Abstract

As a component of a multisensor approach to monitoring carbon sequestration sites for possible leaks of the CO2 gas from underground reservoirs, a low-cost multispectral imaging system has been developed for indirect detection of gas leaks through observations of the resulting stress in overlying vegetation. The imager employs front-end optics designed to provide a full 50° field of view with a small, low-cost CMOS detector, while still maintaining quasi-collimated light through the angle-dependent interference filters used to define the spectral bands. Red and near-infrared vegetation reflectances are used to compute the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and spatial and temporal patterns are analyzed statistically to identify regions of anomalous stress, which are then flagged for closer inspection with in-situ CO2 sensors. The system is entirely self-contained with an onboard compact computer and is housed in a weather-proof housing to enable extended outdoor deployment.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. J. Friedmann, “Geological carbon dioxide sequestration,” Elements 3, 179–184 (2007).
  2. C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).
  3. J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).
  4. J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).
  5. E. A. Walter-Shea and J. M. Norman, “Leaf optical properties,” in Photon-Vegetation Interactions: Applications in Plant Physiology and Optical Remote Sensing, R. B. Myneni and J. Ross, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1991), pp. 230–251.
  6. Montana State University, “Zero Emissions Research and Technology: A National Resource For Geologic Sequestration Science,” http://www.montana.edu/zert/index.html .
  7. L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).
  8. E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).
  9. J. A. Hogan, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for CO2 leak detection,” M.S. thesis (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Montana State University, 2011), http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/view/item.php?id=1255 .
  10. J. A. Hogan, J. A. Shaw, and R. L. Lawrence, “Detection of leaking CO2 gas with vegetation reflectances measured by a low-cost multispectral imager,” submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens.

2011

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

2010

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

2009

C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).

2007

S. J. Friedmann, “Geological carbon dioxide sequestration,” Elements 3, 179–184 (2007).

Amonette, J. E.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Apple, M.

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

Barr, J. L.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Benson, S. M.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Birkholzer, J.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Burton, E. A.

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

Carlsten, J. L.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).

Cunningham, A. B.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Diehl, J. R.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Dobeck, L. M.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

Fessenden, J. E.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Friedmann, S. J.

S. J. Friedmann, “Geological carbon dioxide sequestration,” Elements 3, 179–184 (2007).

Gullickson, K. S.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Hoffman, G. D.

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

Hogan, J. A.

J. A. Hogan, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for CO2 leak detection,” M.S. thesis (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Montana State University, 2011), http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/view/item.php?id=1255 .

J. A. Hogan, J. A. Shaw, and R. L. Lawrence, “Detection of leaking CO2 gas with vegetation reflectances measured by a low-cost multispectral imager,” submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens.

Humphries, S. D.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Jacobson, J. D.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Jay, S. C.

C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).

Keith, C. J.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).

Kharaka, Y.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Lawrence, R. L.

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).

J. A. Hogan, J. A. Shaw, and R. L. Lawrence, “Detection of leaking CO2 gas with vegetation reflectances measured by a low-cost multispectral imager,” submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens.

Lewicki, J. L.

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

Male, E. J.

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Nehrir, A. N.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

Nehrir, A. R.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Norman, J. M.

E. A. Walter-Shea and J. M. Norman, “Leaf optical properties,” in Photon-Vegetation Interactions: Applications in Plant Physiology and Optical Remote Sensing, R. B. Myneni and J. Ross, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1991), pp. 230–251.

Oldenberg, C. M.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Pickles, W. L.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

Rahn, T. A.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Rauch, H. W.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Repasky, K. S.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).

Rouse, J. H.

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Shaw, J. A.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

J. A. Hogan, J. A. Shaw, and R. L. Lawrence, “Detection of leaking CO2 gas with vegetation reflectances measured by a low-cost multispectral imager,” submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens.

Silver, E. A.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

Spangler, L. H.

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

Strazisar, B. R.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Trautz, R.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Walter-Shea, E. A.

E. A. Walter-Shea and J. M. Norman, “Leaf optical properties,” in Photon-Vegetation Interactions: Applications in Plant Physiology and Optical Remote Sensing, R. B. Myneni and J. Ross, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1991), pp. 230–251.

Wells, A. W.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Wielpolski, L.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

Elements

S. J. Friedmann, “Geological carbon dioxide sequestration,” Elements 3, 179–184 (2007).

Environ. Earth Sci.

L. H. Spangler, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, A. R. Nehrir, S. D. Humphries, J. L. Barr, C. J. Keith, J. A. Shaw, J. H. Rouse, A. B. Cunningham, S. M. Benson, C. M. Oldenberg, J. L. Lewicki, A. W. Wells, J. R. Diehl, B. R. Strazisar, J. E. Fessenden, T. A. Rahn, J. E. Amonette, J. L. Barr, W. L. Pickles, J. D. Jacobson, E. A. Silver, E. J. Male, H. W. Rauch, K. S. Gullickson, R. Trautz, Y. Kharaka, J. Birkholzer, and L. Wielpolski, “A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2detection techniques,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 227–239(2010).

E. J. Male, W. L. Pickles, E. A. Silver, G. D. Hoffman, J. L. Lewicki, M. Apple, K. S. Repasky, and E. A. Burton, “Using hyperspectral plant signatures for CO2 leak detection during the 2008 ZERT CO2 sequestration field experiment in Bozeman, Montana,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 251–261 (2010).

J. H. Rouse, J. A. Shaw, R. L. Lawrence, J. L. Lewicki, L. M. Dobeck, K. S. Repasky, and L. H. Spangler, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground,” Environ. Earth Sci. 60, 313–323 (2010).

IEEE J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens.

J. A. Hogan, J. A. Shaw, and R. L. Lawrence, “Detection of leaking CO2 gas with vegetation reflectances measured by a low-cost multispectral imager,” submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics Appl. Earth Obs. Rem. Sens.

Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control

J. L. Barr, S. D. Humphries, A. N. Nehrir, K. S. Repasky, L. M. Dobeck, J. L. Carlsten, and L. H. Spangler, “Laser-based carbon dioxide monitoring instrument testing during a 30-day controlled underground carbon release field experiment,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 5, 138–145 (2011).

C. J. Keith, K. S. Repasky, R. L. Lawrence, S. C. Jay, and J. L. Carlsten, “Monitoring effects of a controlled subsurface carbon dioxide release on vegetation using a hyperspectral imager,” Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control 3, 626–632 (2009).

Other

J. A. Hogan, “Multi-spectral imaging of vegetation for CO2 leak detection,” M.S. thesis (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Montana State University, 2011), http://etd.lib.montana.edu/etd/view/item.php?id=1255 .

E. A. Walter-Shea and J. M. Norman, “Leaf optical properties,” in Photon-Vegetation Interactions: Applications in Plant Physiology and Optical Remote Sensing, R. B. Myneni and J. Ross, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1991), pp. 230–251.

Montana State University, “Zero Emissions Research and Technology: A National Resource For Geologic Sequestration Science,” http://www.montana.edu/zert/index.html .

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Reflectance spectra for healthy and highly stressed vegetation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Ray-tracing model of the optical system and schematic representation of the primary components including (left-to-right) the Tamron front-end lens, the singlet field lenses, the filter wheel, the reimaging triplet, and the PixeLink camera.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photograph of the imaging system in its outdoor housing with the top open.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example flat-field correction applied to a single row of pixels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Red and near-infrared system spectral responses normalized to the off-axis red peak, demonstrating minimal spectral shift in the off-axis response.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Imaging systems mounted atop 3 m tall scaffolding at the ZERT field site. The multispectral imager is behind the left window of the white instrument housing box. The tripod in the foreground holds the reflectance calibration panel

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Example images from the 2010 field experiment: (a) red reflectance, (b) near-infrared reflectance, and (c) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI).

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

NDVI=ρNIRρRedρNIR+ρRed.

Metrics