Abstract

We have developed a conductively cooled, Q-switched 2 μm laser with a triangular-prism Tm,Ho:LLF rod. Using a fused-silica acousto-optic Q-switch, the laser produced an output energy of 30 mJ in a single Q-switched pulse at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 Hz. Although the laser rod had polished lateral surfaces, no parasitic oscillation occurred, even at the maximum pumping level. In addition, broadly tunable laser performance was achieved with a birefringent filter plate under relatively large output coupling. The laser could be continuously tuned from 2051 to 2069 nm. Measured tuning characteristics were in reasonable agreement with calculated results.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48, 748–757 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).
  3. J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5092–5099 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).
  10. B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid-state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255–3271 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, D. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1  J/pulseQ-switched 2 μm solid-state-laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 462–464 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Li, B. Yao, Z. Wang, Y. Wang, and Y. Ju, “Tunable CW Tm,Ho:YLF laser at 2 μm,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 4, 470–471(2006).
  14. D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, and G. E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett. 20, 872–874 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. J. Koch, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Precise wavelength control of a single-frequency pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1718–1721 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, M. Petros, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, G. J. Koch, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Kavaya, “Advanced 2 μm solid-state laser for wind and CO2 lidar applications,” Proc. SPIE 6409, 64091C (2006).
  18. A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5092–5099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid-state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Precise wavelength control of a single-frequency pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1718–1721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Abo, M.

Amzajerdian, F.

Aoki, T.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

Asai, K.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bai, Y.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, M. Petros, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, G. J. Koch, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Kavaya, “Advanced 2 μm solid-state laser for wind and CO2 lidar applications,” Proc. SPIE 6409, 64091C (2006).

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, D. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1  J/pulseQ-switched 2 μm solid-state-laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 462–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, B. W.

Barnes, N. P.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid-state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Jani, F. L. Naranjo, N. P. Barnes, K. E. Murray, and G. E. Lockard, “Diode-pumped long-pulse-length Ho:Tm:YLiF4laser at 10 Hz,” Opt. Lett. 20, 872–874 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baron, P.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

Beyon, J. Y.

Bruneau, D.

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Caron, J.

Chen, S.

Cornacchia, F.

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coyle, D. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, J.

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. J.

Davis, R. E.

Degnan, J. J.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durand, Y.

Flamant, P. H.

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukuoka, H.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, D.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gibert, F.

Hirano, Y.

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

Imaki, M.

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

Ishii, S.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

Ishikawa, T.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

Itabe, T.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, H.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jani, M. G.

Ju, Y.

Kameyama, S.

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

Kavaya, M. J.

Kawakami, S.

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

Kay, R. B.

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, G. J.

Laporta, P.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lockard, G. E.

Loth, C.

Machida, H.

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marano, M.

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, K.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Modlin, D. A.

Modlin, E. A.

Murray, K. E.

Nagai, T.

Nagasawa, C.

Nakajima, M.

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

Nakazato, M.

Naranjo, F. L.

Petros, M.

Petzar, P. J.

Philippe, B.

Sakai, T.

Sakaizawa, D.

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48, 748–757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sani, E.

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, A.

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, Y.

Singh, U. N.

Taccheo, S.

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trieu, B. C.

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, D. A. Modlin, U. N. Singh, M. J. Kavaya, S. Chen, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, and M. Petros, “1  J/pulseQ-switched 2 μm solid-state-laser,” Opt. Lett. 31, 462–464 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, M. Petros, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, G. J. Koch, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Kavaya, “Advanced 2 μm solid-state laser for wind and CO2 lidar applications,” Proc. SPIE 6409, 64091C (2006).

Ueno, S.

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

Urata, Y.

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vay, S.

Wada, S.

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid-state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Yao, B.

Yu, J.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Caron and Y. Durand, “Operating wavelengths optimization for a spaceborne lidar measuring atmospheric CO2,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5413–5422 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, B. W. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Y. Beyon, F. Amzajerdian, J. Yu, R. E. Davis, S. Ismail, S. Vay, M. J. Kavaya, and U. N. Singh, “Coherent differential absorption lidar measurements of CO2,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5092–5099 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Sakaizawa, C. Nagasawa, T. Nagai, M. Abo, Y. Shibata, M. Nakazato, and T. Sakai, “Development of a 1.6 μm differential absorption lidar with a quasi-phase-matching optical parametric oscillator and photon-counting detector for the vertical CO2 profile,” Appl. Opt. 48, 748–757 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, B. Philippe, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with conductively cooled laser and two-axis scanning device,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1809–1817 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, J. Y. Beyon, F. Gibert, B. W. Barnes, S. Ismail, M. Petros, P. J. Petzar, J. Yu, E. A. Modlin, K. J. Davis, and U. N. Singh, “Side-line tunable laser transmitter for CO2: design and application to atmospheric measurements,” Appl. Opt. 47, 944–956 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Koch, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Precise wavelength control of a single-frequency pulsed Ho:Tm:YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1718–1721 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Gatti, G. Galzerano, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and P. Laporta, “Actively mode-locked Tm-Ho:LiYF4 and Tm-Ho:BaY2F8 lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 86, 269–273 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornacchia, E. Sani, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, M. Marano, S. Taccheo, G. Galzerano, and P. Laporta, “Optical spectroscopy and diode-pumped laser characteristics of codoped Tm-Ho:YLF and Tm-Ho:BaYF: A comparative analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 75, 817–822 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. J. Degnan, D. B. Coyle, and R. B. Kay, “Effects of thermalization on Q-switched laser properties,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 887–899 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. M. Walsh, N. P. Barnes, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Spectroscopy and modeling of solid-state lanthanide lasers: application to trivalent Tm3+ and Ho3+ in YLiF4 and LuLiF4,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 3255–3271 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. (1)

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2 μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (4)

J. Yu, B. C. Trieu, M. Petros, Y. Bai, P. J. Petzar, G. J. Koch, U. N. Singh, and M. J. Kavaya, “Advanced 2 μm solid-state laser for wind and CO2 lidar applications,” Proc. SPIE 6409, 64091C (2006).

A. Sato, K. Asai, H. Machida, Y. Urata, S. Wada, K. Mizutani, and T. Itabe, “Normal-mode and Q-switched operations of a conductively cooled Tm,Ho:LLF laser with a triangular-prism rod,” Proc. SPIE 5653, 16–23 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Ishii, K. Mizutani, H. Fukuoka, T. Ishikawa, P. Baron, H. Iwai, T. Aoki, T. Itabe, A. Sato, and K. Asai, “Development of coherent 2 μm differential absorption and wind lidar with laser frequency offset locking technique,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786004 (2010).

M. Imaki, S. Kameyama, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, D. Sakaizawa, and M. Nakajima, “Performance analysis on 1.6 micron CW modulation laser absorption spectrometer for CO2 sensing,” Proc. SPIE 7860, 786005 (2010).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Design of a conductively cooled pump head with a triangular prism rod.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Calculated pump intensity distribution in the doped region.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic diagram of the Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Output energy and pulse width of the Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser as a function of pump energy.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measurements of the beam quality factor, M2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Tuning characteristics of the Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Calculated threshold in the Q-switched Tm,Ho:LLF laser for π-polarization.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔNth=LlnR2σl,
Nu,thNdope=11+fl/fu(LlnR2σeffNdopel+flfu),

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