Abstract

Image analysis in the presence of surface scatter due to residual optical fabrication errors is often perceived to be complicated, nonintuitive, and achieved only by computationally intensive nonsequential ray tracing with commercial optical analysis codes such as ASAP, Zemax, Code V, TracePro, or FRED. However, we show that surface scatter can be treated very similarly to conventional wavefront aberrations. For multielement imaging systems degraded by both surface scatter and aberrations, the composite point spread function is obtained in explicit analytic form in terms of convolutions of the geometrical point spread function and scaled bidirectional scattering distribution functions of the individual surfaces of the imaging system. The approximations and assumptions in this formulation are discussed, and the result is compared to the irradiance distribution obtained using commercial software for the case of a two-mirror telescope operating at an extreme ultraviolet wavelength. The two results are virtually identical.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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