Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji, S. Tabata, K. Okimatsu, and N. Nishio, “Finite difference time domain and steady-state analysis with novel boundary conditions of optical pulse transport in a three-dimensional scattering medium illuminated by an isotropic point source,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1697–1706 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Fabiani, D. D. Schmorrow, and G. Gratton, “Optical imaging of the intact human brain (guest editorial),” IEEE Eng. Med Biol. Mag. 26, 14–16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

J. Selb, A. M. Dale, and D. A. Boas, “Linear 3D reconstruction of time-domain diffuse optical imaging differential data: improved depth localization and lateral resolution,” Opt. Express 15, 16400–16412 (2007).

[CrossRef]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, “Hybrid MonteCarlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2888–2896 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Z. Guo and K. Kim, “Ultrafast-laser-radiation transfer in heterogeneous tissues with the discrete-ordinates methods,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2897–2905 (2003).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. Delpy, “Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2906–2914 (2003).

[CrossRef]

F. G. Gao, H. Z. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 779–791 (2002).

T. Tanifuji and M. Hijikata, “Finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis of optical pulse responses in biological tissues for spectroscopic diffused optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 181–184 (2002).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher, “Iterative reconstruction schema for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Med. Phys. 26, 1698–1707 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, “Gradient based iterative image reconstruction schema for time-resolved optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262–271 (1999).

[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering body with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).

[CrossRef]

J. B. Fishkin and E. Gratton, “Propagation of photon-density waves in strongly scattering media containing an absorbing semi-infinite plane bounded by a straight edge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 127–140 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding—doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, S. M. Jaywant, and A. Othonos, “Numerical model and experimental studies of light propagation in inhomogeneous random media,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 90–102 (1993).

[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).

[CrossRef]

W. A. Fiveland, “Three-dimensional radiative heat-transfer solutions by the discrete-ordinates method,” J. Thermophys. 2, 309–316 (1988).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (March, 1993).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering body with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (March, 1993).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering body with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).

[CrossRef]

M. Fabiani, D. D. Schmorrow, and G. Gratton, “Optical imaging of the intact human brain (guest editorial),” IEEE Eng. Med Biol. Mag. 26, 14–16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering body with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]

W. A. Fiveland, “Three-dimensional radiative heat-transfer solutions by the discrete-ordinates method,” J. Thermophys. 2, 309–316 (1988).

[CrossRef]

R. D. Frostig, In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Function (CRC, 2002), Chap. 8.

F. G. Gao, H. Z. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 779–791 (2002).

M. Fabiani, D. D. Schmorrow, and G. Gratton, “Optical imaging of the intact human brain (guest editorial),” IEEE Eng. Med Biol. Mag. 26, 14–16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, “Gradient based iterative image reconstruction schema for time-resolved optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262–271 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher, “Iterative reconstruction schema for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Med. Phys. 26, 1698–1707 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, “Gradient based iterative image reconstruction schema for time-resolved optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262–271 (1999).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji and M. Hijikata, “Finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis of optical pulse responses in biological tissues for spectroscopic diffused optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 181–184 (2002).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (March, 1993).

[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, “Time resolved reflectance of an optical pulse from scattering bodies with nonscattering regions utilizing the finite difference time domain analysis,” in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE,2003), pp. 1094–1097.

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (IEEE, 1997), Chap. 9.

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, S. M. Jaywant, and A. Othonos, “Numerical model and experimental studies of light propagation in inhomogeneous random media,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 90–102 (1993).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher, “Iterative reconstruction schema for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Med. Phys. 26, 1698–1707 (1999).

[CrossRef]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, “Gradient based iterative image reconstruction schema for time-resolved optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262–271 (1999).

[CrossRef]

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, S. M. Jaywant, and A. Othonos, “Numerical model and experimental studies of light propagation in inhomogeneous random media,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 90–102 (1993).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, “Time resolved reflectance of an optical pulse from scattering bodies with nonscattering regions utilizing the finite difference time domain analysis,” in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE,2003), pp. 1094–1097.

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, “Time resolved reflectance of an optical pulse from scattering bodies with nonscattering regions utilizing the finite difference time domain analysis,” in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE,2003), pp. 1094–1097.

E. Okada and D. Delpy, “Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2906–2914 (2003).

[CrossRef]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, “Hybrid MonteCarlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2888–2896 (2003).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).

[CrossRef]

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, S. M. Jaywant, and A. Othonos, “Numerical model and experimental studies of light propagation in inhomogeneous random media,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 90–102 (1993).

[CrossRef]

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, S. M. Jaywant, and A. Othonos, “Numerical model and experimental studies of light propagation in inhomogeneous random media,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 90–102 (1993).

[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

M. Fabiani, D. D. Schmorrow, and G. Gratton, “Optical imaging of the intact human brain (guest editorial),” IEEE Eng. Med Biol. Mag. 26, 14–16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (March, 1993).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering body with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji, S. Tabata, K. Okimatsu, and N. Nishio, “Finite difference time domain and steady-state analysis with novel boundary conditions of optical pulse transport in a three-dimensional scattering medium illuminated by an isotropic point source,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1697–1706 (2011).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji and M. Hijikata, “Finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis of optical pulse responses in biological tissues for spectroscopic diffused optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 181–184 (2002).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, “Time resolved reflectance of an optical pulse from scattering bodies with nonscattering regions utilizing the finite difference time domain analysis,” in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE,2003), pp. 1094–1097.

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).

[CrossRef]

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, S. M. Jaywant, and A. Othonos, “Numerical model and experimental studies of light propagation in inhomogeneous random media,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 90–102 (1993).

[CrossRef]

F. G. Gao, H. Z. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 779–791 (2002).

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

F. G. Gao, H. Z. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 779–791 (2002).

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

F. G. Gao, H. Z. Zhao, and Y. Yamada, “Improvement of image quality in diffuse optical tomography by use of full time-resolved data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 779–791 (2002).

S. A. Prahl, M. J. C. van Gemert, and A. J. Welch, “Determining the optical properties of turbid mediaby using the adding—doubling method,” Appl. Opt. 32, 559–568 (1993).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, and D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).

[CrossRef]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, and E. Okada, “Hybrid MonteCarlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2888–2896 (2003).

[CrossRef]

Z. Guo and K. Kim, “Ultrafast-laser-radiation transfer in heterogeneous tissues with the discrete-ordinates methods,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2897–2905 (2003).

[CrossRef]

E. Okada and D. Delpy, “Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2906–2914 (2003).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji, S. Tabata, K. Okimatsu, and N. Nishio, “Finite difference time domain and steady-state analysis with novel boundary conditions of optical pulse transport in a three-dimensional scattering medium illuminated by an isotropic point source,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1697–1706 (2011).

[CrossRef]

Q. Zhao, L. Spinelli, A. Bassi, G. Valentini, D. Contini, A. Torricelli, R. Cubeddu, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, and A. Pifferi, “Functional tomography using time-gated ICCD Camera,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 705–716 (2011).

[CrossRef]

M. Fabiani, D. D. Schmorrow, and G. Gratton, “Optical imaging of the intact human brain (guest editorial),” IEEE Eng. Med Biol. Mag. 26, 14–16 (2007).

[CrossRef]

A. H. Hielscher, A. D. Klose, and K. M. Hanson, “Gradient based iterative image reconstruction schema for time-resolved optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 18, 262–271 (1999).

[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji and M. Hijikata, “Finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis of optical pulse responses in biological tissues for spectroscopic diffused optical tomography,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 21, 181–184 (2002).

[CrossRef]

W. A. Fiveland, “Three-dimensional radiative heat-transfer solutions by the discrete-ordinates method,” J. Thermophys. 2, 309–316 (1988).

[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose and A. H. Hielscher, “Iterative reconstruction schema for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Med. Phys. 26, 1698–1707 (1999).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, and E. Okada, “The finite element model for the propagation of light in scattering media: A direct method for domains with nonscattering regions,” Med. Phys. 27, 252–264 (2000).

[CrossRef]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: Boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).

[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, M. Hiraoka, and D. T. Delpy, “A finite element approach for modeling photon transport in tissue,” Med. Phys. 20, 299–309 (March, 1993).

[CrossRef]

T. J. Farrell, M. S. Patterson, and B. Wilson, “A diffusion theory model of spatially resolved, steady-state diffuse reflectance for the noninvasive determination of tissue optical properties in vivo,” Med. Phys. 19, 879–888 (1992).

[CrossRef]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, and D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering body with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).

[CrossRef]

A. Pifferi, A. Torricelli, L. Spinelli, D. Contini, R. Cubeddu, F. Martelli, G. Zaccanti, A. Tosi, A. D. Mora, F. Zappa, and S. Cova, “Time-resolved diffuse reflectance using small source-detector separation and fast single-photon gating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 138101 (2008).

[CrossRef]

S. J. Madsen, M. S. Patterson, B. C. Wilson, S. M. Jaywant, and A. Othonos, “Numerical model and experimental studies of light propagation in inhomogeneous random media,” Proc. SPIE 1888, 90–102 (1993).

[CrossRef]

A. Ishimaru, Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media (IEEE, 1997), Chap. 9.

R. D. Frostig, In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Function (CRC, 2002), Chap. 8.

T. Tanifuji, T. Ohtomo, D. Ohmori, and T. Ishikawa, “Time resolved reflectance of an optical pulse from scattering bodies with nonscattering regions utilizing the finite difference time domain analysis,” in Proceedings of 25th Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS (IEEE,2003), pp. 1094–1097.