Abstract

This paper demonstrates replication of ultrafast laser-induced micro/nano surface textures on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The surface texture replication process reduces the processing steps for microtexturing while improving light trapping. Two methods are demonstrated to replicate surface microtexture, a simple mold method and an embossing method. The laser microtextured silicon and titanium surfaces with micro to nanoscale features have been successfully replicated. Optical characterization of the replicated microtextured PDMS surfaces is performed and the results agree with model predictions. The replicated microtextured PDMS film is applied on a silicon surface and optical characterization shows that surface reflectance can be suppressed over 55% compared to the control value.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.
  2. J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “22.7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1495–1497 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Gee, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, R. Gordon, and H. Liang, “Reflectance control for multicrystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules using textured-dielectric coatings,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1274–1277.
  4. M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Gee, W. K. Schubert, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, and G. Robison, “The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1555–1558.
  7. D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2251–2257 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Yoo, G. Yu, and J. Yi, “Black surface structures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159, 333–337 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. N. Vinod and M. Lal, “Surface and optical characterization of the porous silicon textured surface,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16, 1–6 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.
  15. M. Tucci, R. De Rosa, and F. Roca, “CF4/O2 dry etching of textured crystalline silicon surface in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 69, 175–185 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Y. Chen, W.-L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19, 14411–14419 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Nam, J. Lee, and K.-K. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of solar cells by importing microdome-shaped anti-reflective structures as a surface protection layer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2314–2318 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  19. N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Y. Chen, W.-L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19, 14411–14419 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nanostructures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

2011 (6)

J. Y. Chen, W.-L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19, 14411–14419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nam, J. Lee, and K.-K. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of solar cells by importing microdome-shaped anti-reflective structures as a surface protection layer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2314–2318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Chen, W.-L. Chang, C. K. Huang, and K. W. Sun, “Biomimetic nanostructured antireflection coating and its application on crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 19, 14411–14419 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nanostructures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. Yoo, G. Yu, and J. Yi, “Black surface structures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159, 333–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. N. Vinod and M. Lal, “Surface and optical characterization of the porous silicon textured surface,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16, 1–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Tucci, R. De Rosa, and F. Roca, “CF4/O2 dry etching of textured crystalline silicon surface in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 69, 175–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “22.7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1495–1497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, A.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Banks, B. A.

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Birol, D.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

Borchert, D.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

Campbell, P.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “22.7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1495–1497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Casaus, L.

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

Cernosek, R. W.

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

Chang, W.-L.

Chaumartin, A.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. Y.

Chen, W.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Cheng, C.

T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, A.

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

De Rosa, R.

M. Tucci, R. De Rosa, and F. Roca, “CF4/O2 dry etching of textured crystalline silicon surface in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 69, 175–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel, G.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

Escarré, J.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fave, A.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fleischman, A. J.

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Frye, G. C.

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

Gebert, C. T.

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

Gee, J. M.

J. M. Gee, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, R. Gordon, and H. Liang, “Reflectance control for multicrystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules using textured-dielectric coatings,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1274–1277.

J. M. Gee, W. K. Schubert, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, and G. Robison, “The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1555–1558.

Gordon, R.

J. M. Gee, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, R. Gordon, and H. Liang, “Reflectance control for multicrystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules using textured-dielectric coatings,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1274–1277.

Green, M. A.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “22.7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1495–1497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Gupta, M. C.

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nanostructures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haug, F.-J.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hegedus, S.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Huang, C. K.

Hund, T. D.

J. M. Gee, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, R. Gordon, and H. Liang, “Reflectance control for multicrystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules using textured-dielectric coatings,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1274–1277.

J. M. Gee, W. K. Schubert, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, and G. Robison, “The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1555–1558.

Iyengar, V. V.

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, M. J.

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, O. N.

N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolasinski, K. W.

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kraiem, J.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lal, M.

P. N. Vinod and M. Lal, “Surface and optical characterization of the porous silicon textured surface,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16, 1–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

M. Nam, J. Lee, and K.-K. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of solar cells by importing microdome-shaped anti-reflective structures as a surface protection layer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2314–2318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-K.

M. Nam, J. Lee, and K.-K. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of solar cells by importing microdome-shaped anti-reflective structures as a surface protection layer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2314–2318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lelievre, J.-F.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemiti, M.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leo, A.

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

J. M. Gee, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, R. Gordon, and H. Liang, “Reflectance control for multicrystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules using textured-dielectric coatings,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1274–1277.

Macdonald, D. H.

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Madjdpour, J.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Martin, S. J.

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

Masuda, H.

N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Midura, R. J.

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, S. K.

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. A.

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

Nakai, Y.

N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nam, M.

M. Nam, J. Lee, and K.-K. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of solar cells by importing microdome-shaped anti-reflective structures as a surface protection layer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2314–2318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, B. K.

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nanostructures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nichiporuk, O.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Papet, P.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paul, K. E.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poddey, A.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

Preu, R.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

Robison, G.

J. M. Gee, W. K. Schubert, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, and G. Robison, “The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1555–1558.

Roca, F.

M. Tucci, R. De Rosa, and F. Roca, “CF4/O2 dry etching of textured crystalline silicon surface in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 69, 175–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, S.

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, Y.

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruby, D.

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saika, H.

T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Samundsett, C.

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, W. K.

J. M. Gee, W. K. Schubert, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, and G. Robison, “The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1555–1558.

Schultz, O.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

Söderström, K.

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sopori, B.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Sparber, W.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

Su, M. X.

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K. W.

Tardy, H. L.

J. M. Gee, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, R. Gordon, and H. Liang, “Reflectance control for multicrystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules using textured-dielectric coatings,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1274–1277.

J. M. Gee, W. K. Schubert, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, and G. Robison, “The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1555–1558.

Tokimitsu, T.

N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Toyama, T.

T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsukiji, M.

T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tucci, M.

M. Tucci, R. De Rosa, and F. Roca, “CF4/O2 dry etching of textured crystalline silicon surface in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 69, 175–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vinod, P. N.

P. N. Vinod and M. Lal, “Surface and optical characterization of the porous silicon textured surface,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16, 1–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “22.7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1495–1497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wessendorf, K. O.

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Winderbaum, S.

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, P.

T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.

T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, N.

N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Yang, S.

T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, T.

T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, J.

J. Yoo, G. Yu, and J. Yi, “Black surface structures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159, 333–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, J.

J. Yoo, G. Yu, and J. Yi, “Black surface structures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159, 333–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

J. Yoo, G. Yu, and J. Yi, “Black surface structures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159, 333–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “22.7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1495–1497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (1)

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Formation of nano-textured conical microstructures in titanium by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. A 90, 399–402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

B. K. Nayak, M. C. Gupta, and K. W. Kolasinski, “Ultrafast-laser-assisted chemical restructuring of silicon and germanium surfaces,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253, 6580–6583 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

Y. Xia, J. A. Rogers, K. E. Paul, and G. M. Whitesides, “Unconventional methods for fabricating and patterning nanostructures,” Chem. Rev. 99, 1823–1848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

J. Zhao, A. Wang, P. Campbell, and M. A. Green, “22.7% efficient silicon photovoltaic modules with textured front surface,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 46, 1495–1497 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. (1)

M. X. Su, A. J. Fleischman, S. Roy, B. A. Banks, S. K. Miller, and R. J. Midura, “Osteoblast attachment to a textured surface in the absence of exogenous adhesion proteins,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 287–294 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Campbell and M. A. Green, “Light trapping properties of pyramidally textured surfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 62, 243–249 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

P. N. Vinod and M. Lal, “Surface and optical characterization of the porous silicon textured surface,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 16, 1–6 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

T. Matsui, M. Tsukiji, H. Saika, T. Toyama, and H. Okamoto, “Influence of substrate texture on microstructure and photovoltaic performances of thin film polycrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 299, 1152–1156 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

J. Yoo, G. Yu, and J. Yi, “Black surface structures for crystalline silicon solar cells,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 159, 333–337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (2)

M. Nam, J. Lee, and K.-K. Lee, “Efficiency improvement of solar cells by importing microdome-shaped anti-reflective structures as a surface protection layer,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2314–2318 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Yao, P. Wu, T. Wu, C. Cheng, and S. Yang, “Fabrication of anti-reflective structures using hot embossing with a stainless steel template irradiated by femtosecond laser,” Microelectron. Eng. 88, 2908–2912 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

B. K. Nayak and M. C. Gupta, “Self-organized micro/nanostructures in metal surfaces by ultrafast laser irradiation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 48, 940–949 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovoltaics (1)

N. Yamada, O. N. Kim, T. Tokimitsu, Y. Nakai, and H. Masuda, “Optimization of anti-reflection moth-eye structures for use in crystalline silicon solar cells,” Prog. Photovoltaics 19, 134–140 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (4)

J. Escarré, K. Söderström, C. Battaglia, F.-J. Haug, and C. Ballif, “High fidelity transfer of nanometric random textures by UV embossing for thin film solar cells applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 881–886 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Tucci, R. De Rosa, and F. Roca, “CF4/O2 dry etching of textured crystalline silicon surface in a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 69, 175–185 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Papet, O. Nichiporuk, A. Kaminski, Y. Rozier, J. Kraiem, J.-F. Lelievre, A. Chaumartin, A. Fave, and M. Lemiti, “Pyramidal texturing of silicon solar cell with TMAH chemical anisotropic etching,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 90, 2319–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Iyengar, B. K. Nayak, and M. C. Gupta, “Optical properties of silicon light trapping structures for photovoltaics,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 2251–2257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy (1)

D. H. Macdonald, A. Cuevas, M. J. Kerr, C. Samundsett, D. Ruby, S. Winderbaum, and A. Leo, “Texturing industrial multicrystalline silicon solar cells,” Solar Energy 76, 277–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

S. J. Martin, K. O. Wessendorf, C. T. Gebert, G. C. Frye, R. W. Cernosek, L. Casaus, and M. A. Mitchell, “Measuring liquid properties with smooth- and textured-surface resonators,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Frequency Control (IEEE, 1993), Vol. 47, pp. 603–608.

J. M. Gee, W. K. Schubert, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, and G. Robison, “The effect of encapsulation on the reflectance of photovoltaic modules using textured multicrystalline-silicon solar cells,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1555–1558.

J. M. Gee, H. L. Tardy, T. D. Hund, R. Gordon, and H. Liang, “Reflectance control for multicrystalline-silicon photovoltaic modules using textured-dielectric coatings,” in IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1994), Vol. 2, pp. 1274–1277.

W. Sparber, O. Schultz, D. Birol, G. Emanuel, R. Preu, A. Poddey, and D. Borchert, “Comparison of texturing methods for monocrystalline silicon solar cells using KOH and Na2CO3,” in Proceedings of 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion (IEEE, 2003), Vol. 2, pp. 1372–1375.

B. Sopori, J. Madjdpour, Y. Zhang, W. Chen, S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Hegedus, “Optical modeling of a-Si solar cells,” NREL/CP-520-25783, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1999.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

PDMS microsurface and nanosurface texture generation by (a) PDMS replication and (b) PDMS embossing, and (c) PDMS microtextured film produced from the embossing process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optical characterization using Integrating sphere showing (a) the total unabsorbed power transmitted (T) plus scattered (S) plus reflected (R), (b) the reflected (R) power plus the back scattered power (SB), and (c) the transmitted (T) plus the forward scattered power (SF).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of (a) ultrafast-laser-treated surface showing the formation of microstructures and nanostructures on the Ti master, (b) the Si master, (c) replication in PDMS of microstructures and nanostructures that have been replicated from the Ti mold, (d) replication in PDMS of microstructures and nanostructures from the Si master, (e) higher magnification of PDMS showing detail of microstructures and nanostructures that have been replicated from the Ti mold, and (f) higher magnification of PDMS showing detail microstructures and nanostructures that have been replicated from the Si mold.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Cross section of PDMS microtexture replicated from Si master.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Reflection as a function of angle at 633 nm wavelength for PDMS film, PDMS film prediction, and microtextured PDMS. The reflection includes contributions from front and back surfaces.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

TILS as a function of angle at 633 nm wavelength for polished silicon, polished silicon prediction, silicon with PDMS film, silicon with PDMS film prediction, and silicon plus microtextured PDMS.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical Characterization Results from Integrating Sphere Measurementsa Carried Out for 633 nm Wavelength at Normal Incidence

Metrics