Abstract

This paper demonstrates the feasibility of using phase stepping and a multicore optical fiber to calculate an object’s depth profile. An interference pattern is projected by an optical fiber onto the object. The distorted interference pattern containing the object information is captured by a CCD camera and processed using a phase step interferometry method. The phase step method is less computationally intensive compared to two-dimensional Fourier transform profilometry and provides more accuracy when measuring objects of high frequency spatial variations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).
  2. J. J. Esteve-Taboada, D. Mas, and J. Garca, “Three-dimensional object recognition by Fourier transform profilometry,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4760–4765 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. De Chiffre, S. Christiansena, and S. Skadea, “Advantages and industrial applications of three-dimensional surface roughness analysis,” CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol. 43, 473–478 (1994).
  4. T. L. Pennington, H. Xiao, R. May, and A. Wang, “Miniaturized 3-D surface profilometer using a fiber optic coupler,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 313–320 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Bulut and N. Inci, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry using a four-core optical fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 463–469 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Ghiglia and M. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).
  7. J. Strand and T. Taxt, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4333–4344 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Strand, T. Taxt, and A. Jain, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping using a block least-squares method,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 375–386 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Zhao, X. Wang, and L. Yuan, “Four-core fiber-based bending sensor,” Optoelectron. 1, 231–236 (2008).
  11. C. Ai and J. Wyant, “Effect of piezoelectric transducer nonlinearity on phase shift interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 26, 1112–1116 (1987).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Zhao, X. Wang, and L. Yuan, “Four-core fiber-based bending sensor,” Optoelectron. 1, 231–236 (2008).

2005 (1)

K. Bulut and N. Inci, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry using a four-core optical fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 463–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. L. Pennington, H. Xiao, R. May, and A. Wang, “Miniaturized 3-D surface profilometer using a fiber optic coupler,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 313–320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

1999 (3)

1994 (1)

L. De Chiffre, S. Christiansena, and S. Skadea, “Advantages and industrial applications of three-dimensional surface roughness analysis,” CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol. 43, 473–478 (1994).

1987 (1)

Accardo, G.

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

Ai, C.

Ambrosini, D.

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

Blanchard, P. M.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bulut, K.

K. Bulut and N. Inci, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry using a four-core optical fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 463–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, J. G.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Christiansena, S.

L. De Chiffre, S. Christiansena, and S. Skadea, “Advantages and industrial applications of three-dimensional surface roughness analysis,” CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol. 43, 473–478 (1994).

De Chiffre, L.

L. De Chiffre, S. Christiansena, and S. Skadea, “Advantages and industrial applications of three-dimensional surface roughness analysis,” CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol. 43, 473–478 (1994).

Esteve-Taboada, J. J.

Galliot, E. A. C.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gander, M. J.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garca, J.

Ghiglia, D.

D. Ghiglia and M. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Greenaway, A. H.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guattari, G.

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

Inci, M. N.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inci, N.

K. Bulut and N. Inci, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry using a four-core optical fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 463–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

J. Strand, T. Taxt, and A. Jain, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping using a block least-squares method,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 375–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Macrae, D.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mas, D.

May, R.

T. L. Pennington, H. Xiao, R. May, and A. Wang, “Miniaturized 3-D surface profilometer using a fiber optic coupler,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 313–320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McBride, R.

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paoletti, D.

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

Pennington, T. L.

T. L. Pennington, H. Xiao, R. May, and A. Wang, “Miniaturized 3-D surface profilometer using a fiber optic coupler,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 313–320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pritt, M.

D. Ghiglia and M. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

Sapia, C.

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

Schirripa Spagnolo, G.

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

Skadea, S.

L. De Chiffre, S. Christiansena, and S. Skadea, “Advantages and industrial applications of three-dimensional surface roughness analysis,” CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol. 43, 473–478 (1994).

Strand, J.

J. Strand and T. Taxt, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4333–4344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Strand, T. Taxt, and A. Jain, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping using a block least-squares method,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 375–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taxt, T.

J. Strand, T. Taxt, and A. Jain, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping using a block least-squares method,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 375–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Strand and T. Taxt, “Performance evaluation of two-dimensional phase unwrapping algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4333–4344 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

T. L. Pennington, H. Xiao, R. May, and A. Wang, “Miniaturized 3-D surface profilometer using a fiber optic coupler,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 313–320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

S. Zhao, X. Wang, and L. Yuan, “Four-core fiber-based bending sensor,” Optoelectron. 1, 231–236 (2008).

Wyant, J.

Xiao, H.

T. L. Pennington, H. Xiao, R. May, and A. Wang, “Miniaturized 3-D surface profilometer using a fiber optic coupler,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 313–320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, L.

S. Zhao, X. Wang, and L. Yuan, “Four-core fiber-based bending sensor,” Optoelectron. 1, 231–236 (2008).

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, X. Wang, and L. Yuan, “Four-core fiber-based bending sensor,” Optoelectron. 1, 231–236 (2008).

Appl. Opt. (3)

CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol. (1)

L. De Chiffre, S. Christiansena, and S. Skadea, “Advantages and industrial applications of three-dimensional surface roughness analysis,” CIRP Ann. Manufacturing Technol. 43, 473–478 (1994).

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

J. Strand, T. Taxt, and A. Jain, “Two-dimensional phase unwrapping using a block least-squares method,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 8, 375–386 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

G. Schirripa Spagnolo, G. Guattari, C. Sapia, D. Ambrosini, D. Paoletti, and G. Accardo, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry for artwork inspection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 353–361 (2000).

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. J. Gander, D. Macrae, E. A. C. Galliot, R. McBride, J. D. C. Jones, P. M. Blanchard, J. G. Burnett, A. H. Greenaway, and M. N. Inci, “Two-axis bend measurement using multicore optical fibre,” Opt. Commun. 182, 115–121 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

T. L. Pennington, H. Xiao, R. May, and A. Wang, “Miniaturized 3-D surface profilometer using a fiber optic coupler,” Opt. Laser Technol. 33, 313–320 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Bulut and N. Inci, “Three-dimensional optical profilometry using a four-core optical fiber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 37, 463–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Optoelectron. (1)

S. Zhao, X. Wang, and L. Yuan, “Four-core fiber-based bending sensor,” Optoelectron. 1, 231–236 (2008).

Other (1)

D. Ghiglia and M. Pritt, Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping, Theory, Algorithms, and Software (Wiley, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Profile of a triangle.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Profile of a cylinder.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Result comparison for triangular object.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Four-core fiber cross section.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(x,y)=2I0(1+cos(A(xcosθz(x,y)sinθ))),
A=2πδλf,
ϕ(x,y)=tan1(I2I3I2I1)=A(xcosθz(x,y)sinθ).
z(x,y)=Axcosθϕ(x,y)Asinθ.
I1=2I0(1+cos(AxcosθAzsinθ)).
I2=2I0(1+cos(AxcosθAzsinθ+π/2))=2I0(1sin(AxcosθAzsinθ)),
I3=2I0(1+cos(AxcosθAzsinθ+π))=2I0(1cos(AxcosθAzsinθ)),
I2I3I2I1=cos(AxcosθAzsinθ)sin(AxcosθAzsinθ)cos(AxcosθAzsinθ)+sin(AxcosθAzsinθ).
I2I3I2I1=sin(AxcosθAzsinθπ/4)cos(AxcosθAzsinθπ/4)=tan(AxcosθAzsinθπ/4).
z=AxcosθϕAsin(θ),
ϕ=tan1(I2I3I2I1).

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