Abstract

Obsidian is a natural glass of volcanic origin and a primary resource used by indigenous peoples across North America for making tools. Geochemical studies of obsidian enhance understanding of artifact production and procurement and remain a priority activity within the archaeological community. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an analytical technique being examined as a means for identifying obsidian from different sources on the basis of its ‘geochemical fingerprint’. This study tested whether two major California obsidian centers could be distinguished from other obsidian localities and the extent to which subsources could be recognized within each of these centers. LIBS data sets were collected in two different spectral bands (350±130nm and 690±115nm) using a Nd:YAG 1064 nm laser operated at 23mJ, a Czerny–Turner spectrograph with 0.2–0.3 nm spectral resolution and a high performance imaging charge couple device (ICCD) detector. Classification of the samples was performed using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), a common chemometric technique for performing statistical regression on high-dimensional data. Discrimination of samples from the Coso Volcanic Field, Bodie Hills, and other major obsidian areas in north-central California was possible with an accuracy of greater than 90% using either spectral band.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. E. Hughes, “Archaeological significance of geochemical contrasts among southwestern New Mexico obsidians,” Texas J. of Sci. 40, 297–307 (1988).
  2. R. E. Taylor, Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976).
  3. G. Harbottle, “Chemical characterization in archaeology,” in Contexts Prehistoric Exchange, J. E. Ericson and T. K. Earle, eds. (Academic, 1982), pp. 13–51.
  4. M. S. Shackley, “Sources of archaeological obsidian in the southwest: an archaeological, petrological, and geochemical study,” Amer. Antiquity 53, 752–772 (1988).
  5. M. D. Glascock, G. E. Braswell, and R. H. Cobean, “A systematic approach to obsidian source characterization,” in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Methods and Theory, M. S. Shackley, ed., (Plenum, 1998), pp. 15–65.
  6. R. E. Hughes, “Obsidian sourcing studies in the Great Basin: problems and prospects,” in Obsidian Studies in the Great Basin (University of California Archaeological Research Facility, 1984), 45, pp. 1–19.
  7. T. G. Baugh and F. W. Nelson, “New Mexico obsidian sources and exchange on the Southern Plains,” J. Field Archaeol. 14, 313–329 (1987).
  8. R. E. Hughes and R. L. Smith, “Archaeology, geology, and geochemistry in obsidian provenance studies,” in Effects of Scale on Archaeological and Geoscientific Perspectives, J. K. Stein and A. R. Linse, eds. (Geol. Soc. Am. Special Paper 283, 1993), pp. 79–91.
  9. R. F. Heizer and A. E. Treganza, Mines and Quarries of the Indians of California (Ballena, 1972).
  10. J. Ericson, T. Hagan, and C. Chesterman, “Prehistoric obsidian sources in California, II: Geological and geographic aspects,” in Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976), pp. 218–239.
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  13. J. E. Ericson and M. D. Glascock, “Subsource characterization: obsidian utilization of subsources of the Coso Volcanic Field, Coso Junction, California, USA,” Geoarchaeology 19, 779–805 (2004).
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  17. F. K. Halford, “Archaeology and Environment on the Dry Lakes Plateau, Bodie Hills, California: Hunter-Gatherer Coping Strategies for Holocene Environmental Variability,” Unpublished Masters Thesis, Univ. Nevada, Reno (1998).
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  19. C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Geology and ore deposits of the Bodie mining district, Mono County, California, California Department of Conservation,” Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 206 (1986).
  20. F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).
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  23. F. K. Halford, “The Coleville and Bodie Hills NRCS Soil Inventory, Walker and Bridgeport, California: A Reevaluation of the Bodie Hills Obsidian Source and its Spatial and Chronological Use.” Report on file at the BLM Bishop Field Office (2008).
  24. R. N. Jack and I. S. E. Carmichael, “The chemical fingerprinting of acid volcanic rocks,” California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 100, 17–32 (1969).
  25. F. K. Halford, “New evidence for acquisition and production of Bodie Hills obsidian,” Society for Calif. Archaeol. Newsletter35, 32–37 (2001).
  26. W. A. Duffield, C. R. Bacon, and G. B. Dalrymple, “Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2381–2404 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. R. Bacon, R. Macdonald, R. L. Smith, and P. A. Baedecker, “Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10223–10241 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. M. Yohe, “The introduction of the bow and arrow and lithic resource use at Rose Spring (CA-INY-372),” J. California and Great Basin Anthropology 20, 26–52 (1998).
  29. P. D. Bouey, “Recognizing the limits of archaeological applications of nondestructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidians,” Material Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 185, 309–320 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. W. Eerkens, and J. S. Rosenthal, “Are obsidian subsources meaningful units of analysis?: temporal and spatial patterning of subsources in the Coso Volcanic Field, southeastern California,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 21–29 (2004).
  31. A. C. Draucker, “Geochemical characterization of obsidian sub-sources from the Coso Range, California using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a tool for archaeological investigations,” M. S. Thesis (California State University Bakersfield, 2007).
  32. J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).
  33. S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: An alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Sys. 18, 251–263 (1993).
  34. J. J. Remus and K. Dunsin, “Robust validation of pattern classification methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (2012, in press).
  35. R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).
  36. J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 109–119 (2009).
  37. D. C. Alvey, K. Morton, R. S. Harmon, J. L. Gottfried, J. J. Remus, L. M. Collins, and M A. Wise, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet,” Appl. Opt. 49, C168–C180 (2010).
  38. R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

J. J. Remus and K. Dunsin, “Robust validation of pattern classification methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (2012, in press).

2011 (1)

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. C. Alvey, K. Morton, R. S. Harmon, J. L. Gottfried, J. J. Remus, L. M. Collins, and M A. Wise, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet,” Appl. Opt. 49, C168–C180 (2010).

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

2009 (2)

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 109–119 (2009).

2004 (2)

J. W. Eerkens, and J. S. Rosenthal, “Are obsidian subsources meaningful units of analysis?: temporal and spatial patterning of subsources in the Coso Volcanic Field, southeastern California,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 21–29 (2004).

J. E. Ericson and M. D. Glascock, “Subsource characterization: obsidian utilization of subsources of the Coso Volcanic Field, Coso Junction, California, USA,” Geoarchaeology 19, 779–805 (2004).

1998 (1)

R. M. Yohe, “The introduction of the bow and arrow and lithic resource use at Rose Spring (CA-INY-372),” J. California and Great Basin Anthropology 20, 26–52 (1998).

1993 (1)

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: An alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Sys. 18, 251–263 (1993).

1991 (1)

P. D. Bouey, “Recognizing the limits of archaeological applications of nondestructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidians,” Material Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 185, 309–320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (3)

R. E. Hughes, “The Coso Volcanic Field reexamined: implications for obsidian sourcing and hydration dating research,” Geoarchaeology 3, 253–265 (1988).

R. E. Hughes, “Archaeological significance of geochemical contrasts among southwestern New Mexico obsidians,” Texas J. of Sci. 40, 297–307 (1988).

M. S. Shackley, “Sources of archaeological obsidian in the southwest: an archaeological, petrological, and geochemical study,” Amer. Antiquity 53, 752–772 (1988).

1987 (1)

T. G. Baugh and F. W. Nelson, “New Mexico obsidian sources and exchange on the Southern Plains,” J. Field Archaeol. 14, 313–329 (1987).

1981 (1)

C. R. Bacon, R. Macdonald, R. L. Smith, and P. A. Baedecker, “Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10223–10241 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. A. Duffield, C. R. Bacon, and G. B. Dalrymple, “Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2381–2404 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

Alvey, D. C.

Bacon, C. R.

C. R. Bacon, R. Macdonald, R. L. Smith, and P. A. Baedecker, “Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10223–10241 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Duffield, C. R. Bacon, and G. B. Dalrymple, “Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2381–2404 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baedecker, P. A.

C. R. Bacon, R. Macdonald, R. L. Smith, and P. A. Baedecker, “Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10223–10241 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baron, D.

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

Baugh, T. G.

T. G. Baugh and F. W. Nelson, “New Mexico obsidian sources and exchange on the Southern Plains,” J. Field Archaeol. 14, 313–329 (1987).

Bouey, P. D.

P. D. Bouey, “Recognizing the limits of archaeological applications of nondestructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidians,” Material Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 185, 309–320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Braswell, G. E.

M. D. Glascock, G. E. Braswell, and R. H. Cobean, “A systematic approach to obsidian source characterization,” in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Methods and Theory, M. S. Shackley, ed., (Plenum, 1998), pp. 15–65.

Carmichael, I. S. E.

R. N. Jack and I. S. E. Carmichael, “The chemical fingerprinting of acid volcanic rocks,” California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 100, 17–32 (1969).

Chapman, R. H.

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Geology and ore deposits of the Bodie mining district, Mono County, California, California Department of Conservation,” Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 206 (1986).

Chesterman, C.

J. Ericson, T. Hagan, and C. Chesterman, “Prehistoric obsidian sources in California, II: Geological and geographic aspects,” in Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976), pp. 218–239.

Chesterman, C. W.

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Geology and ore deposits of the Bodie mining district, Mono County, California, California Department of Conservation,” Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 206 (1986).

Cobean, R. H.

M. D. Glascock, G. E. Braswell, and R. H. Cobean, “A systematic approach to obsidian source characterization,” in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Methods and Theory, M. S. Shackley, ed., (Plenum, 1998), pp. 15–65.

Collins, L. M.

D. C. Alvey, K. Morton, R. S. Harmon, J. L. Gottfried, J. J. Remus, L. M. Collins, and M A. Wise, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet,” Appl. Opt. 49, C168–C180 (2010).

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

Dalrymple, G. B.

W. A. Duffield, C. R. Bacon, and G. B. Dalrymple, “Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2381–2404 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davis, W. E.

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

de Jong, S.

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: An alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Sys. 18, 251–263 (1993).

DeLucia, F. C.

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 109–119 (2009).

Draucker, A. C.

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

A. C. Draucker, “Geochemical characterization of obsidian sub-sources from the Coso Range, California using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a tool for archaeological investigations,” M. S. Thesis (California State University Bakersfield, 2007).

Duffield, W. A.

W. A. Duffield, C. R. Bacon, and G. B. Dalrymple, “Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2381–2404 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dunsin, K.

J. J. Remus and K. Dunsin, “Robust validation of pattern classification methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (2012, in press).

East, L. J.

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eerkens, J. W.

J. W. Eerkens, and J. S. Rosenthal, “Are obsidian subsources meaningful units of analysis?: temporal and spatial patterning of subsources in the Coso Volcanic Field, southeastern California,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 21–29 (2004).

Erickson, J. E.

C. E. Singer and J. E. Erickson, “Quarry analysis at Bodie Hills, Mono County, California: A case study,” in Exchange Systems in Pre-History, T. K. Earle and J. E. Erickson eds. (Academic, 1977), pp. 171–188.

Ericson, J.

J. Ericson, T. Hagan, and C. Chesterman, “Prehistoric obsidian sources in California, II: Geological and geographic aspects,” in Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976), pp. 218–239.

Ericson, J. E.

J. E. Ericson and M. D. Glascock, “Subsource characterization: obsidian utilization of subsources of the Coso Volcanic Field, Coso Junction, California, USA,” Geoarchaeology 19, 779–805 (2004).

J. E. Ericson, Exchange and Production Systems in Californian Prehistory: the Results of Hydration Dating and Chemical Characterization of Obsidian Sources, British Archaeol. Reports Int. Series, 110 , (Archaeopress, 1981).

Ernst, W. G.

C. A. Nelson, C. A. Hall, and W. G. Ernst, “Geologic history of the White-Inyo Range,” in Natural History of the White Inyo-Range, Eastern California, C. A. Hall, ed. (University of California, 1991), pp. 42–74.

Glascock, M. D.

J. E. Ericson and M. D. Glascock, “Subsource characterization: obsidian utilization of subsources of the Coso Volcanic Field, Coso Junction, California, USA,” Geoarchaeology 19, 779–805 (2004).

M. D. Glascock, G. E. Braswell, and R. H. Cobean, “A systematic approach to obsidian source characterization,” in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Methods and Theory, M. S. Shackley, ed., (Plenum, 1998), pp. 15–65.

Gottfried, J. L.

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

D. C. Alvey, K. Morton, R. S. Harmon, J. L. Gottfried, J. J. Remus, L. M. Collins, and M A. Wise, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet,” Appl. Opt. 49, C168–C180 (2010).

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 109–119 (2009).

Gray, C. H.

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Geology and ore deposits of the Bodie mining district, Mono County, California, California Department of Conservation,” Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 206 (1986).

Hagan, T.

J. Ericson, T. Hagan, and C. Chesterman, “Prehistoric obsidian sources in California, II: Geological and geographic aspects,” in Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976), pp. 218–239.

Halford, F. K.

F. K. Halford, “Archaeology and Environment on the Dry Lakes Plateau, Bodie Hills, California: Hunter-Gatherer Coping Strategies for Holocene Environmental Variability,” Unpublished Masters Thesis, Univ. Nevada, Reno (1998).

F. K. Halford, “New evidence for acquisition and production of Bodie Hills obsidian,” Society for Calif. Archaeol. Newsletter35, 32–37 (2001).

F. K. Halford, “The Coleville and Bodie Hills NRCS Soil Inventory, Walker and Bridgeport, California: A Reevaluation of the Bodie Hills Obsidian Source and its Spatial and Chronological Use.” Report on file at the BLM Bishop Field Office (2008).

Hall, C. A.

C. A. Nelson, C. A. Hall, and W. G. Ernst, “Geologic history of the White-Inyo Range,” in Natural History of the White Inyo-Range, Eastern California, C. A. Hall, ed. (University of California, 1991), pp. 42–74.

Harbottle, G.

G. Harbottle, “Chemical characterization in archaeology,” in Contexts Prehistoric Exchange, J. E. Ericson and T. K. Earle, eds. (Academic, 1982), pp. 13–51.

Hark, R. R.

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harmon, R. S.

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Alvey, K. Morton, R. S. Harmon, J. L. Gottfried, J. J. Remus, L. M. Collins, and M A. Wise, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet,” Appl. Opt. 49, C168–C180 (2010).

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 109–119 (2009).

Heizer, R. F.

R. F. Heizer and A. E. Treganza, Mines and Quarries of the Indians of California (Ballena, 1972).

Hughes, R. E.

R. E. Hughes, “The Coso Volcanic Field reexamined: implications for obsidian sourcing and hydration dating research,” Geoarchaeology 3, 253–265 (1988).

R. E. Hughes, “Archaeological significance of geochemical contrasts among southwestern New Mexico obsidians,” Texas J. of Sci. 40, 297–307 (1988).

R. E. Hughes, “Obsidian sourcing studies in the Great Basin: problems and prospects,” in Obsidian Studies in the Great Basin (University of California Archaeological Research Facility, 1984), 45, pp. 1–19.

R. E. Hughes and R. L. Smith, “Archaeology, geology, and geochemistry in obsidian provenance studies,” in Effects of Scale on Archaeological and Geoscientific Perspectives, J. K. Stein and A. R. Linse, eds. (Geol. Soc. Am. Special Paper 283, 1993), pp. 79–91.

Jack, R. N.

R. N. Jack and I. S. E. Carmichael, “The chemical fingerprinting of acid volcanic rocks,” California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 100, 17–32 (1969).

Kleinhampl, F. J.

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

Macdonald, R.

C. R. Bacon, R. Macdonald, R. L. Smith, and P. A. Baedecker, “Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10223–10241 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McManus, C.

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

McMillan, N. J.

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

Meighan, C. W.

C. W. Meighan, “Notes on the Archaeology of Mono County,” Reports Univ. Calif. Archaeol. Survey28, 6–28 (1955).

Miziolek, A. W.

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 109–119 (2009).

Morton, K.

Nelson, C. A.

C. A. Nelson, C. A. Hall, and W. G. Ernst, “Geologic history of the White-Inyo Range,” in Natural History of the White Inyo-Range, Eastern California, C. A. Hall, ed. (University of California, 1991), pp. 42–74.

Nelson, F. W.

T. G. Baugh and F. W. Nelson, “New Mexico obsidian sources and exchange on the Southern Plains,” J. Field Archaeol. 14, 313–329 (1987).

Remus, J. J.

J. J. Remus and K. Dunsin, “Robust validation of pattern classification methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (2012, in press).

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Alvey, K. Morton, R. S. Harmon, J. L. Gottfried, J. J. Remus, L. M. Collins, and M A. Wise, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet,” Appl. Opt. 49, C168–C180 (2010).

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

Rosenthal, J. S.

J. W. Eerkens, and J. S. Rosenthal, “Are obsidian subsources meaningful units of analysis?: temporal and spatial patterning of subsources in the Coso Volcanic Field, southeastern California,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 21–29 (2004).

J. S. Rosenthal, The prehistory of the Sonora region: Archaeological and geoarchaeological investigations for the Stage I of the East Sonora Bypass Project, State Route 108, Tuolumne County, California (Draft Report submitted to California Department of Transportation, District 10 (2006).

Shackley, M. S.

M. S. Shackley, “Sources of archaeological obsidian in the southwest: an archaeological, petrological, and geochemical study,” Amer. Antiquity 53, 752–772 (1988).

Shughrue, K. M.

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silberman, M. L.

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

Singer, C. E.

C. E. Singer and J. E. Erickson, “Quarry analysis at Bodie Hills, Mono County, California: A case study,” in Exchange Systems in Pre-History, T. K. Earle and J. E. Erickson eds. (Academic, 1977), pp. 171–188.

Smith, R. L.

C. R. Bacon, R. Macdonald, R. L. Smith, and P. A. Baedecker, “Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10223–10241 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hughes and R. L. Smith, “Archaeology, geology, and geochemistry in obsidian provenance studies,” in Effects of Scale on Archaeological and Geoscientific Perspectives, J. K. Stein and A. R. Linse, eds. (Geol. Soc. Am. Special Paper 283, 1993), pp. 79–91.

Taylor, R. E.

R. E. Taylor, Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976).

Treganza, A. E.

R. F. Heizer and A. E. Treganza, Mines and Quarries of the Indians of California (Ballena, 1972).

Wise, M A.

Wise, M. A.

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yohe, R. M.

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

R. M. Yohe, “The introduction of the bow and arrow and lithic resource use at Rose Spring (CA-INY-372),” J. California and Great Basin Anthropology 20, 26–52 (1998).

Amer. Antiquity (1)

M. S. Shackley, “Sources of archaeological obsidian in the southwest: an archaeological, petrological, and geochemical study,” Amer. Antiquity 53, 752–772 (1988).

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

R. S. Harmon, K. M. Shughrue, J. J. Remus, M. A. Wise, L. J. East, and R. R. Hark, “Can the provenance of the conflict minerals columbite and tantalite be ascertained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy?,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 400, 3377–3382 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Geochem. (1)

R. S. Harmon, J. J. Remus, N. J. McMillan, C. McManus, L. M. Collins, J. L. Gottfried, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “LIBS analysis of geomaterials: Geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals,” Appl. Geochem. 24, 1125–1141 (2009).

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. J. Remus and K. Dunsin, “Robust validation of pattern classification methods for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. (2012, in press).

D. C. Alvey, K. Morton, R. S. Harmon, J. L. Gottfried, J. J. Remus, L. M. Collins, and M A. Wise, “Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based geochemical fingerprinting for the rapid analysis and discrimination of minerals: the example of garnet,” Appl. Opt. 49, C168–C180 (2010).

J. J. Remus, J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, A. C. Draucker, D. Baron, and R. M. Yohe, “Archaeological applications of LIBS: An example from the Coso Volcanic Field, CA using advanced statistical signal processing analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49, 120–131 (2010).

Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Sys. (1)

S. de Jong, “SIMPLS: An alternative approach to partial least squares regression,” Chemometr. Intell. Lab. Sys. 18, 251–263 (1993).

Geoarchaeology (2)

R. E. Hughes, “The Coso Volcanic Field reexamined: implications for obsidian sourcing and hydration dating research,” Geoarchaeology 3, 253–265 (1988).

J. E. Ericson and M. D. Glascock, “Subsource characterization: obsidian utilization of subsources of the Coso Volcanic Field, Coso Junction, California, USA,” Geoarchaeology 19, 779–805 (2004).

J. Archaeol. Sci. (1)

J. W. Eerkens, and J. S. Rosenthal, “Are obsidian subsources meaningful units of analysis?: temporal and spatial patterning of subsources in the Coso Volcanic Field, southeastern California,” J. Archaeol. Sci. 31, 21–29 (2004).

J. California and Great Basin Anthropology (1)

R. M. Yohe, “The introduction of the bow and arrow and lithic resource use at Rose Spring (CA-INY-372),” J. California and Great Basin Anthropology 20, 26–52 (1998).

J. Field Archaeol. (1)

T. G. Baugh and F. W. Nelson, “New Mexico obsidian sources and exchange on the Southern Plains,” J. Field Archaeol. 14, 313–329 (1987).

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

W. A. Duffield, C. R. Bacon, and G. B. Dalrymple, “Late Cenozoic volcanism, geochronology, and structure of the Coso Range, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2381–2404 (1980).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Bacon, R. Macdonald, R. L. Smith, and P. A. Baedecker, “Pleistocene high-silica rhyolites of the Coso volcanic field, Inyo County, California,” J. Geophys. Res. 86, 10223–10241 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Material Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

P. D. Bouey, “Recognizing the limits of archaeological applications of nondestructive energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis of obsidians,” Material Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 185, 309–320 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta B (1)

J. L. Gottfried, R. S. Harmon, F. C. DeLucia, and A. W. Miziolek, “Multivariate analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy chemical signatures for geomaterial classification,” Spectrochim. Acta B 64, 109–119 (2009).

Texas J. of Sci. (1)

R. E. Hughes, “Archaeological significance of geochemical contrasts among southwestern New Mexico obsidians,” Texas J. of Sci. 40, 297–307 (1988).

U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin (1)

F. J. Kleinhampl, W. E. Davis, M. L. Silberman, C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Aeromagnetic and limited gravity studies and generalized geology of the Bodie Hills region, Nevada and California,” U.S. Geologic Survey Bulletin 1384, (1975).

Other (20)

“Annual report of the state mineralogist for the year ending 1888,” 9th Annual Report of the State Mineralogist, California State Mining Bureau (1899).

C. W. Meighan, “Notes on the Archaeology of Mono County,” Reports Univ. Calif. Archaeol. Survey28, 6–28 (1955).

F. K. Halford, “The Coleville and Bodie Hills NRCS Soil Inventory, Walker and Bridgeport, California: A Reevaluation of the Bodie Hills Obsidian Source and its Spatial and Chronological Use.” Report on file at the BLM Bishop Field Office (2008).

R. N. Jack and I. S. E. Carmichael, “The chemical fingerprinting of acid volcanic rocks,” California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 100, 17–32 (1969).

F. K. Halford, “New evidence for acquisition and production of Bodie Hills obsidian,” Society for Calif. Archaeol. Newsletter35, 32–37 (2001).

A. C. Draucker, “Geochemical characterization of obsidian sub-sources from the Coso Range, California using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry as a tool for archaeological investigations,” M. S. Thesis (California State University Bakersfield, 2007).

R. E. Taylor, Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976).

G. Harbottle, “Chemical characterization in archaeology,” in Contexts Prehistoric Exchange, J. E. Ericson and T. K. Earle, eds. (Academic, 1982), pp. 13–51.

M. D. Glascock, G. E. Braswell, and R. H. Cobean, “A systematic approach to obsidian source characterization,” in Archaeological Obsidian Studies: Methods and Theory, M. S. Shackley, ed., (Plenum, 1998), pp. 15–65.

R. E. Hughes, “Obsidian sourcing studies in the Great Basin: problems and prospects,” in Obsidian Studies in the Great Basin (University of California Archaeological Research Facility, 1984), 45, pp. 1–19.

R. E. Hughes and R. L. Smith, “Archaeology, geology, and geochemistry in obsidian provenance studies,” in Effects of Scale on Archaeological and Geoscientific Perspectives, J. K. Stein and A. R. Linse, eds. (Geol. Soc. Am. Special Paper 283, 1993), pp. 79–91.

R. F. Heizer and A. E. Treganza, Mines and Quarries of the Indians of California (Ballena, 1972).

J. Ericson, T. Hagan, and C. Chesterman, “Prehistoric obsidian sources in California, II: Geological and geographic aspects,” in Advances in Obsidian Glass Studies: Archaeological and Geochemical Perspectives (Noyes, 1976), pp. 218–239.

J. E. Ericson, Exchange and Production Systems in Californian Prehistory: the Results of Hydration Dating and Chemical Characterization of Obsidian Sources, British Archaeol. Reports Int. Series, 110 , (Archaeopress, 1981).

Northwest Research Obsidian Studies Laboratory Source Catalog: http://www.sourcecatalog.com/ca/s_ca.html .

J. S. Rosenthal, The prehistory of the Sonora region: Archaeological and geoarchaeological investigations for the Stage I of the East Sonora Bypass Project, State Route 108, Tuolumne County, California (Draft Report submitted to California Department of Transportation, District 10 (2006).

C. E. Singer and J. E. Erickson, “Quarry analysis at Bodie Hills, Mono County, California: A case study,” in Exchange Systems in Pre-History, T. K. Earle and J. E. Erickson eds. (Academic, 1977), pp. 171–188.

F. K. Halford, “Archaeology and Environment on the Dry Lakes Plateau, Bodie Hills, California: Hunter-Gatherer Coping Strategies for Holocene Environmental Variability,” Unpublished Masters Thesis, Univ. Nevada, Reno (1998).

C. A. Nelson, C. A. Hall, and W. G. Ernst, “Geologic history of the White-Inyo Range,” in Natural History of the White Inyo-Range, Eastern California, C. A. Hall, ed. (University of California, 1991), pp. 42–74.

C. W. Chesterman, R. H. Chapman, and C. H. Gray, “Geology and ore deposits of the Bodie mining district, Mono County, California, California Department of Conservation,” Division of Mines and Geology, Bulletin 206 (1986).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The major obsidian fields of north-central California [14] sampled in this study.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of PLSDA discrimination performance using individual single-shot LIBS spectra (left) versus 10-shot averages (right) for the three obsidian classes (Coso, Bodie Hills, and Other).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Comparison of classification performance between Coso and Bodie Hills individual and averaged shots from each spectral band to the corresponding “stitched” results in which the emission spectra 350±130nm and 690±115nm spectral windows are combined.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Comparison of classification performance in discriminating the eight recognized Coso subsources. The figure on the left shows the analysis using the individual laser shots for the two spectral windows (350±130nm and 690±115nm), whereas that on the right represents the analysis for the data averaged into 10-shot groups.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of classification performance in discriminating the eight recognized Coso subsources. The figures on the left compare the classification performance for the 350±130nm spectral window for the individual laser shots (top) and the combined spectra (bottom), whereas the figures on the right compare the classification performance for the 690±115nm spectral window for the individual laser shots (top) and the combined spectra (bottom).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of classification performance in discriminating the eight recognized Coso subsources. The figure on the left shows the analysis using the individual laser shots for the two spectral windows (350±130nm and 690±115nm), whereas that on the right represents the analysis for the data averaged into 10-shot groups.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. List of obsidian sites in north-central California sampled in this study showing the main source designation and the associated subsources

Tables Icon

Table 2. Comparison of individual and averaged spectra results for each spectral band and decision-level fusion

Metrics