Abstract

A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument is traveling to Mars as part of ChemCam on the Mars Science Laboratory rover. Martian rocks have weathered exteriors that obscure their bulk compositions. We examine weathered rocks with LIBS in a martian atmosphere to improve interpretations of ChemCam rock analyses on Mars. Profile data are analyzed using principal component analysis, and coatings and rinds are examined using scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. Our results show that LIBS is sensitive to minor compositional changes with depth and correctly identifies rock type even if the series of laser pulses does not penetrate to unweathered material.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

D. M. Díaz Pace, N. A. Gabriele, M. Garcimuño, C. A. D’Angelo, G. Bertuccelli, and D. Bertuccelli, “Analysis of minerals and rock by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Lett. 44, 399–411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam Team, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity: remote sensing by laser-induced plasmas,” Geochem. News 145, 41–47 (2011). Available online at http://www.geochemsoc.org/publications/geochemicalnews/gn145jun11/chemcaminstrumentsuite.htm .

J. Lasue, R. C. Wiens, T. F. Stepinski, O. Forni, S. M. Clegg, and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam team, “Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3247–3260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. M. Tucker, M. D. Dyar, M. W. Schaefer, S. M. Clegg, and R. C. Wiens, “Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for rapid geochemical analysis,” Chem. Geol. 277, 137–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Northup, J. R. Snider, M. N. Spilde, M. L. Porter, J. L. van de Kamp, P. J. Boston, A. M. Nyberg, and J. R. Bagar, “Diversity of rock varnish bacterial communities from Black Canyon, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, G02007, doi:10.1029/2009JG001107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. Grotzinger, “Beyond water on Mars,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 231–233 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Osterloo, V. E. Hamilton, J. L. Bandfield, T. D. Glotch, A. M. Baldridge, P. R. Christensen, L. L. Tornabene, and F. S. Anderson, “Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars,” Science 319, 1651–1654 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Thompson, R. C. Wiens, J. E. Barefield, D. T. Vaniman, H. E. Newsom, and S. M. Clegg, “Remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyses of Dar al Gani 476 and Zagami Martian meteorites,” J. Geophys. Res. 111E05006, doi:10.1029/2005JE002378 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 237–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. F. Hodge, D. E. Farmer, T. Diaz, and R. L. Orndorff, “Prompt detection of alpha particles from Po210: another clue to the origin of rock varnish?” J. Environ. Radioact. 78, 331–342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Gordon and R. I. Dorn, “In situ weathering rind erosion,” Geomorphology 67, 97–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Sak, D. M. Fisher, T. W. Gardner, K. Murphy, and S. L. Brantley, “Rates of weathering rind formation on Costa Rican basalt,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 1453–1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 897–909(2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. L. Bishop, S. L. Murchie, C. M. Pieters, and A. P. Zent, “A model for formation of dust, soil, and rock coatings on Mars: Physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 5097, doi:10.1029/2001JE001581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. S. Broecker and T. Liu, “Rock varnish: recorder of desert wetness?” GSA Today 11(8), 4–10 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. Fleisher, T. Liu, W. S. Broecker, and W. Moore, “A clue regarding the origin of rock varnish,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 103–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Krinsley, “Models of rock varnish formation constrained by high resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Sedimentology 45, 711–725 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Cremaschi, “The rock varnish in the Messak Settafet (Fezzan, Libyan Sahara), age, archeological context, and paleo-environmental implication,” Geoarchaeology 11, 393–421 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. E. Francis, L. L. Loendorf, and R. I. Dorn, “AMS radiocarbon and cation-ratio dating of rock art in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana,” Am. Antiquity 58, 711–737(1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

L. D. McFadden, J. B. Ritter, and S. G. Wells, “Use of multiparameter relative-age methods for age estimation and correlation of alluvial fan surfaces on a desert piedmont, eastern Mojave Desert, California,” Quat. Res. 32, 276–290 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

W. Chesworth, J. Dejou, and P. Larroque, “The weathering of basalt and relative mobilities of the major elements at Belbex, France,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 1235–1243 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

C. C. Allen, “Desert varnish of the Sonoran desert: optical and electron probe microanalysis,” J. Geol. 86, 743–752 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Perry and J. B. Adams, “Desert varnish: evidence for cyclic deposition of manganese,” Nature 276, 489–491 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1958 (1)

C. G. Engel and R. P. Sharp, “Chemical data on desert varnish,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 69, 487–518 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J. B.

R. S. Perry and J. B. Adams, “Desert varnish: evidence for cyclic deposition of manganese,” Nature 276, 489–491 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Allen, C. C.

C. C. Allen, “Desert varnish of the Sonoran desert: optical and electron probe microanalysis,” J. Geol. 86, 743–752 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, F. S.

M. M. Osterloo, V. E. Hamilton, J. L. Bandfield, T. D. Glotch, A. M. Baldridge, P. R. Christensen, L. L. Tornabene, and F. S. Anderson, “Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars,” Science 319, 1651–1654 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, R. C.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arp, Z. A.

Arvidson, R. E.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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M. M. Osterloo, V. E. Hamilton, J. L. Bandfield, T. D. Glotch, A. M. Baldridge, P. R. Christensen, L. L. Tornabene, and F. S. Anderson, “Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars,” Science 319, 1651–1654 (2008).
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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Chu, P.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
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R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

Clegg, S. M.

J. Lasue, R. C. Wiens, T. F. Stepinski, O. Forni, S. M. Clegg, and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam team, “Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3247–3260 (2011).
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J. M. Tucker, M. D. Dyar, M. W. Schaefer, S. M. Clegg, and R. C. Wiens, “Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for rapid geochemical analysis,” Chem. Geol. 277, 137–148 (2010).
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S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 79–88 (2009).
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J. R. Thompson, R. C. Wiens, J. E. Barefield, D. T. Vaniman, H. E. Newsom, and S. M. Clegg, “Remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyses of Dar al Gani 476 and Zagami Martian meteorites,” J. Geophys. Res. 111E05006, doi:10.1029/2005JE002378 (2006).
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N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

Cousin, A.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

A. Cousin, S. Maurice, G. Berger, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, and R. Wiens, and the ChemCam team, “Depth profiles studies using ChemCam,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 1963.

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L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 237–248 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 897–909(2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens, L. E. Kirkland, C. P. McKay, D. A. Cremers, J. Thompson, S. Maurice, and P. C. Pinet, “Analyses of IR-stealthy and coated surface materials: a comparison of LIBS and reflectance spectra, and their application to Mars surface exploration,” in Proceedings of 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2004), paper 1695.

Crisp, J. A.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crumpler, L.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crumpler, L. A.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crumpler, L. S.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D’Angelo, C. A.

D. M. Díaz Pace, N. A. Gabriele, M. Garcimuño, C. A. D’Angelo, G. Bertuccelli, and D. Bertuccelli, “Analysis of minerals and rock by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Lett. 44, 399–411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

de Souza, P. A.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deans, M. C.

N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

DeFlores, L.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

Dejou, J.

W. Chesworth, J. Dejou, and P. Larroque, “The weathering of basalt and relative mobilities of the major elements at Belbex, France,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 1235–1243 (1981).
[CrossRef]

DeLucia, F. C.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
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Des Marais, D. J.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, T.

V. F. Hodge, D. E. Farmer, T. Diaz, and R. L. Orndorff, “Prompt detection of alpha particles from Po210: another clue to the origin of rock varnish?” J. Environ. Radioact. 78, 331–342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Díaz Pace, D. M.

D. M. Díaz Pace, N. A. Gabriele, M. Garcimuño, C. A. D’Angelo, G. Bertuccelli, and D. Bertuccelli, “Analysis of minerals and rock by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Lett. 44, 399–411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R. I.

S. J. Gordon and R. I. Dorn, “In situ weathering rind erosion,” Geomorphology 67, 97–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Francis, L. L. Loendorf, and R. I. Dorn, “AMS radiocarbon and cation-ratio dating of rock art in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana,” Am. Antiquity 58, 711–737(1993).
[CrossRef]

Dyar, M. D.

J. M. Tucker, M. D. Dyar, M. W. Schaefer, S. M. Clegg, and R. C. Wiens, “Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for rapid geochemical analysis,” Chem. Geol. 277, 137–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Echlin, P.

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

Ehlmann, B. L.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Engel, C. G.

C. G. Engel and R. P. Sharp, “Chemical data on desert varnish,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 69, 487–518 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, D. E.

V. F. Hodge, D. E. Farmer, T. Diaz, and R. L. Orndorff, “Prompt detection of alpha particles from Po210: another clue to the origin of rock varnish?” J. Environ. Radioact. 78, 331–342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, J. D.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Farrand, W. H.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fergason, R.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Fisher, D. M.

P. B. Sak, D. M. Fisher, T. W. Gardner, K. Murphy, and S. L. Brantley, “Rates of weathering rind formation on Costa Rican basalt,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 1453–1472 (2004).
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Fleisher, M.

M. Fleisher, T. Liu, W. S. Broecker, and W. Moore, “A clue regarding the origin of rock varnish,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 103–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forni, O.

J. Lasue, R. C. Wiens, T. F. Stepinski, O. Forni, S. M. Clegg, and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam team, “Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3247–3260 (2011).
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R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

A. Cousin, S. Maurice, G. Berger, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, and R. Wiens, and the ChemCam team, “Depth profiles studies using ChemCam,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 1963.

Francis, J. E.

J. E. Francis, L. L. Loendorf, and R. I. Dorn, “AMS radiocarbon and cation-ratio dating of rock art in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana,” Am. Antiquity 58, 711–737(1993).
[CrossRef]

Gabriele, N. A.

D. M. Díaz Pace, N. A. Gabriele, M. Garcimuño, C. A. D’Angelo, G. Bertuccelli, and D. Bertuccelli, “Analysis of minerals and rock by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Lett. 44, 399–411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garcimuño, M.

D. M. Díaz Pace, N. A. Gabriele, M. Garcimuño, C. A. D’Angelo, G. Bertuccelli, and D. Bertuccelli, “Analysis of minerals and rock by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrosc. Lett. 44, 399–411 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, T. W.

P. B. Sak, D. M. Fisher, T. W. Gardner, K. Murphy, and S. L. Brantley, “Rates of weathering rind formation on Costa Rican basalt,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 1453–1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gasnault, O.

A. Cousin, S. Maurice, G. Berger, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, and R. Wiens, and the ChemCam team, “Depth profiles studies using ChemCam,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 1963.

Gellert, R.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glotch, T. D.

M. M. Osterloo, V. E. Hamilton, J. L. Bandfield, T. D. Glotch, A. M. Baldridge, P. R. Christensen, L. L. Tornabene, and F. S. Anderson, “Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars,” Science 319, 1651–1654 (2008).
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Goldstein, J.

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

Golombek, M. P.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, S. J.

S. J. Gordon and R. I. Dorn, “In situ weathering rind erosion,” Geomorphology 67, 97–113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gorevan, S.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Graff, T.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Grant, J.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Grant, J. A.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Greeley, R.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Green, R. O.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
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Grotzinger, J.

J. Grotzinger, “Beyond water on Mars,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 231–233 (2009).
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Grotzinger, J. P.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
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A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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Guinness, E. A.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Haldemann, A. F. C.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Hamilton, V. E.

M. M. Osterloo, V. E. Hamilton, J. L. Bandfield, T. D. Glotch, A. M. Baldridge, P. R. Christensen, L. L. Tornabene, and F. S. Anderson, “Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars,” Science 319, 1651–1654 (2008).
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Harmon, R. S.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
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Harris, R. D.

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 237–248 (2005).
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Haskin, L. A.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Herkenhoff, K.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Herkenhoff, K. E.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Hodge, V. F.

V. F. Hodge, D. E. Farmer, T. Diaz, and R. L. Orndorff, “Prompt detection of alpha particles from Po210: another clue to the origin of rock varnish?” J. Environ. Radioact. 78, 331–342 (2005).
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Humphries, S. D.

N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

Hurowitz, J. A.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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Jandura, L.

L. Jandura, K. Burke, B. Kennedy, J. Melko, A. Okon, and D. Sunshine, “An overview of the Mars Science Laboratory sample acquisition, sample processing, and handling subsystem,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ASCE Aerospace Division International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, G. Song and R. B. Malla, eds. (ASCE, 2010), pp. 941–948.

Jenkins, T. F.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
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Johnson, J.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Johnson, J. R.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Jolliff, B. L.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Joy, D. C.

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

Kennedy, B.

L. Jandura, K. Burke, B. Kennedy, J. Melko, A. Okon, and D. Sunshine, “An overview of the Mars Science Laboratory sample acquisition, sample processing, and handling subsystem,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ASCE Aerospace Division International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, G. Song and R. B. Malla, eds. (ASCE, 2010), pp. 941–948.

Khoo, C.

L. Radziemski, D. A. Cremers, K. Benelli, C. Khoo, and R. D. Harris, “Use of the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based Martian geology and exploration,” Spectrochim. Acta B 60, 237–248 (2005).
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Kirkland, L. E.

R. C. Wiens, L. E. Kirkland, C. P. McKay, D. A. Cremers, J. Thompson, S. Maurice, and P. C. Pinet, “Analyses of IR-stealthy and coated surface materials: a comparison of LIBS and reflectance spectra, and their application to Mars surface exploration,” in Proceedings of 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2004), paper 1695.

Klingelhöfer, G.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
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H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Knoll, A. H.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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Knudson, A. T.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Krinsley, D.

D. Krinsley, “Models of rock varnish formation constrained by high resolution transmission electron microscopy,” Sedimentology 45, 711–725 (1998).
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Landis, G.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Lanza, N. L.

N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

Larroque, P.

W. Chesworth, J. Dejou, and P. Larroque, “The weathering of basalt and relative mobilities of the major elements at Belbex, France,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 45, 1235–1243 (1981).
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Lasue, J.

J. Lasue, R. C. Wiens, T. F. Stepinski, O. Forni, S. M. Clegg, and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam team, “Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3247–3260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lasue, J. A.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

Learner, Z.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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Lee, C.-T. A.

N. Thiagarajan and C.-T. A. Lee, “Trace-element evidence for the origin of desert varnish by direct aqueous atmospheric deposition,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 224, 131–141.
[CrossRef]

Lettis, W. R.

J. M. Sowers, “Rock varnish chronology,” in Quaternary Geochronology: Methods and Applications, J. S. Noller, J. M. Sowers, and W. R. Lettis, eds. (American Geophysical Union Books Board, 2005), pp. 241–260.

Li, R.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lifshin, E.

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

Lindemann, R.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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Liu, T.

W. S. Broecker and T. Liu, “Rock varnish: recorder of desert wetness?” GSA Today 11(8), 4–10 (2001).
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M. Fleisher, T. Liu, W. S. Broecker, and W. Moore, “A clue regarding the origin of rock varnish,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 103–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Loendorf, L. L.

J. E. Francis, L. L. Loendorf, and R. I. Dorn, “AMS radiocarbon and cation-ratio dating of rock art in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana,” Am. Antiquity 58, 711–737(1993).
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Lyman, C. E.

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

Maurice, S.

J. Lasue, R. C. Wiens, T. F. Stepinski, O. Forni, S. M. Clegg, and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam team, “Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3247–3260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam Team, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity: remote sensing by laser-induced plasmas,” Geochem. News 145, 41–47 (2011). Available online at http://www.geochemsoc.org/publications/geochemicalnews/gn145jun11/chemcaminstrumentsuite.htm .

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 897–909(2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

A. Cousin, S. Maurice, G. Berger, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, and R. Wiens, and the ChemCam team, “Depth profiles studies using ChemCam,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 1963.

R. C. Wiens, L. E. Kirkland, C. P. McKay, D. A. Cremers, J. Thompson, S. Maurice, and P. C. Pinet, “Analyses of IR-stealthy and coated surface materials: a comparison of LIBS and reflectance spectra, and their application to Mars surface exploration,” in Proceedings of 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2004), paper 1695.

McFadden, L. D.

L. D. McFadden, J. B. Ritter, and S. G. Wells, “Use of multiparameter relative-age methods for age estimation and correlation of alluvial fan surfaces on a desert piedmont, eastern Mojave Desert, California,” Quat. Res. 32, 276–290 (1989).
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McInroy, R. E.

N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

McKay, C. P.

R. C. Wiens, L. E. Kirkland, C. P. McKay, D. A. Cremers, J. Thompson, S. Maurice, and P. C. Pinet, “Analyses of IR-stealthy and coated surface materials: a comparison of LIBS and reflectance spectra, and their application to Mars surface exploration,” in Proceedings of 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2004), paper 1695.

McLennan, S.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McLennan, S. M.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McManus, C. E.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McMillan, N. J.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McSween, H.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McSween, H. Y.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melko, J.

L. Jandura, K. Burke, B. Kennedy, J. Melko, A. Okon, and D. Sunshine, “An overview of the Mars Science Laboratory sample acquisition, sample processing, and handling subsystem,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ASCE Aerospace Division International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, G. Song and R. B. Malla, eds. (ASCE, 2010), pp. 941–948.

Michael, J. R.

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

Milam, K. A.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Milliken, R. E.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ming, D. W.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miziolek, A.

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moersch, J. E.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moore, W.

M. Fleisher, T. Liu, W. S. Broecker, and W. Moore, “A clue regarding the origin of rock varnish,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 103–106 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R. V.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

Murchie, S. L.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Bishop, S. L. Murchie, C. M. Pieters, and A. P. Zent, “A model for formation of dust, soil, and rock coatings on Mars: Physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 5097, doi:10.1029/2001JE001581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K.

P. B. Sak, D. M. Fisher, T. W. Gardner, K. Murphy, and S. L. Brantley, “Rates of weathering rind formation on Costa Rican basalt,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 68, 1453–1472 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mustard, J. F.

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Myrick, T.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, D. E.

J. Goldstein, D. E. Newbury, D. C. Joy, C. E. Lyman, P. Echlin, E. Lifshin, L. Sawyer, and J. R. Michael, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, 3rd ed. (Springer, 2003).

Newsom, H.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

Newsom, H. E.

J. R. Thompson, R. C. Wiens, J. E. Barefield, D. T. Vaniman, H. E. Newsom, and S. M. Clegg, “Remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyses of Dar al Gani 476 and Zagami Martian meteorites,” J. Geophys. Res. 111E05006, doi:10.1029/2005JE002378 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

Noller, J. S.

J. M. Sowers, “Rock varnish chronology,” in Quaternary Geochronology: Methods and Applications, J. S. Noller, J. M. Sowers, and W. R. Lettis, eds. (American Geophysical Union Books Board, 2005), pp. 241–260.

P. W. Birkeland and J. S. Noller, “Rock and mineral weathering,” in Quaternary Geochronology: Methods and Applications, J. S. Noller, J. M. Sowers, and W. R. Lettis, eds. (American Geophysical Union Books Board, 2005), pp. 293–312.

Northup, D. E.

D. E. Northup, J. R. Snider, M. N. Spilde, M. L. Porter, J. L. van de Kamp, P. J. Boston, A. M. Nyberg, and J. R. Bagar, “Diversity of rock varnish bacterial communities from Black Canyon, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, G02007, doi:10.1029/2009JG001107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nyberg, A. M.

D. E. Northup, J. R. Snider, M. N. Spilde, M. L. Porter, J. L. van de Kamp, P. J. Boston, A. M. Nyberg, and J. R. Bagar, “Diversity of rock varnish bacterial communities from Black Canyon, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, G02007, doi:10.1029/2009JG001107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Okon, A.

L. Jandura, K. Burke, B. Kennedy, J. Melko, A. Okon, and D. Sunshine, “An overview of the Mars Science Laboratory sample acquisition, sample processing, and handling subsystem,” in Proceedings of the Twelfth ASCE Aerospace Division International Conference on Engineering, Science, Construction, and Operations in Challenging Environments, G. Song and R. B. Malla, eds. (ASCE, 2010), pp. 941–948.

Ollila, A.

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

Ollila, A. M.

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J. M. Tucker, M. D. Dyar, M. W. Schaefer, S. M. Clegg, and R. C. Wiens, “Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for rapid geochemical analysis,” Chem. Geol. 277, 137–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 79–88 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Thompson, R. C. Wiens, J. E. Barefield, D. T. Vaniman, H. E. Newsom, and S. M. Clegg, “Remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyses of Dar al Gani 476 and Zagami Martian meteorites,” J. Geophys. Res. 111E05006, doi:10.1029/2005JE002378 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. A. Arp, D. A. Cremers, R. C. Wiens, D. M. Wayne, B. Sallé, and S. Maurice, “Analysis of water ice and water ice/soil mixtures using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: application to Mars polar exploration,” Appl. Spectrosc. 58, 897–909(2004).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Wiens, S. Maurice, S. Bender, B. L. Barraclough, A. Cousin, O. Forni, A. Ollila, H. Newsom, D. Vaniman, S. Clegg, J. A. Lasue, D. Blaney, L. DeFlores, and R. V. Morris, and the ChemCam Team, “Calibration of the MSL/ChemCam/LIBS remote sensing composition instrument,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 2370.

R. C. Wiens, L. E. Kirkland, C. P. McKay, D. A. Cremers, J. Thompson, S. Maurice, and P. C. Pinet, “Analyses of IR-stealthy and coated surface materials: a comparison of LIBS and reflectance spectra, and their application to Mars surface exploration,” in Proceedings of 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2004), paper 1695.

N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

Wilson, J.

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, M. B.

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yen, A.

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zent, A. P.

J. L. Bishop, S. L. Murchie, C. M. Pieters, and A. P. Zent, “A model for formation of dust, soil, and rock coatings on Mars: Physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 5097, doi:10.1029/2001JE001581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zipfel, J.

L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
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Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

J. Lasue, R. C. Wiens, T. F. Stepinski, O. Forni, S. M. Clegg, and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam team, “Nonlinear mapping technique for data visualization and clustering assessment of LIBS data: application to ChemCam data,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3247–3260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Geochem. (1)

R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, C. E. McManus, N. J. McMillan, T. F. Jenkins, M. E. Walsh, and A. Miziolek, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy—an emerging chemical sensor technology for real-time field-portable, geochemical, mineralogical, and environmental applications,” Appl. Geochem. 21, 730–747 (2006).
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Appl. Spectrosc. (2)

Chem. Geol. (1)

J. M. Tucker, M. D. Dyar, M. W. Schaefer, S. M. Clegg, and R. C. Wiens, “Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for rapid geochemical analysis,” Chem. Geol. 277, 137–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (1)

N. Thiagarajan and C.-T. A. Lee, “Trace-element evidence for the origin of desert varnish by direct aqueous atmospheric deposition,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 224, 131–141.
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Geochem. News (1)

R. C. Wiens and S. Maurice, and the ChemCam Team, “The ChemCam instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity: remote sensing by laser-induced plasmas,” Geochem. News 145, 41–47 (2011). Available online at http://www.geochemsoc.org/publications/geochemicalnews/gn145jun11/chemcaminstrumentsuite.htm .

Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2)

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Geology (1)

R. E. Milliken, G. A. Swayze, R. E. Arvidson, J. L. Bishop, R. N. Clark, B. L. Ehlmann, R. O. Green, J. P. Grotzinger, R. V. Morris, S. L. Murchie, J. F. Mustard, and C. Weitz, “Opaline silica in young deposits on Mars,” Geology 36, 847–850 (2008).
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Geomorphology (1)

S. J. Gordon and R. I. Dorn, “In situ weathering rind erosion,” Geomorphology 67, 97–113 (2005).
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M. Fleisher, T. Liu, W. S. Broecker, and W. Moore, “A clue regarding the origin of rock varnish,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 103–106 (1999).
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W. S. Broecker and T. Liu, “Rock varnish: recorder of desert wetness?” GSA Today 11(8), 4–10 (2001).
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V. F. Hodge, D. E. Farmer, T. Diaz, and R. L. Orndorff, “Prompt detection of alpha particles from Po210: another clue to the origin of rock varnish?” J. Environ. Radioact. 78, 331–342 (2005).
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D. E. Northup, J. R. Snider, M. N. Spilde, M. L. Porter, J. L. van de Kamp, P. J. Boston, A. M. Nyberg, and J. R. Bagar, “Diversity of rock varnish bacterial communities from Black Canyon, New Mexico,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, G02007, doi:10.1029/2009JG001107 (2010).
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J. L. Bishop, S. L. Murchie, C. M. Pieters, and A. P. Zent, “A model for formation of dust, soil, and rock coatings on Mars: Physical and chemical processes on the Martian surface,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 5097, doi:10.1029/2001JE001581 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Knoll, B. L. Jolliff, W. H. Farrand, J. F. Bell, B. C. Clark, R. Gellert, M. P. Golombek, J. P. Grotzinger, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, S. M. McLennan, R. Morris, S. W. Squyres, R. Sullivan, N. J. Tosca, A. Yen, and Z. Learner, “Veneers, rinds, and fracture fills: relatively late alteration of sedimentary rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, E06S16, doi:10.1029/2007JE002949 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Thompson, R. C. Wiens, J. E. Barefield, D. T. Vaniman, H. E. Newsom, and S. M. Clegg, “Remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analyses of Dar al Gani 476 and Zagami Martian meteorites,” J. Geophys. Res. 111E05006, doi:10.1029/2005JE002378 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Geosci. (1)

J. Grotzinger, “Beyond water on Mars,” Nat. Geosci. 2, 231–233 (2009).
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R. S. Perry and J. B. Adams, “Desert varnish: evidence for cyclic deposition of manganese,” Nature 276, 489–491 (1978).
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L. A. Haskin, A. Wang, B. L. Jolliff, H. Y. McSween, B. C. Clark, D. J. Des Marais, S. M. McLennan, N. J. Tosca, J. A. Hurowitz, J. D. Farmer, A. Yen, S. W. Squyres, R. E. Arvidson, G. Klingelhöfer, C. Schröder, P. A. de Souza, D. W. Ming, R. Gellert, J. Zipfel, J. Brückner, J. F. Bell, K. Herkenhoff, P. R. Christensen, S. Ruff, D. Blaney, S. Gorevan, N. A. Cabrol, L. A. Crumpler, J. Grant, and L. Soderblom, “Water alteration of rocks and soils on Mars at the Spirit rover site in Gusev crater,” Nature 436, 66–69 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quat. Res. (1)

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Science (3)

H. Y. McSween, R. E. Arvidson, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, N. A. Cabrol, P. R. Christensen, B. C. Clark, J. A. Crisp, L. S. Crumpler, D. J. Des Marais, J. D. Farmer, R. Gellert, A. Ghosh, S. Gorevan, T. Graff, J. Grant, L. A. Haskin, K. E. Herkenhoff, J. R. Johnson, B. L. Jolliff, G. Klingelhöfer, A. T. Knudson, S. McLennan, K. A. Milam, J. E. Moersch, R. V. Morris, R. Rieder, S. W. Ruff, P. A. de Souza, S. W. Squyres, H. Wänke, A. Wang, M. B. Wyatt, and J. Zipfel, “Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater,” Science 305, 842–845 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Arvidson, R. C. Anderson, P. Bartlett, J. F. Bell, D. Blaney, P. R. Christensen, P. Chu, L. Crumpler, K. Davis, B. L. Ehlmann, R. Fergason, M. P. Golombek, S. Gorevan, J. A. Grant, R. Greeley, E. A. Guinness, A. F. C. Haldemann, K. Herkenhoff, J. Johnson, G. Landis, R. Li, R. Lindemann, H. McSween, D. W. Ming, T. Myrick, L. Richter, F. P. Seelos, S. W. Squyres, R. J. Sullivan, A. Wang, and J. Wilson, “Localization and physical properties experiments conducted by Spirit at Gusev crater,” Science 305, 821–824 (2004).
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M. M. Osterloo, V. E. Hamilton, J. L. Bandfield, T. D. Glotch, A. M. Baldridge, P. R. Christensen, L. L. Tornabene, and F. S. Anderson, “Chloride-bearing materials in the southern highlands of Mars,” Science 319, 1651–1654 (2008).
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S. M. Clegg, E. Sklute, M. D. Dyar, J. E. Barefield, and R. C. Wiens, “Multivariate analysis of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra using partial least squares, principal component analysis, and related techniques,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 79–88 (2009).
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Other (9)

A. Cousin, S. Maurice, G. Berger, O. Forni, O. Gasnault, and R. Wiens, and the ChemCam team, “Depth profiles studies using ChemCam,” in Proceedings of 42nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, S. Byrne, ed. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2011), paper 1963.

R. C. Wiens, L. E. Kirkland, C. P. McKay, D. A. Cremers, J. Thompson, S. Maurice, and P. C. Pinet, “Analyses of IR-stealthy and coated surface materials: a comparison of LIBS and reflectance spectra, and their application to Mars surface exploration,” in Proceedings of 35th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (Lunar and Planetary Institute, 2004), paper 1695.

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N. L. Lanza, M. C. Deans, S. M. Clegg, S. D. Humphries, R. E. McInroy, R. C. Wiens, H. E. Newsom, and A. M. Ollila, “Using LIBS to determine composition of natural rock coatings and weathering rinds for planetary exploration,” presented at LIBS 2010, Memphis, Tennessee, 13–17 September 2010, paper 66.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) A cross section of a naturally weathered basaltic rock sample from this study (N6B). A dark rock varnish coating is visible on the very surface of the rock; directly beneath the coating is a weathering rind that appears as a submillimeter thin region of slightly brighter material. The brighter rind grades into the slightly darker gray interior of the rock. The coating represents material that has been added to the rock surface, while the rind represents a region in which material has been removed. (b) A backscattered electron (BSE) image of the same sample in thin section. In this view, the dark varnish is visible at the very top edge of the sample. The weathering rind is visible as a zone with void spaces directly below the coating, indicating regions in which some mineral dissolution has occurred. The rind grades into the fresh rock at the bottom of the image, where fewer void spaces are observed.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

BSE images of the four basalt samples in thin section obtained by EPMA. Banded coatings are visible on the surfaces of all samples, with significant spatial variations in thickness. Brightness indicates elemental composition, with brighter tones indicating heavier elements. Darker-toned void spaces are also visible just below the varnish, indicating the presence of a weathering rind in which mineral grains have begun to dissolve. All scale bars are 50 μm. (a) N2B. Varnish does not appear to form on the larger mineral grains at the surface, likely due to their smooth texture. (b) N3B. Varnish has filled in topographic irregularities and created a smoother surface texture on this sample. (c) N6B. Distinct bands of brighter and darker material in the varnish suggest multiple episodes of deposition during its formation. (d) W6B. This sample contains pockets of very thick varnish (center right) that are adjacent to regions with almost no varnish (center left).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

PCA of rock sample depth profiles, interiors, and basaltic geochemical reference material standards (+). Each depth profile is composed of 10 five-shot increments, for a total of 50 laser shots. Fill hue gradient of data points indicates shot number, with darker points sampling closer to the surface and lighter points sampling deeper into the sample. The order of depth profile shots is also indicated by a connecting line. All sample exteriors plot first in the Mn and Ba region along PC1 in the negative direction; each subsequent shot group plots closer to the rock interiors in the Ca, Na, Mg region along PC1 in the positive direction. Only sample N6B comes close to its fresh rock composition at the end of the 50-shot depth profile; all other sample depth profiles end at compositions with less apparent Ca, Na, and Mg than their interior compositions. The PC2 axis is controlled in part by Ti in the negative direction, which is likely due to the Fe–Ti oxide mineral phase found within the basalt.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

X-loadings for PC1 (55%) and PC2 (16%) by wavelength. The most influential peaks in PC1 belong to Ca, Na, and Mg in the positive direction (+) and Mn and Ba in the negative direction (); the most influential peaks in PC2 belong to Ca and Na (+) and Mg and Ti ().

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of the exterior and interior spectra of sample N6B. The first five-shot data point (black, top) shows peaks for Mn and Ba (labeled) that do not appear in the interior spectrum (gray, bottom). Although peaks for Ca, Na, and Mg appear in both the exterior and interior spectra, they are greatly increased in the interior, with additional peaks for Ca appearing there. A peak for Ti (labeled) appears in the interior and not the exterior, likely due to the presence of an Fe–Ti oxide phase within the basalt. This suggests that despite the presence of a Mn-rich varnish, this sample is likely still identifiable as a basalt from the exterior data. Closer views of major peaks for Mn, Ca, Na, and Mg show systematic trends in peak height with depth for these elements (note that intensity is not to scale on close views). The black dashed line represents the first shots on the exterior, while the gray dashed line represents the spectrum of the fresh interior; darker grays indicate earlier shots in the depth profile, and lighter grays indicate later shots. For Mn, peak height decreases with depth, whereas for Ca, Na, and Mg peak height increases with depth.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Compositional Results for SEM Quantitative EDS Measurements on Rock Varnish Found on Basalt Sample Exteriorsa

Equations (1)

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(Ca+2,Mg+2,Na+)>K+>Fe+2>Si+4>Ti+4>Fe+3>Al+3.

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