Abstract

We describe a simulation of the complete image processing pipeline of a digital camera, beginning with a radiometric description of the scene captured by the camera and ending with a radiometric description of the image rendered on a display. We show that there is a good correspondence between measured and simulated sensor performance. Through the use of simulation, we can quantify the effects of individual digital camera components on system performance and image quality. This computational approach can be helpful for both camera design and image quality assessment.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  41. P. L. Vora, M. L. Harville, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: synthesis of sensor responses from multispectral images,” Proc. SPIE 3018, 2–11 (1997).
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  60. A. Adam, E. Talvala, S. H. Park, D. E. Jacobs, B. Ajdin, N. Gelfand, N. Dolson, J. Vaquero, J. Baek, M. Tico, H. P. Lensch, W. Matusik, K. Pulli, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “The Frankencamera: an experimental platform for computational photography,” in SIGGRAPH ’10 ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Papers (ACM, 2010), pp. 1–12.
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2011

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. El Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8, 871–878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

G. Leseur, N. Meunier, G. Georgiadis, L. Huang, B. Wandell, P. B. Catrysse, and J. M. DiCarlo, “High-speed document sensing and misprint detection in digital presses,” Proc. SPIE 7536 (2010).

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y (2010).

F. Yasuma, T. Mitsunaga, D. Iso, and S. K. Nayar, “Generalized assorted pixel camera: postcapture control of resolution, dynamic range, and spectrum,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 19, 2241–2253 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Farrell, M. Okincha, M. Parmar, and B. Wandell, “Using visible SNR (vSNR) to compare the image quality of pixel binning and digital resizing,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370C (2010).

J. Xu, R. Bowen, J. Wang, and J. Farrell, “Visibility of uncorrelated image noise,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 753703 (2010).

2009

J. Chen, K. Venkataraman, D. Bakin, B. Rodricks, R. Gravelle, P. Rao, and Y. Ni, “Digital camera imaging system simulation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2496–2505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Parmar and B. A. Wandell, “Interleaved imaging: an imaging system design inspired by rod-cone vision,” Proc. SPIE 7250, 725008 (2009).

F. Xiao, J. E. Farrell, P. B. Catrysse, and B. Wandell, “Mobile imaging: the big challenge of the small pixel,” Proc. SPIE 7250, 72500K (2009).

G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, and A. Longoni, “Tunable spectral responses in a color-sensitive CMOS pixel for imaging applications,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2563–2569 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. Farrell, M. Okincha, and M. Parmar, “Sensor calibration and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 6817, 68170R (2008).

M. Parmar, F. Imai, S. H. Park, and J. Farrell, “A database of high dynamic range visible and near-infrared multispectral images,” Proc. SPIE 6817, 68170N (2008).

J. Farrell, G. Ng, X. Ding, K. Larson, and B. Wandell, “A display simulation toolbox for image quality evaluation,” J. Disp. Technol. 4, 262–270 (2008).

2007

R. Gow, D. Renshaw, and K. Findlater, “A comprehensive tool for modeling CMOS image-sensor-noise performance,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 54, 1321–1329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Bernhardt, P. Clare, C. Cowell, and M. Smith, “A hyperspectral model for target detection,” Proc. SPIE 6565, 65650F (2007).

2006

J. Farrell, F. Xiao, and S. Kavusi, “Resolution and light sensitivity tradeoff with pixel size,” Proc. SPIE 6069, 60690N (2006).

2005

P. Maeda, P. B. Catrysse, and B. A. Wandell, “Integrating lens design with digital camera simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5678, 48–58 (2005).

P. B. Catrysse and B. A. Wandell, “Roadmap for CMOS image sensors: Moore meets Planck and Sommerfeld,” Proc. SPIE 5678, 1–13 (2005).

X. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Feng, and H. Chang, “Equation-based triangle orientation discrimination sensor performance model based on sampling effects,” Appl. Opt. 44, 498–505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Gunturk, J. Glotzbach, Y. Altunbasak, R. Schafer, and R. M. Mersereau, “Demosaicking: color filter array interpolation,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 44–54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Haralabidis and C. Pilinis, “Linear color camera model for a skylight colorimeter with emphasis on the imaging pipeline noise performance,” J. Electron. Imaging 14, 043005 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. Constantini and S. Susstrunk, “Virtual sensor design,” Proc. SPIE 5301, 408–419 (2004).

H. B. Wach and J. E. R. Dowski, “Noise modeling for design and simulation of computational imaging systems,” Proc. SPIE 5438, 159–170 (2004).

J. Farrell, F. Xiao, P. B. Catrysse, and B. Wandell, “A simulation tool for evaluating digital camera image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5294, 124–131 (2004).

2003

2002

2001

B. F. H. Tian and A. El Gamal, “Analysis of temporal noise in CMOS APS,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 36, 92–101 (2001).

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, “Quantum efficiency reduction due to pixel vignetting in CMOS image sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3965, 420–430 (2000).

H. Tian and A. El Gamal, “Analysis of 1/f noise in CMOS APS,” Proc. SPIE 3965, 168–176 (2000).

1998

B. F. A. El Gamal, H. Min, and X. Liu, “Modeling and estimation of FPN components in CMOS image sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3301, 168–177 (1998).

1997

P. L. Vora, M. L. Harville, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: synthesis of sensor responses from multispectral images,” Proc. SPIE 3018, 2–11 (1997).

1993

K. Martinez, J. Cupitt, and D. Saunders, “High resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings,” Proc. SPIE 1901, 25–36 (1993).

1992

1990

1989

1987

B. A. Wandell, “The synthesis and analysis of color images,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell. 9, 2–13 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1979

1964

D. B. Judd, D. L. MacAdam, and G. W. Wyszecki, “Spectral distribution of typical daylight as a function of correlated color temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54, 1031–1036 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Cohen, “Dependency of the spectral reflectance curves of the Munsell color chips,” Psychonomic Sci. 1, 369–370 (1964).

1955

J. Goodman, “The frequency response of a defocused optical system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A 231, 91–103 (1955).

Adam, A.

A. Adam, E. Talvala, S. H. Park, D. E. Jacobs, B. Ajdin, N. Gelfand, N. Dolson, J. Vaquero, J. Baek, M. Tico, H. P. Lensch, W. Matusik, K. Pulli, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “The Frankencamera: an experimental platform for computational photography,” in SIGGRAPH ’10 ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Papers (ACM, 2010), pp. 1–12.

Ajdin, B.

A. Adam, E. Talvala, S. H. Park, D. E. Jacobs, B. Ajdin, N. Gelfand, N. Dolson, J. Vaquero, J. Baek, M. Tico, H. P. Lensch, W. Matusik, K. Pulli, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “The Frankencamera: an experimental platform for computational photography,” in SIGGRAPH ’10 ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Papers (ACM, 2010), pp. 1–12.

Altunbasak, Y.

B. Gunturk, J. Glotzbach, Y. Altunbasak, R. Schafer, and R. M. Mersereau, “Demosaicking: color filter array interpolation,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22, 44–54 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baek, J.

A. Adam, E. Talvala, S. H. Park, D. E. Jacobs, B. Ajdin, N. Gelfand, N. Dolson, J. Vaquero, J. Baek, M. Tico, H. P. Lensch, W. Matusik, K. Pulli, M. Horowitz, and M. Levoy, “The Frankencamera: an experimental platform for computational photography,” in SIGGRAPH ’10 ACM SIGGRAPH 2010 Papers (ACM, 2010), pp. 1–12.

Bakin, D.

J. Chen, K. Venkataraman, D. Bakin, B. Rodricks, R. Gravelle, P. Rao, and Y. Ni, “Digital camera imaging system simulation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2496–2505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barsky, B.

B. Barsky and T. Kosloff, “Algorithms for rendering depth of field effects in computer graphics,” in ICCOMP ’08 Proceedings of the 12th WSEAS International Conference on Computers (World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society, 2008), 999–1010.

B. Barsky, D. R. Horn, S. A. Klein, J. A. Pang, and M. Yu, “Camera models and optical systems used in computer graphics: Part I, object based techniques,” in Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Computational Science and its Applications (ICCCSA ’03), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (Springer-Verlag2003), pp. 246–255.

Baum, J. E.

J. P. Kerekes and J. E. Baum, “Spectral imaging system analytical model for subpixel target detection,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 40, 1088–1101 (2002).

Bernhardt, M.

M. Bernhardt, P. Clare, C. Cowell, and M. Smith, “A hyperspectral model for target detection,” Proc. SPIE 6565, 65650F (2007).

Berns, R. S.

P. D. Burns and R. S. Berns, “Analysis of multispectral image capture,” in Proceedings of the 4th IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference (IS&T, 1996), pp. 19–22.

Bowen, R.

J. Xu, R. Bowen, J. Wang, and J. Farrell, “Visibility of uncorrelated image noise,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 753703 (2010).

Brainard, D. H.

P. L. Vora, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: simulation of sensor responses from hyperspectral images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 10, 307–316 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Vora, M. L. Harville, J. E. Farrell, J. D. Tietz, and D. H. Brainard, “Image capture: synthesis of sensor responses from multispectral images,” Proc. SPIE 3018, 2–11 (1997).

P. Longere and D. H. Brainard, “Simulation of digital camera images from hyperspectral input,” in Vision Models and Applications to Image and Video Processing, C. v. d. B. Lambrecht, ed. (Kluwer, 2001), pp. 123–150.

Bredif, M.

R. Ng, M. Levoy, M. Bredif, G. Duval, M. Horowitz, and P. Hanrahan, “Light field photography with a hand-held plenoptic camera,” Stanford Tech. Report CTSR 2005-02 (2005).

Burns, L. D.

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. El Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8, 871–878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burns, P. D.

P. D. Burns and R. S. Berns, “Analysis of multispectral image capture,” in Proceedings of the 4th IS&T/SID Color Imaging Conference (IS&T, 1996), pp. 19–22.

Catrysse, P. B.

G. Leseur, N. Meunier, G. Georgiadis, L. Huang, B. Wandell, P. B. Catrysse, and J. M. DiCarlo, “High-speed document sensing and misprint detection in digital presses,” Proc. SPIE 7536 (2010).

F. Xiao, J. E. Farrell, P. B. Catrysse, and B. Wandell, “Mobile imaging: the big challenge of the small pixel,” Proc. SPIE 7250, 72500K (2009).

P. B. Catrysse and B. A. Wandell, “Roadmap for CMOS image sensors: Moore meets Planck and Sommerfeld,” Proc. SPIE 5678, 1–13 (2005).

P. Maeda, P. B. Catrysse, and B. A. Wandell, “Integrating lens design with digital camera simulation,” Proc. SPIE 5678, 48–58 (2005).

J. Farrell, F. Xiao, P. B. Catrysse, and B. Wandell, “A simulation tool for evaluating digital camera image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5294, 124–131 (2004).

P. B. Catrysse and B. A. Wandell, “Integrated color pixels in 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 20, 2293–2306 (2003).

P. B. Catrysse and B. A. Wandell, “Optical efficiency of image sensor pixels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19, 1610–1620 (2002).

P. B. Catrysse, X. Liu, and A. El Gamal, “Quantum efficiency reduction due to pixel vignetting in CMOS image sensors,” Proc. SPIE 3965, 420–430 (2000).

P. B. Catrysse is preparing a manuscript to be called “Imaging optics.”

Chakravarty, I.

M. Potmesil and I. Chakravarty, “A lens and aperture camera model for synthetic image generation,” in SIGGRAPH ’83 Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM, 1983), Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 297–305.

Chang, H.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, K. Venkataraman, D. Bakin, B. Rodricks, R. Gravelle, P. Rao, and Y. Ni, “Digital camera imaging system simulation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 56, 2496–2505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clare, P.

M. Bernhardt, P. Clare, C. Cowell, and M. Smith, “A hyperspectral model for target detection,” Proc. SPIE 6565, 65650F (2007).

Cocker, E. D.

K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. El Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8, 871–878 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, J.

J. Cohen, “Dependency of the spectral reflectance curves of the Munsell color chips,” Psychonomic Sci. 1, 369–370 (1964).

Constantini, R.

R. Constantini and S. Susstrunk, “Virtual sensor design,” Proc. SPIE 5301, 408–419 (2004).

Cowell, C.

M. Bernhardt, P. Clare, C. Cowell, and M. Smith, “A hyperspectral model for target detection,” Proc. SPIE 6565, 65650F (2007).

Cupitt, J.

K. Martinez, J. Cupitt, and D. Saunders, “High resolution colorimetric imaging of paintings,” Proc. SPIE 1901, 25–36 (1993).

Decroux, T.

C. Mornet, J. Vaillant, T. Decroux, D. Herault, and I. Schanen, “Evaluation of color error and noise on simulated images,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 75370Y (2010).

DiCarlo, J. M.

G. Leseur, N. Meunier, G. Georgiadis, L. Huang, B. Wandell, P. B. Catrysse, and J. M. DiCarlo, “High-speed document sensing and misprint detection in digital presses,” Proc. SPIE 7536 (2010).

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K. K. Ghosh, L. D. Burns, E. D. Cocker, A. Nimmerjahn, Y. Ziv, A. El Gamal, and M. J. Schnitzer, “Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope,” Nat. Methods 8, 871–878 (2011).
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J. Xu, R. Bowen, J. Wang, and J. Farrell, “Visibility of uncorrelated image noise,” Proc. SPIE 7537, 753703 (2010).

J. Farrell, F. Xiao, P. B. Catrysse, and B. Wandell, “A simulation tool for evaluating digital camera image quality,” Proc. SPIE 5294, 124–131 (2004).

J. Farrell, M. Okincha, and M. Parmar, “Sensor calibration and simulation,” Proc. SPIE 6817, 68170R (2008).

J. Farrell, F. Xiao, and S. Kavusi, “Resolution and light sensitivity tradeoff with pixel size,” Proc. SPIE 6069, 60690N (2006).

M. Parmar and B. A. Wandell, “Interleaved imaging: an imaging system design inspired by rod-cone vision,” Proc. SPIE 7250, 725008 (2009).

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It is possible to use lens specification data from lens design software programs such as ZEMAX and CODE V. When these data are available, a ray-trace method can be used to calculate PSFs that are both wavelength dependent and position dependent (not shift invariant). In our simulations, we analyze the central portion of the sensor image, where departures from diffraction-limited models are less evident.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Spectral quantum efficiencies of red, green, and blue channels for a calibrated imaging sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Measured and (b) simulated sensor images. The images have been demosaicked but not color balanced.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mean pixel values averaged for each of the 24 patches in the Macbeth ColorChecker in the measured sensor images plotted against mean pixel values for the same patches in the simulated sensor images.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean divided by the standard deviation (SNR) in pixel values for each of the 24 patches in the Macbeth ColorChecker in the measured sensor images plotted against standard deviation in pixel values for the same patches in the simulated sensor images.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Color accuracy of measured imaging sensor. The graph on the left plots the desired sRGB values against the color-balanced sRGB values derived from the measured sensor images. The histograms show the distribution of ΔE color errors for the 24 color patches in the Macbeth ColorChecker.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Color accuracy of simulated imaging sensor. (a) plots the desired sRGB values against the color-balanced sRGB values derived from the simulated sensor images. The histograms in (b) show the distribution of ΔE color errors for the 24 color patches in the Macbeth ColorChecker.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) Illuminate a Lambertian surface with narrowband lights spanning 400–800 nm using a monochromator. Measure the spectral radiance of each of the narrowband lights using a spectrophotometer. (b) Place the camera at the same location used for the spectrophotometer measurement and capture an image of each of the narrowband lights.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Sensor Parameters for ISET Simulations

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Iimage(x,y,λ)πT(λ)4(f/#)2Lscene(xm,ym,λ).
R(x,y,λ)=cos4θ(dS)4.
OTF={2πacos(ρ)(ρ1+ρ2),ρ<10,ρ1,
FT{Iimage(x,y,λ)}=FT{PSF(x,y,λ)}·FT{Iideal(x,y,λ)},
FT{Iimage(x,y,λ)}=OTF(fx,fy,λ)·FT{Iideal(x,y,λ)},
Iimage(x,y,λ)=FT1{OTF·FT{Iideal(x,y,λ)}},
ei=Tλ,xSi(λ)Ai(x)I(λ,x)dλdx.
p(x,y,λ)=igi(v)si(x,y)wi(λ),

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