Abstract

In this paper we describe the system integration and the experimental demonstration of a photonically beamformed four-element receiving array antenna for radio astronomy applications. To our knowledge, the work described here is the first demonstration of the squint-free, continuously tunable beamsteering capability offered by an integrated photonic beamformer based on optical ring resonator true-time-delay units, with measured radiation patterns. The integrated beamformer is realized in a low loss, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible optical waveguide technology. The measurements show a wideband, continuous beamsteering operation over a steering angle of 23.5 degrees and an instantaneous bandwidth of 500 MHz limited only by the measurement setup.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

G. W. Kant, P. D. Patel, S. J. Wijnholds, M. Ruiter, and E. van der Wal, “EMBRACE: A multi-beam 20,000-element radio astronomical phased array antenna demonstrator,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 1990–2003 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhuang, D. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 19, 23162–23170(2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, “Microwave photonic delay line with separate tuning of the optical carrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1686–1688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Mengual, B. Martnez, B. Vidal, and J. Marti, “Wide-band nulling system for antenna array based on a photonic microwave filter and optical delay lines,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3878–3882 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Quang Thai, A. Alphones, and D. R. Lim, “Limitations by group delay ripple on optical beam-forming with chirped fiber grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 5619–5625(2009).

2008

2007

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. C. van Etten, “Single-chip ring resonator-based 1×8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1130–1132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J. L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M. S. Choi, J. H. van den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, and J. L. Dexter, “Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 861–867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Blanc, M. Alouini, K. Garenaux, M. Queguiner, and T. Merlet, “Optical multibeamforming network based on WDM and dispersion fiber in receive mode,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 402–411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Seeds and K. J. Williams, “Microwave photonics,” IEEE J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 4628–4641 (2006).

2005

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Grosskopf, R. Eggemann, H. Ehlers, A. Kortke, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, D. Rohde, and S. Zinal, “Maximum directivity beam-former at 60 GHz with optical feeder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3040–3046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Akiyama, K. Inagaki, T. Ohira, and M. Hikita, “Two-dimensional optical signal-processing beamformer using multilayer polymeric optical waveguide arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2055–2061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, “Optical delay lines based on optical filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525–532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, and D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, and J. M. Fuster, “Optical up-conversion on continuously variable true-time-delay lines based on chirped fiber gratings for millimeter-wave optical beamforming networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1315–1320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Matthews, P. Liu, J. B. Medberry, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of a wide-band fiber-optic nulling system for array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1327–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

D. T. K. Tong and M. C. Wu, “Multiwavelength optically controlled phased-array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 46, 108–115 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. A. Minasian and K. E. Alameh, “Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1513–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, and J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Goutzoulis and J. M. Zomp, “Development and field demonstration of an eight-element receive wavelength-multiplexed true-time-delay steering system,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7315–7326 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingston, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, and M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1978

K. Daikoku and A. Sugimura, “Direct measurement of wavelength dispersion in optical fibres-difference method,” Electron. Lett. 14, 149–151 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1964

M. Tiuri, “Radio astronomy receivers,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 12, 930–938 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E. I.

N. M. Froberg, E. I. Ackerman, and C. H. Cox, “Analysis of signal to noise ratio in photonic beamformers,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference 2006 (IEEE, 2006).

Akaishi, A.

H. Matsuzawa, T. Akiyama, H. Sumiyoshi, T. Iguchi, M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, Y. Fujino, A. Akaishi, and R. Suzuki, “Variable spot scanning antenna using optically controlled beam forming network,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 35–38.

Akiyama, T.

T. Akiyama, K. Inagaki, T. Ohira, and M. Hikita, “Two-dimensional optical signal-processing beamformer using multilayer polymeric optical waveguide arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2055–2061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Matsuzawa, T. Akiyama, H. Sumiyoshi, T. Iguchi, M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, Y. Fujino, A. Akaishi, and R. Suzuki, “Variable spot scanning antenna using optically controlled beam forming network,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 35–38.

Alameh, K. E.

R. A. Minasian and K. E. Alameh, “Optical-fiber grating-based beamforming network for microwave phased arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1513–1518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Alouini, M.

S. Blanc, M. Alouini, K. Garenaux, M. Queguiner, and T. Merlet, “Optical multibeamforming network based on WDM and dispersion fiber in receive mode,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 402–411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alphones, A.

Andres, M. V.

B. Ortega, J. L. Cruz, J. Capmany, M. V. Andres, and D. Pastor, “Variable delay line for phased-array antenna based on a chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 48, 1352–1360 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, J.

Beeker, W.

Beeker, W. P.

D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Burla, C. Roeloffzen, J. Verpoorte, H. Schippers, A. Hulzinga, P. Jorna, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. Heideman, B. Noharet, Q. Wang, and B. Sanadgol, “Towards a broadband and squint-free Ku band phased array antenna system for airborne satellite communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2274–2778.

Benjamin, R.

R. Benjamin and A. J. Seeds, “Optical beam forming techniques for phased array antennas,” in IEEE Proceedings on Microwaves, Antennas and Propagation (IEEE, 1992), pp. 526–534.

Bennion, I.

A. Molony, L. Zhang, J. A. R. Williams, I. Bennion, C. Edge, and J. Fells, “Fiber Bragg-grating true time-delay systems: discrete-grating array 3-b delay lines and chirped-grating 6-b delay lines,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 45, 1527–1530 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bente, E. A. J. M.

M. K. Smit, Y. S. Oei, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, J. H. Wolter, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, van der Tol, M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, and J. J. M. Binsma, “Photonic integrated circuits: where are the limits?,” in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB1.

Bentum, M. J.

Berger, P.

Binsma, J. J. M.

M. K. Smit, Y. S. Oei, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, J. H. Wolter, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, van der Tol, M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, and J. J. M. Binsma, “Photonic integrated circuits: where are the limits?,” in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB1.

Bird, T. S.

D. B. Hayman, T. S. Bird, K. P. Esselle, and P. J. Hall, “Experimental demonstration of focal plane array beamforming in a prototype radiotelescope,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 58, 1922–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blanc, S.

S. Blanc, M. Alouini, K. Garenaux, M. Queguiner, and T. Merlet, “Optical multibeamforming network based on WDM and dispersion fiber in receive mode,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 402–411 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blanch, S.

L. Jofre, C. Stoltidou, S. Blanch, T. Mengual, B. Vidal, J. Marti, I. McKenzie, and J. M. del Cura, “Optically beamformed wideband array performance,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56 , 1594–1604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Borreman, A.

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. C. van Etten, “Single-chip ring resonator-based 1×8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1130–1132 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bostak, J. S.

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L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 19–31 (2010).

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L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 19–31 (2010).

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, P. Maat, K. Dijkstra, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “Squint-free beamsteering demonstration using a photonic integrated beamformer based on optical ring resonators,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 401–404.

Huignard, J. P.

Hulzinga, A.

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3–18(2010).

D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Burla, C. Roeloffzen, J. Verpoorte, H. Schippers, A. Hulzinga, P. Jorna, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. Heideman, B. Noharet, Q. Wang, and B. Sanadgol, “Towards a broadband and squint-free Ku band phased array antenna system for airborne satellite communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2274–2778.

Hunter, D. B.

D. B. Hunter, M. E. Parker, and J. L. Dexter, “Demonstration of a continuously variable true-time delay beamformer using a multichannel chirped fiber grating,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 861–867 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iguchi, T.

H. Matsuzawa, T. Akiyama, H. Sumiyoshi, T. Iguchi, M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, Y. Fujino, A. Akaishi, and R. Suzuki, “Variable spot scanning antenna using optically controlled beam forming network,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 35–38.

Inagaki, K.

T. Akiyama, K. Inagaki, T. Ohira, and M. Hikita, “Two-dimensional optical signal-processing beamformer using multilayer polymeric optical waveguide arrays,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 49, 2055–2061 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, P.

Jofre, L.

L. Jofre, C. Stoltidou, S. Blanch, T. Mengual, B. Vidal, J. Marti, I. McKenzie, and J. M. del Cura, “Optically beamformed wideband array performance,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56 , 1594–1604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jones, V. I.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingston, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, and M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jorna, P.

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3–18(2010).

D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Burla, C. Roeloffzen, J. Verpoorte, H. Schippers, A. Hulzinga, P. Jorna, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. Heideman, B. Noharet, Q. Wang, and B. Sanadgol, “Towards a broadband and squint-free Ku band phased array antenna system for airborne satellite communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2274–2778.

Joyner, C. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
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Kant, D. W.

P. D. Patel, D. W. Kant, E. Wal, and A. van Ardenne, “Phased array antennas demonstrator as a radio telescope—EMBRACE,” in Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium 2008 (IEEE, 2008), p. 14.

Kant, G. W.

G. W. Kant, P. D. Patel, S. J. Wijnholds, M. Ruiter, and E. van der Wal, “EMBRACE: A multi-beam 20,000-element radio astronomical phased array antenna demonstrator,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 1990–2003 (2011).
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M. K. Smit, Y. S. Oei, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, J. H. Wolter, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, van der Tol, M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, and J. J. M. Binsma, “Photonic integrated circuits: where are the limits?,” in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB1.

Kasper, A.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kauffman, M.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. R. H.

M. Burla, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. R. H. Khan, and W. van Etten, “A novel design procedure for minimum RF phase error in optical ring resonator based integrated optical beamformers for phased array antennas,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Benelux 2010 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 245–248.

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, P. Maat, K. Dijkstra, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “Squint-free beamsteering demonstration using a photonic integrated beamformer based on optical ring resonators,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 401–404.

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, L. Zhuang, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Multiwavelength optical beam forming network with ring resonator-based binary-tree architecture for broadband phased array antenna systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Benelux Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 99–102.

Khoe, G. D.

M. K. Smit, Y. S. Oei, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, J. H. Wolter, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, van der Tol, M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, and J. J. M. Binsma, “Photonic integrated circuits: where are the limits?,” in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB1.

Khurgin, J. B.

P. A. Morton and J. B. Khurgin, “Microwave photonic delay line with separate tuning of the optical carrier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 1686–1688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kish, F. A.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Klein, E. J.

R. G. Heideman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, W. van Etten, E. J. Klein, and A. Driessen, “Low loss, high contrast optical waveguides based on CMOS compatible LPCVD processing,” in Proceedings of 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics (IEEE, 2007).

Kortke, A.

G. Grosskopf, R. Eggemann, H. Ehlers, A. Kortke, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, D. Rohde, and S. Zinal, “Maximum directivity beam-former at 60 GHz with optical feeder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3040–3046 (2003).
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G. Grosskopf, R. Eggemann, H. Ehlers, A. Kortke, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, D. Rohde, and S. Zinal, “Maximum directivity beam-former at 60 GHz with optical feeder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3040–3046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, D. J. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E. J.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Grange, J.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. J.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingston, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, and M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

M. K. Smit, Y. S. Oei, F. Karouta, R. Nötzel, J. H. Wolter, E. A. J. M. Bente, X. J. M. Leijtens, van der Tol, M. T. Hill, H. J. S. Dorren, G. D. Khoe, and J. J. M. Binsma, “Photonic integrated circuits: where are the limits?,” in Integrated Photonics Research and Applications Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2005), paper IWB1.

Leinse, A.

L. Zhuang, D. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 19, 23162–23170(2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 19–31 (2010).

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, P. Maat, K. Dijkstra, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “Squint-free beamsteering demonstration using a photonic integrated beamformer based on optical ring resonators,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 401–404.

R. G. Heideman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, W. van Etten, E. J. Klein, and A. Driessen, “Low loss, high contrast optical waveguides based on CMOS compatible LPCVD processing,” in Proceedings of 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics (IEEE, 2007).

D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Burla, C. Roeloffzen, J. Verpoorte, H. Schippers, A. Hulzinga, P. Jorna, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. Heideman, B. Noharet, Q. Wang, and B. Sanadgol, “Towards a broadband and squint-free Ku band phased array antenna system for airborne satellite communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2274–2778.

Lenz, G.

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, “Optical delay lines based on optical filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525–532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, J. B.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingston, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, and M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

Liu, P.

P. J. Matthews, P. Liu, J. B. Medberry, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of a wide-band fiber-optic nulling system for array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1327–1331 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Livingston, S.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingston, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, and M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Loo, R. Y.

J. J. Lee, R. Y. Loo, S. Livingston, V. I. Jones, J. B. Lewis, H. W. Yen, G. L. Tangonan, and M. Wechsberg, “Photonic wideband array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 43, 966–982 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, J.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J. L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M. S. Choi, J. H. van den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maat, P.

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, P. Maat, K. Dijkstra, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “Squint-free beamsteering demonstration using a photonic integrated beamformer based on optical ring resonators,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 401–404.

Madsen, C. K.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Lenz, B. J. Eggleton, C. K. Madsen, and R. E. Slusher, “Optical delay lines based on optical filters,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 525–532 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach (Wiley, 1999).

Marceaux, A.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J. L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M. S. Choi, J. H. van den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements(Academic, 1981), pp. 279–281.

Marpaung, D.

L. Zhuang, D. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si3N4/SiO2optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express 19, 23162–23170(2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, M. Burla, C. Roeloffzen, J. Verpoorte, H. Schippers, A. Hulzinga, P. Jorna, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. Heideman, B. Noharet, Q. Wang, and B. Sanadgol, “Towards a broadband and squint-free Ku band phased array antenna system for airborne satellite communications,” in Proceedings of the Fifth European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (IEEE, 2011), pp. 2274–2778.

Marpaung, D. A. I.

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 19–31 (2010).

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3–18(2010).

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, P. Maat, K. Dijkstra, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “Squint-free beamsteering demonstration using a photonic integrated beamformer based on optical ring resonators,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 401–404.

M. Burla, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. R. H. Khan, and W. van Etten, “A novel design procedure for minimum RF phase error in optical ring resonator based integrated optical beamformers for phased array antennas,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Benelux 2010 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 245–248.

Marti, J.

T. Mengual, B. Martnez, B. Vidal, and J. Marti, “Wide-band nulling system for antenna array based on a photonic microwave filter and optical delay lines,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3878–3882 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Jofre, C. Stoltidou, S. Blanch, T. Mengual, B. Vidal, J. Marti, I. McKenzie, and J. M. del Cura, “Optically beamformed wideband array performance,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 56 , 1594–1604 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J. L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M. S. Choi, J. H. van den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Corral, J. Marti, and J. M. Fuster, “Optical up-conversion on continuously variable true-time-delay lines based on chirped fiber gratings for millimeter-wave optical beamforming networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1315–1320 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. M.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J. L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M. S. Choi, J. H. van den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887–899 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martnez, B.

T. Mengual, B. Martnez, B. Vidal, and J. Marti, “Wide-band nulling system for antenna array based on a photonic microwave filter and optical delay lines,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3878–3882 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mathis, S. K.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mathur, A.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzawa, H.

H. Matsuzawa, T. Akiyama, H. Sumiyoshi, T. Iguchi, M. Nagase, Y. Shoji, Y. Fujino, A. Akaishi, and R. Suzuki, “Variable spot scanning antenna using optically controlled beam forming network,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 35–38.

Matthews, P. J.

P. J. Matthews, P. Liu, J. B. Medberry, M. Y. Frankel, and R. D. Esman, “Demonstration of a wide-band fiber-optic nulling system for array antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 1327–1331 (1999).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
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Patel, S. S.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834–836 (2005).
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Perkins, D.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
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Peters, F. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
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Piironen, P.

R. Palacio, F. Deborgies, and P. Piironen, “Optical distribution of microwave signals for Earth observation satellites,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 74–77.

Piqueras, M. A.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J. L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M. S. Choi, J. H. van den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887–899 (2006).
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Pleumeekers, J. L.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
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Polo, V.

M. A. Piqueras, G. Grosskopf, B. Vidal, J. Herrera, J. M. Martinez, P. Sanchis, V. Polo, J. L. Corral, A. Marceaux, J. Galiere, J. Lopez, A. Enard, J. L. Valard, O. Parillaud, E. Estebe, N. Vodjdani, M. S. Choi, J. H. van den Besten, F. M. Soares, M. K. Smit, and J. Marti, “Optically beamformed beam-switched adaptive antennas for fixed and mobile broad-band wireless access networks,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 887–899 (2006).
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G. Grosskopf, R. Eggemann, H. Ehlers, A. Kortke, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, D. Rohde, and S. Zinal, “Maximum directivity beam-former at 60 GHz with optical feeder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3040–3046 (2003).
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Quang Thai, P.

Queguiner, M.

S. Blanc, M. Alouini, K. Garenaux, M. Queguiner, and T. Merlet, “Optical multibeamforming network based on WDM and dispersion fiber in receive mode,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 54, 402–411 (2006).
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Rasras, M. S.

M. S. Rasras, C. K. Madsen, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. T. Gomez, E. J. Laskowski, A. Griffin, A. Wong-Foy, A. Gasparyan, A. Kasper, J. Le Grange, and S. S. Patel, “Integrated resonance-enhanced variable optical delay lines,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 834–836 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reffle, M. S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, H. Tsai, M. F. Van Leeuwen, J. Webjorn, M. Ziari, D. Perkins, J. Singh, S. G. Grubb, M. S. Reffle, D. G. Mehuys, F. A. Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 50–65 (2005).
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Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. J. Bentum, M. Burla, J. Verpoorte, P. Jorna, A. Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part I: Design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3–18(2010).

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased array receive antennas—Part II: Experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 19–31 (2010).

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Borreman, A. Meijerink, and W. C. van Etten, “Single-chip ring resonator-based 1×8 optical beam forming network in CMOS-compatible waveguide technology,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1130–1132 (2007).
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M. Burla, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. R. H. Khan, and W. van Etten, “A novel design procedure for minimum RF phase error in optical ring resonator based integrated optical beamformers for phased array antennas,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Benelux 2010 (IEEE, 2010), pp. 245–248.

R. G. Heideman, D. H. Geuzebroek, A. Leinse, A. Melloni, F. Morichetti, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, L. Zhuang, W. van Etten, E. J. Klein, and A. Driessen, “Low loss, high contrast optical waveguides based on CMOS compatible LPCVD processing,” in Proceedings of 13th European Conference on Integrated Optics (IEEE, 2007).

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, P. Maat, K. Dijkstra, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “Squint-free beamsteering demonstration using a photonic integrated beamformer based on optical ring resonators,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2010), pp. 401–404.

M. Burla, M. R. H. Khan, L. Zhuang, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Multiwavelength optical beam forming network with ring resonator-based binary-tree architecture for broadband phased array antenna systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS Benelux Symposium (IEEE, 2008), pp. 99–102.

Rohde, D.

G. Grosskopf, R. Eggemann, H. Ehlers, A. Kortke, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, D. Rohde, and S. Zinal, “Maximum directivity beam-former at 60 GHz with optical feeder,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 51, 3040–3046 (2003).
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Ruiter, M.

G. W. Kant, P. D. Patel, S. J. Wijnholds, M. Ruiter, and E. van der Wal, “EMBRACE: A multi-beam 20,000-element radio astronomical phased array antenna demonstrator,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 59, 1990–2003 (2011).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Phase response comparison: single ORR (solid), 3 ORRs (dotted), ideal delay line (dashed). In the insets: schematics of the single and multiple ORR delay elements.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

16×1 OBFN schematic (right), corresponding to a 4×4 planar array (left). The position of the ORR delay elements, optical phase shifters, and combiners and their connections are displayed.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Overview of the 16×1 OBFN chip layout (13×70mm). Waveguides, heaters for electro-optical tuning, bond pads, and lines for electrical control are visible. The insets provide a closer view of the tunable combiner (a), of the phase shifter, and of the ORR (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photograph of the packaged chip (a) with electrical (b) and optical (c) connections. The fiber array unit (d) and the copper block used as support and heat sink (e) are also visible.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic representation of the antenna tile: 3D view (left), front view (right). The complete tile is built out of six individual printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the front view, each diagonal segment represents one of the Vivaldi antenna elements. The 16 numbered elements are the ones that have been connected to the photonic subsystem (4×4 rectangular subarray). The four-element linear subarray used for the demonstration is the one surrounded by the dashed line (1×4 linear subarray—active subarray). Its position and orientation with respect to the complete tile are visible here. (3D view: edited from http://www.skads-eu.org).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Setup used in the radiation pattern measurements.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Detail of the back side of the antenna tile. The discrete optical components are mounted on the same PCB as the LNAs (a). Note the modulators (b), the reels (c) for the mechanical support of the fibers, and the panels (d) supporting the optical connectors.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

16×1 OBFN schematic. Numbering of inputs, optical combiners, and ORRs is indicated.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Integrated system mounted in the antenna test range. Left, near-field two-axes scanning probe (a). Right, vertically mounted integrated antenna demonstrator (b, c, d). Different parts of the integrated system are visible. Back side of the antenna tile with integrated RF photonic devices (b). The OBFN chip is inserted in the transparent box visible on the back side of the integrated demonstrator (c). OBFN control electronics (d).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured (thick lines) versus simulated (thin solid lines) radiation patterns (E-plane) for three different pointing angles of the main beam: 0 degrees (top), 11.5 degrees (center), and 23.5 degrees (bottom). The measurements are also compared with the patterns that would be obtained in case phase shifters are used (dashed lines). Measurements at four frequencies (left to right: 1000 MHz, 1150 MHz, 1300 MHz, 1500 MHz) show the absence of beam squinting for the main lobe (indicated by the arrows) over the whole frequency range. Note the shift to the right of the leftmost null of radiation and the irregular shape assumed by the main lobe, in several of the measured patterns, as a consequence of parasitic effects in the measurement setup.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Beam analysis: the measured beam patterns (thick solid lines+dots) are observed and compared with simulations in the elevation range less affected by parasitic effects (20 to +60 degrees). The comparison shows that the shape of the main lobe and the position of the sidelobes of the measured patterns coincide with the ideal true-time-delay patterns (thin solid lines) and do not show the squint effect suffered by phase shifter based beamforming (dashed lines). This result shows the absence of beam squinting and the utility of true-time-delay beamforming.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Beam analysis: (a) the asymmetry in the main lobe of radiation caused by parasitic effects (solid line) can be compensated by interpolation (dotted line). (b) The interpolated beams (solid lines) are overlaid on the same angular scale to evaluate the pointing direction at different frequencies, and for comparison with the beams that would be obtained using phase shifters (dashed lines). (c) The pointing direction versus frequency shows a very limited amount of squint when compared to the one that would be obtained using a beamformer based on phase shifters.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F(ϑ,ϕ)=i=1NCiexp(jαi+jk0αr·ri).
αi=k0Li=2πfc0Li,
Δτ=dcos(ϑ)c0.
Δϕf=2πΔτT=2πfΔτ.

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