, “Speckle reduction,” in Laser Speckle and Related Phenomena, J. C. Dainty, ed., 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, 1984), Chap. 4.

McPherson, A.

Meinschmidt, P.

P. Meinschmidt, K. D. Hinsch, and R. S. Sirohi, Selected Papers on Speckle Pattern Interferometry—Principles and Practice, SPIE Milestone series, MS 132 (SPIE, 1996).

Mendoza Santoyo, F.

Mendoza-Santoyo, F. M.

Miniamitani, H.

E. Okada, H. Enomoto, and H. Miniamitani, “Speckle methodology with liquid crystal television and position sensitive device,” in Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation, 1994 (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 890–893.

Mohan, K.

R. S. Krishna, K. Mohan, and R. S. Sirohi, “Real-time speckle photography with two wave mixing in photo refractive BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1989–1995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A. J.

Narayanmurthy, C. S.

C. Joenathan, C. S. Narayanmurthy, and R. S. Sirohi, “Radial and rotational slope contours in speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 56, 309–312 (1986).
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E. Okada, H. Enomoto, and H. Miniamitani, “Speckle methodology with liquid crystal television and position sensitive device,” in Proceedings of 20th International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control, and Instrumentation, 1994 (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 890–893.

Osten, W.

Pedrini, G.

G. Pedrini, W. Osten, and M. E. Gusev, “High-speed digital holographic interferometry for vibration measurement,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3456–3462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, I. Alexeenko, W. Osten, and H. J. Tiziani, “Temporal phase unwrapping of digital hologram sequences,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5846–5854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, “Pulsed digital holographic interferometry for dynamic measurement of rotating objects with an optical derotator,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5106–5110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, and M. E. Gusev, “Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 100–103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Fröning, H. J. Tiziani, and M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses the two-wavelength method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3460–3467(1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. Fessler, and H. J. Tiziani, “In-line digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6262–6269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations using multi directional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 249–256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of digital shearing interferograms using the spatial carrier method,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing divergent dual beam illumination,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1637–1652 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani,” Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7857–7863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, and H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulsed electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X.

Perez-Lopez, C.

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Pfister, B.

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, and H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulsed electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Powel, R. L.

Ranson, W. F.

W. H. Peters and W. F. Ranson, “Digital imaging technique in experimental stress analysis,” Opt. Eng. 21, 213427 (1982).

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D. W. Robinson and G. T. Reid, Interferogram Analysis: Digital Fringe Pattern Measurement Techniques (IOP, 1993).

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Robinson, D. W.

D. W. Robinson and G. T. Reid, Interferogram Analysis: Digital Fringe Pattern Measurement Techniques (IOP, 1993).

Rodriguez-Vera, R.

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J. M. Huntley and H. Saldner, “Profilometry using temporal phase unwrapping and a spatial light modulator-based fringe projector,” Opt. Eng. 36, 610–615 (1997).
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Saldner, J.

Santoyo, F. M.

D. Kerr, F. M. Santoyo, and J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 820–826 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schedin, S.

Schnars, U.

Sheridan, J. T.

J. E. Ward, D. P. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 1855–1864 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sirohi, R. S.

R. S. Krishna, K. Mohan, and R. S. Sirohi, “Real-time speckle photography with two wave mixing in photo refractive BaTiO3 crystals,” Opt. Eng. 33, 1989–1995 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, C. S. Narayanmurthy, and R. S. Sirohi, “Radial and rotational slope contours in speckle shear interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 56, 309–312 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Meinschmidt, K. D. Hinsch, and R. S. Sirohi, Selected Papers on Speckle Pattern Interferometry—Principles and Practice, SPIE Milestone series, MS 132 (SPIE, 1996).

Sjödahl, M.

Solem, J. C.

Steinchen, W.

W. Steinchen and L. X. Yang, Digital Shearography: Theory and Applications of Digital Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (SPIE, 2003).

Stetson, K. A.

K. A. Stetson, “A review of speckle photography and speckle interferometry,” Opt. Eng. 14, 482–489 (1975).

R. L. Powel and K. A. Stetson, “Interferometric vibration analysis by wavefront reconstruction,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1593–1598 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, M.

M. Takeda, I. Hideki, and S. Kobayashi, “Fourier-transform method of fringe-pattern analysis for computer-based topography and interferometry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 156–160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H.

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

J. Kaufmann and H. J. Tiziani, “Time resolved vibration measurement with temporal speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6682–6688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, I. Alexeenko, W. Osten, and H. J. Tiziani, “Temporal phase unwrapping of digital hologram sequences,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5846–5854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “Progress in temporal speckle modulation,” Optik 112, 370–380 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, and M. E. Gusev, “Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 100–103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, “Pulsed digital holographic interferometry for dynamic measurement of rotating objects with an optical derotator,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5106–5110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Fröning, H. J. Tiziani, and M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses the two-wavelength method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3460–3467(1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle interferometry with temporal phase evaluation: effect of speckle size, decorrelation and nonlinearity of the camera,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1169–1178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Novel temporal Fourier transform speckle pattern shearing interferometer,” Opt. Eng. 37, 1790–1795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle interferometry with temporal phase evaluation for measuring large object deformation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2608–2614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. Fessler, and H. J. Tiziani, “In-line digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6262–6269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Shape measurement by use of temporal Fourier transform in dual-beam illumination speckle interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3385–3390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations using multi directional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of two-dimensional dynamic deformations using digital holography,” Opt. Laser Technol. 29, 249–256 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of digital shearing interferograms using the spatial carrier method,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and B. Franze, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7305–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing divergent dual beam illumination,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1637–1652 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani,” Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7857–7863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, and H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulsed electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, H. Diao, X. Peng, and H. J. Tiziani, “Geometry for contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry based on shifting illumination beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6616–6621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, H. Diao, X. Peng, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry with quadruple-beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6599–6602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and P. Pfister, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing dual beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time metrology with BSO crystals,” Opt. Acta 29, 463–470 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani and J. Klenk, “Vibration analysis by speckle techniques in real time,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1467–1470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonhardt, and J. Klenk, “Real-time displacement and tilt analysis by a speckle technique using Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 34, 327–331 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “A study of the use of laser speckle to measure small tilts of optical rough surfaces accurately,” Opt. Commun. 5, 271–276 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “Analysis of mechanical oscillation by speckling,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2911–2917 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle and speckle metrology,” in The Optics Encyclopedia: Basic Foundation and Practical Applications (Wiley, 2004), Vol. 4.

H. J. Tiziani, “Vibration analysis and deformation measurement,” in Speckle Metrology (Academic, 1978), pp. 73–110.

Toyooka, S.

Tyrer, J. R.

D. Kerr, F. M. Santoyo, and J. R. Tyrer, “Extraction of phase data from electronic speckle pattern interferometric fringes using a single-phase-step method: a novel approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 7, 820–826 (1990).
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Upatnieks, J.

Vest, C. M.

C. M. Vest, Holographic Interferometry (Wiley, 1979).

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J. E. Ward, D. P. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 1855–1864 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wykes, C.

J. N. Butters, R. C. Jones, and C. Wykes, “Electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” in Speckle Metrology, R. K. Erf, ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1975), pp. 111–157.

R. Jones and C. Wykes, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University, 1989).

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi, “Theory and application of speckle displacement,” in Speckle Metrology, R. S. Sirohi, ed. (Dekker, 1993).

Yang, L. X.

W. Steinchen and L. X. Yang, Digital Shearography: Theory and Applications of Digital Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (SPIE, 2003).

Zou, Y.

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations using multi directional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, H. Tiziani, and Y. Zou, “Digital double pulse-TV-holography,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26, 199–219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Quantitative evaluation of digital shearing interferograms using the spatial carrier method,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 313–321 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing divergent dual beam illumination,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1637–1652 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, H. Diao, X. Peng, and H. J. Tiziani, “Geometry for contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry based on shifting illumination beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6616–6621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, H. Diao, X. Peng, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry with quadruple-beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6599–6602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. L.

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (26)

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and B. Franze, “Oblique incidence and observation electronic speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7305–7311 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “Analysis of mechanical oscillation by speckling,” Appl. Opt. 11, 2911–2917 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Hung and C. Y. Liang, “Image-shearing camera for direct measurement of surface strains,” Appl. Opt. 18, 1046–1051 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani and J. Klenk, “Vibration analysis by speckle techniques in real time,” Appl. Opt. 20, 1467–1470 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Creath, “Phase shifting speckle interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3053–3058 (1985).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, H. J. Tiziani, and P. Pfister, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing dual beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 29, 1905–1911 (1990).
[CrossRef]

W. S. Haddad, D. Cullen, J. C. Solem, J. W. Longworth, A. McPherson, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Fourier-transform holographic microscope,” Appl. Opt. 31, 4973–4978 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, H. Diao, X. Peng, and H. J. Tiziani, “Geometry for contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry based on shifting illumination beams,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6616–6621 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Huntley and J. Saldner, “Temporal phase un-wrapping for automated interferogram analysis,” Appl. Opt. 32, 3047–3052 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Schnars and W. Jüptner, “Digital recording and reconstruction of holograms in hologram interferometry and shearography,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4373–4377 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini and H. J. Tiziani,” Double-pulse electronic speckle interferometry for vibration analysis,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7857–7863 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Simultaneous quantitative evaluation of in-plane and out-of-plane deformations using multi directional spatial carrier,” Appl. Opt. 36, 786–792 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Sjödahl, “Accuracy in electronic speckle photography,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2875–2885 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Bothe, J. Burke, and H. Helmers, “Spatial phase-shifting in electronic speckle pattern interferometry: minimization of phase reconstruction errors,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5310–5316 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Froening, H. Fessler, and H. J. Tiziani, “In-line digital holographic interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 6262–6269 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle interferometry with temporal phase evaluation for measuring large object deformation,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2608–2614 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moore, D. P. Hand, J. S. Barton, and J. D. C. Jones, “Transient deformation measurement with electronic speckle pattern interferometry and a high speed camera,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1159–1162 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Speckle interferometry with temporal phase evaluation: effect of speckle size, decorrelation and nonlinearity of the camera,” Appl. Opt. 38, 1169–1178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Ph. Fröning, H. J. Tiziani, and M. E. Gusev, “Pulsed digital holography for high-speed contouring that uses the two-wavelength method,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3460–3467(1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Joenathan, B. Franze, P. Haible, and H. J. Tiziani, “Shape measurement by use of temporal Fourier transform in dual-beam illumination speckle interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 37, 3385–3390 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schedin, G. Pedrini, H. J. Tiziani, A. K. Aggarwal, and M. E. Gusev, “Highly sensitive pulsed digital holography for built-in defect analysis with a laser excitation,” Appl. Opt. 40, 100–103 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, I. Alexeenko, W. Osten, and H. J. Tiziani, “Temporal phase unwrapping of digital hologram sequences,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5846–5854 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, W. Osten, and M. E. Gusev, “High-speed digital holographic interferometry for vibration measurement,” Appl. Opt. 45, 3456–3462 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Kaufmann and H. J. Tiziani, “Time resolved vibration measurement with temporal speckle pattern interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 45, 6682–6688 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, H. Diao, X. Peng, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry with quadruple-beam illumination,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6599–6602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Perez-Lopez, F. Mendoza Santoyo, G. Pedrini, S. Schedin, and H. J. Tiziani, “Pulsed digital holographic interferometry for dynamic measurement of rotating objects with an optical derotator,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5106–5110 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (1)

O. J. Lokberg, “ESPI—the ultimate holographic tool for vibration analysis,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 75, 1783–1791 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (3)

G. Pedrini, B. Pfister, and H. J. Tiziani, “Double pulsed electronic speckle interferometry,” J. Mod. Opt. 40, 89–96 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zou, G. Pedrini, and H. J. Tiziani, “Contouring by electronic speckle pattern interferometry employing divergent dual beam illumination,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 1637–1652 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Pedrini, Y. L. Zou, and H. J. Tiziani, “Digital double pulse-holographic interferometry for vibration analysis,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 367–374 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

J. E. Ward, D. P. Kelly, and J. T. Sheridan, “Three-dimensional speckle size in generalized optical systems with limiting apertures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 26, 1855–1864 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E (2)

J. N. Butters and J. A. Leendertz, “A double-exposure technique for speckle pattern interferometry,” J. Phys. E 4, 277–279 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Leendertz and J. N. Butters, “An image-shearing speckle pattern interferometer for measuring bending moments,” J. Phys. E 6, 1107–1110 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, “Reconstruction of phase objects by holography,” Nature 161, 777–778 (1948).
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Opt. Acta (2)

E. Archbold, J. M. Burch, and A. E. Ennos, “Recording of in-plane surface displacement by double-exposure speckle photography,” Opt. Acta 17, 883–898 (1970).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “Real-time metrology with BSO crystals,” Opt. Acta 29, 463–470 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

H. J. Tiziani, K. Leonhardt, and J. Klenk, “Real-time displacement and tilt analysis by a speckle technique using Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 34, 327–331 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Tiziani, “A study of the use of laser speckle to measure small tilts of optical rough surfaces accurately,” Opt. Commun. 5, 271–276 (1972).
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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Speckle formation and speckle size in an image forming system. EP and AP denote the entrance and the exit pupil, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Speckle pattern recording and observation of Young’s fringes. (a) Speckle pairs recorded after displacement and (b) recording of mechanical oscillation by time average illumination. (c), (d) Corresponding fringe patterns obtained.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Tuning fork (a) with time average fringes in (b) and (c) from two positions indicated by arrows.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Speckle recording with Ar laser and displayed with an He–Ne laser. Fringes for in-plane movement of 80 μm and tilt of 25 arcsec are shown in (b) and (c). For tilt measurements, the speckles were recorded in the Fourier plane of the lens L 1 . BS, beam splitter; S, stop; A, analyzer; P, polarizer; F, filter.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Setup for ESPI.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Temporal evolution of a speckle on a CCD pixel.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Fourier spectrum of a temporal varying speckle. (b) Reconstruction of a side band of the spectrum on a pixel.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Principle of a TSPI setup based on a Twyman–Green interferometer.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of the results of the deformation measurement with TSPI and digital holography. (a) Result of TSPI, (b) result obtained by digital holographic interferometry, and (c), (d) cross section.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Miniaturized Fizeau arrangement for vibration analysis with TSPI; the reference is the tip of the fiber. BS, beam splitter; PD, photodiode. (b) Reconstructed mechanical velocity of the vibration analysis of a loudspeaker recorded, working at 200 Hz (red upper curve). For comparison, a measurement with a high-performance pointwise operating vibrometer based on heterodyne technology is shown (blue lower curve).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Experimental setup for image plane digital holography.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Plate (15 cm diameter) vibrating at 4800 Hz. (a) Phase map and (b) pseudo-3-D representation.

Fig.
                        13.
Fig. 13.

Friction tool vibrating at a frequency of 20 kHz. (a) Picture of the tool and superposition of the three vibration amplitudes along (b)  x , (c)  y , and (d)  z on the shape of the object. It should be noticed that the scale is different for each picture.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Procedure for calculating the deformation as a function of the time from a sequence of digital holograms recorded by using a high-speed sensor. Phase diff., phase difference; Time Res. Def., time resolved deformation.

Fig.
                        15.
Fig. 15.

Plate vibrating at 943 Hz, time period 1.06 ms, ( 60 mm × 60 mm × 0.5 mm ). (a)–(h) Deformation of the plate as a function of the time.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Setup with (a) rigid and (b) flexible fiber endoscope for investigations using pulsed digital holography.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

In vivo investigation inside the oral cavity. (a) Image of the investigated part (tongue). (b) Phase map corresponding to the deformation produced by a mechanical excitation of the tongue.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Miniaturized system used for the investigations inside a cavity. (a) Optical arrangement. (b) Image of the built prototype, diameter 6 mm. (c) Image of the surface inside a cylinder and phase maps obtained by harmonic excitation of the object with frequencies. (d) 950 Hz, (e) 4024 Hz, and (f) shock. Image size 6 mm × 4 mm .

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Experimental setup for shearing using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

Investigation of a canvas ( 30 cm × 20 cm ) by using spatial carrier shearography. (a) Fourier transform of the recorded shearogram. (b) Difference between the sheared phases recorded before and after thermal loading.

Equations (12)

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Δ x = 1.22 λ z D ( free space ) , Δ x = 1.22 λ ( 1 + M ) F ( image plane ) ,
Δ z = 8 λ z p 2 D p 2 ,
I ( x , y , t ) = | U R ( x , y , t ) + U O ( x , y , t ) | 2 = I R ( x , y , t ) + I O ( x , y , t ) + 2 I R ( x , y , t ) I O ( x , y , t ) cos [ ϕ O ( x , y , t ) ϕ R ( x , y , t ) ] = I 0 ( x , y , t ) { 1 + V cos [ Δ ϕ ( x , y , t ) ] } ,
| I 2 ( x , y , t ) I 1 ( x , y , t ) | = V I 0 | cos { Δ ϕ 2 ( x , y , t ) } cos { Δ ϕ 1 ( x , y , t ) } | .
| I 2 ( x , y , t ) I 1 ( x , y , t ) | = V I 0 | sin [ Δ ϕ 2 ( x , y , t ) + Δ ϕ 1 ( x , y , t ) 2 ] | | sin [ Δ ϕ 2 ( x , y , t ) Δ ϕ 1 ( x , y , t ) 2 ] | .
| I 2 ( x , y , t ) I 1 ( x , y , t ) | 2 = 2 V 2 I 0 2 sin 2 [ Δ ϕ 2 , 1 ( x , y , t ) 2 ] ,
I ( x , y , t ) = I 0 ( x , y , t ) { 1 + V cos [ ϕ 0 ( x , y , t ) + ϕ ( x , y , t ) ] } ,
ϕ ( x , y , t ) = 2 π W ( x , y , t ) ( 1 + cos θ ) λ ,
z ( t ) = z m cos ( 2 π f m t ) ,
Δ ϕ = 2 π λ u · s ,
U H ( x , y , t ) = | U H ( x , y , t ) | exp { i ϕ H ( x , y , t ) } ,
I H ( m Δ x , n Δ y , k Δ τ ) = ( k 1 ) Δ τ k Δ τ I H ( m Δ x , n Δ y , t ) d t ,

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