Abstract

A new method for noise power factor determination of microchannel plates (MCPs) is described in this paper. The new measuring condition and specific measuring instrument are reported. The system consists of a vacuum chamber, an electron gun, a high-voltage supply, an imaging luminance meter, control units, a signal processing circuit, an A/D converter, a D/A converter, a communication unit, an industrial computer, and measurement software. This measuring method fills a void in measuring technology for the noise factor of MCPs, and it can make a scientific assessment of MCP noise characteristics and provide theoretical direction and technology support for the research and development of high-performance low light level (LLL) devices.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. N. Laprade, S. T. Reinhart, and M. Wheeler, “Low-noise-figure microchannel plate optimized for Gen III image intensification systems,” Proc. SPIE 1243, 162–172 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. G. McCammon, K. G. Hagans, and A. K. Hankla, “Noise performance of microchannel plate imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 1346, 398–403 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. B. Leonov, M. N. Toiseva, A. M. Tyutikov, and N. A. Shishatskii, “Measurement of the noise of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 48, 740–744 (1981).
  4. S. K. Kulov, N. B. Leonov, M. P. Polyanskii, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Accuracy of measuring the noise factor of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 285–287 (1992).
  5. C. Clamberlini, G. Longobardi, P. L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, “New approach to noise factor measurement of imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 33, 845–849 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Bai, W. Qian, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Analysis and study on the stadia of low light level imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5633, 460–469 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Yayi and T. Zhaomin, “Theoretical analysis of MCP noise factor,” J. Electron. 15, 655–658 (1993).
  8. Y. Qian, B. Chang, M. Tong, and L. Liu, “Frequency spectrum measurement of noise of image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4796, 100–106 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

2007

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

2005

L. Bai, W. Qian, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Analysis and study on the stadia of low light level imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5633, 460–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. Qian, B. Chang, M. Tong, and L. Liu, “Frequency spectrum measurement of noise of image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4796, 100–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1994

C. Clamberlini, G. Longobardi, P. L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, “New approach to noise factor measurement of imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 33, 845–849 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

W. Yayi and T. Zhaomin, “Theoretical analysis of MCP noise factor,” J. Electron. 15, 655–658 (1993).

1992

S. K. Kulov, N. B. Leonov, M. P. Polyanskii, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Accuracy of measuring the noise factor of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 285–287 (1992).

1991

K. G. McCammon, K. G. Hagans, and A. K. Hankla, “Noise performance of microchannel plate imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 1346, 398–403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

B. N. Laprade, S. T. Reinhart, and M. Wheeler, “Low-noise-figure microchannel plate optimized for Gen III image intensification systems,” Proc. SPIE 1243, 162–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981

N. B. Leonov, M. N. Toiseva, A. M. Tyutikov, and N. A. Shishatskii, “Measurement of the noise of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 48, 740–744 (1981).

Bai, L.

L. Bai, W. Qian, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Analysis and study on the stadia of low light level imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5633, 460–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, B.

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

Y. Qian, B. Chang, M. Tong, and L. Liu, “Frequency spectrum measurement of noise of image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4796, 100–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clamberlini, C.

C. Clamberlini, G. Longobardi, P. L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, “New approach to noise factor measurement of imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 33, 845–849 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fu, R.

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

Gao, Y.

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

Hagans, K. G.

K. G. McCammon, K. G. Hagans, and A. K. Hankla, “Noise performance of microchannel plate imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 1346, 398–403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hankla, A. K.

K. G. McCammon, K. G. Hagans, and A. K. Hankla, “Noise performance of microchannel plate imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 1346, 398–403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kulov, S. K.

S. K. Kulov, N. B. Leonov, M. P. Polyanskii, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Accuracy of measuring the noise factor of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 285–287 (1992).

Laprade, B. N.

B. N. Laprade, S. T. Reinhart, and M. Wheeler, “Low-noise-figure microchannel plate optimized for Gen III image intensification systems,” Proc. SPIE 1243, 162–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leonov, N. B.

S. K. Kulov, N. B. Leonov, M. P. Polyanskii, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Accuracy of measuring the noise factor of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 285–287 (1992).

N. B. Leonov, M. N. Toiseva, A. M. Tyutikov, and N. A. Shishatskii, “Measurement of the noise of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 48, 740–744 (1981).

Liu, L.

Y. Qian, B. Chang, M. Tong, and L. Liu, “Frequency spectrum measurement of noise of image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4796, 100–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Longobardi, G.

C. Clamberlini, G. Longobardi, P. L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, “New approach to noise factor measurement of imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 33, 845–849 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McCammon, K. G.

K. G. McCammon, K. G. Hagans, and A. K. Hankla, “Noise performance of microchannel plate imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 1346, 398–403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Polyanskii, M. P.

S. K. Kulov, N. B. Leonov, M. P. Polyanskii, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Accuracy of measuring the noise factor of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 285–287 (1992).

Qian, W.

L. Bai, W. Qian, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Analysis and study on the stadia of low light level imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5633, 460–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, Y.

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

Y. Qian, B. Chang, M. Tong, and L. Liu, “Frequency spectrum measurement of noise of image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4796, 100–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

Ramazza, P. L.

C. Clamberlini, G. Longobardi, P. L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, “New approach to noise factor measurement of imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 33, 845–849 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reinhart, S. T.

B. N. Laprade, S. T. Reinhart, and M. Wheeler, “Low-noise-figure microchannel plate optimized for Gen III image intensification systems,” Proc. SPIE 1243, 162–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

C. Clamberlini, G. Longobardi, P. L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, “New approach to noise factor measurement of imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 33, 845–849 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shishatskii, N. A.

N. B. Leonov, M. N. Toiseva, A. M. Tyutikov, and N. A. Shishatskii, “Measurement of the noise of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 48, 740–744 (1981).

Si, T.

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

Toiseva, M. N.

N. B. Leonov, M. N. Toiseva, A. M. Tyutikov, and N. A. Shishatskii, “Measurement of the noise of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 48, 740–744 (1981).

Tong, M.

Y. Qian, B. Chang, M. Tong, and L. Liu, “Frequency spectrum measurement of noise of image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4796, 100–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tyutikov, A. M.

S. K. Kulov, N. B. Leonov, M. P. Polyanskii, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Accuracy of measuring the noise factor of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 285–287 (1992).

N. B. Leonov, M. N. Toiseva, A. M. Tyutikov, and N. A. Shishatskii, “Measurement of the noise of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 48, 740–744 (1981).

Wheeler, M.

B. N. Laprade, S. T. Reinhart, and M. Wheeler, “Low-noise-figure microchannel plate optimized for Gen III image intensification systems,” Proc. SPIE 1243, 162–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yayi, W.

W. Yayi and T. Zhaomin, “Theoretical analysis of MCP noise factor,” J. Electron. 15, 655–658 (1993).

Zhang, B.

L. Bai, W. Qian, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Analysis and study on the stadia of low light level imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5633, 460–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

L. Bai, W. Qian, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Analysis and study on the stadia of low light level imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5633, 460–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhaomin, T.

W. Yayi and T. Zhaomin, “Theoretical analysis of MCP noise factor,” J. Electron. 15, 655–658 (1993).

Proc. SPIE

K. G. McCammon, K. G. Hagans, and A. K. Hankla, “Noise performance of microchannel plate imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 1346, 398–403 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron.

W. Yayi and T. Zhaomin, “Theoretical analysis of MCP noise factor,” J. Electron. 15, 655–658 (1993).

Opt. Eng.

C. Clamberlini, G. Longobardi, P. L. Ramazza, and S. Residori, “New approach to noise factor measurement of imaging devices,” Opt. Eng. 33, 845–849 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

L. Bai, W. Qian, Y. Zhang, and B. Zhang, “Analysis and study on the stadia of low light level imaging system,” Proc. SPIE 5633, 460–469 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qian, B. Chang, M. Tong, and L. Liu, “Frequency spectrum measurement of noise of image intensifiers,” Proc. SPIE 4796, 100–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Qiu, B. Chang, Y. Qian, R. Fu, Y. Gao, and T. Si, “Model for the brightness uniformity of fluorescence screen of image intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 6279, 62792F1–62792F6 (2007).

B. N. Laprade, S. T. Reinhart, and M. Wheeler, “Low-noise-figure microchannel plate optimized for Gen III image intensification systems,” Proc. SPIE 1243, 162–172 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Opt. Technol.

N. B. Leonov, M. N. Toiseva, A. M. Tyutikov, and N. A. Shishatskii, “Measurement of the noise of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 48, 740–744 (1981).

S. K. Kulov, N. B. Leonov, M. P. Polyanskii, and A. M. Tyutikov, “Accuracy of measuring the noise factor of microchannel plates,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 59, 285–287 (1992).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The principle diagram of the MCP noise factor measuring system.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

MCP noise factor measuring system.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The thermion surface emitting source.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Software interface of the MCP noise factor measuring system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Interface of input SNR measurements.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Interface of database operation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The Measurement Result of the Noise Factor in MCP Measurements Condition; Filament Current: 2400 mA, Bandwidth: 10 Hz

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NF=(S/N)in(S/N)out,
(S/N)in=SinSin0Nin2Nin02,
(S/N)out=SoutSout0Nout2Nout02,

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