Abstract

This paper proposes and experimentally demonstrates for what is believed to be the first time a highly sought-after optical structure for highly-accurate identification of the silkworm pupa gender. The key idea is to exploit a long wavelength optical beam in the red or near infrared spectrum that can effectively and safely penetrate the body of a silkworm pupa. Later on, simple image processing operations via image thresholding, blob filtering, and image inversion processes are applied in order to eliminate the unwanted image noises and at the same time highlight the gender gland. Experimental proof of concept using three 636 nm wavelength light emitting diodes, a two-dimensional web camera, an 8 bit microcontroller board, and a notebook computer shows a very high 95.6% total accuracy in identifying the gender of 45 silkworm pupae with a measured fast identification time of 96.6 ms. Other key features include low cost, low component counts, and ease of implementation and control.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. The Queen Sirikit Department of Sericulture, Bangkok, Thailand, http://www.qthaisilk.com , accessed on 5 April, 2011.
  2. T. Jin, L. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Chen, “Differentiation of male, female and dead silkworms while in the cocoon by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 3, 89–95 (1995).
  3. T. Peipei, “Sex identification method for silkworm larva,” China patent, CN1990881 (4 July, 2007).
  4. J. Schulte, H.- P. Shih, and C. Cummings, “Sex-specific automated sorting of non-human animals,” U.S. patent application US2006/0123489 (8 June, 2006).
  5. T. Fujii and T. Shimada, “Sex determination in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: a female determinant on the W chromosome and the sex-determining gene cascade,” Semi. Cell Dev. Biol. 18, pp. 379–388 (2007).
  6. M. G. Suzuki, “Sex determination: insights from the silkworm,” J. Genet. 89, 357–363 (2010).
  7. G. Saccone, A. Pane, and L. C. Polito, “Sex determination in flies, fruitflies, and butterflies,” Genetica 116, 15–23(2002).
  8. J. Jordan, J. Ellington, and J. McCoy, “An electronic vision system for sorting cotton boll worm pupae by sex,” in IEEE Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 1988), pp. 538–542.
  9. S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).
  10. H. Aruga, “Cocoon,” in Principles of Sericulture (A. A. Balkema, 1994), Chap. 8, pp. 303–341.
  11. Y. Seo, H. Morishima, and A. Hosokawa, “Separation of male and female silkworm pupae by weight: prediction of separability,” J. Japan. Soc. Agri. Mach. 47, 191–195 (1985).
  12. J. W. Mertins and H. C. Coppel, “Seed dockage sieves for sex-separation of pine sawfly cocoons,” Ann. Entom. Soc. America 65, 1424–1425 (1972).
  13. W. Keawhorm, The Queen Sirikit Department of Sericulture, Saraburi, Thailand (personal communication, 2011).
  14. C. Liu, Z. H. Ren, H. Z. Wang, P. Q. Yang, and X. L. Zhang, “Analysis on gender of silkworms by MRI technology,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Information (2008), pp. 8–12.
  15. M. S. Kim, J. E. McMurtrey, C. L. Mulchi, C. S. T. Daughtry, E. W. Chappelle, and Y.- R. Chen, “Steady-state multispectral fluorescence imaging system for plant leaves,” Appl. Opt. 40, 157–166 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Suwansukho, and P. Buranasiri, “Two-wavelength spectral image-based Thai rice breed identification,” Proc. SPIE 7715, 77150I (2010).
  17. K. Suwansukho, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, and P. Buranasiri, “Demonstration of a single-wavelength spectral imaging-based Thai jasmine rice identification,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4024–4030 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).
  19. T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).
  20. T. Acharya and A. K. Ray, Image Processing Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2005).
  21. S. Sumriddetchkajorn and K. Chaitavon, “Field test studies of our infrared-based human temperature screening system embedded with a parallel measurement approach,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 52, 119–123 (2009).
  22. S. Sumriddetchkajorn and A. Somboonkaew, “TAD2: the first truly non-intrusive lie detection system deployed in real crime cases,” Proc. SPIE 7854, 78540Z (2010).

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and A. Somboonkaew, “TAD2: the first truly non-intrusive lie detection system deployed in real crime cases,” Proc. SPIE 7854, 78540Z (2010).

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Suwansukho, and P. Buranasiri, “Two-wavelength spectral image-based Thai rice breed identification,” Proc. SPIE 7715, 77150I (2010).

M. G. Suzuki, “Sex determination: insights from the silkworm,” J. Genet. 89, 357–363 (2010).

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

2009 (1)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and K. Chaitavon, “Field test studies of our infrared-based human temperature screening system embedded with a parallel measurement approach,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 52, 119–123 (2009).

2007 (1)

T. Fujii and T. Shimada, “Sex determination in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: a female determinant on the W chromosome and the sex-determining gene cascade,” Semi. Cell Dev. Biol. 18, pp. 379–388 (2007).

2002 (1)

G. Saccone, A. Pane, and L. C. Polito, “Sex determination in flies, fruitflies, and butterflies,” Genetica 116, 15–23(2002).

2001 (1)

1995 (1)

T. Jin, L. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Chen, “Differentiation of male, female and dead silkworms while in the cocoon by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 3, 89–95 (1995).

1985 (1)

Y. Seo, H. Morishima, and A. Hosokawa, “Separation of male and female silkworm pupae by weight: prediction of separability,” J. Japan. Soc. Agri. Mach. 47, 191–195 (1985).

1972 (1)

J. W. Mertins and H. C. Coppel, “Seed dockage sieves for sex-separation of pine sawfly cocoons,” Ann. Entom. Soc. America 65, 1424–1425 (1972).

Acharya, T.

T. Acharya and A. K. Ray, Image Processing Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2005).

Aruga, H.

H. Aruga, “Cocoon,” in Principles of Sericulture (A. A. Balkema, 1994), Chap. 8, pp. 303–341.

Buranasiri, P.

K. Suwansukho, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, and P. Buranasiri, “Demonstration of a single-wavelength spectral imaging-based Thai jasmine rice identification,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4024–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Suwansukho, and P. Buranasiri, “Two-wavelength spectral image-based Thai rice breed identification,” Proc. SPIE 7715, 77150I (2010).

Chaitavon, K.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and K. Chaitavon, “Field test studies of our infrared-based human temperature screening system embedded with a parallel measurement approach,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 52, 119–123 (2009).

Chappelle, E. W.

Chen, H.

T. Jin, L. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Chen, “Differentiation of male, female and dead silkworms while in the cocoon by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 3, 89–95 (1995).

Chen, Y.- R.

Coppel, H. C.

J. W. Mertins and H. C. Coppel, “Seed dockage sieves for sex-separation of pine sawfly cocoons,” Ann. Entom. Soc. America 65, 1424–1425 (1972).

Cummings, C.

J. Schulte, H.- P. Shih, and C. Cummings, “Sex-specific automated sorting of non-human animals,” U.S. patent application US2006/0123489 (8 June, 2006).

Daimon, T.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Daughtry, C. S. T.

Ellington, J.

J. Jordan, J. Ellington, and J. McCoy, “An electronic vision system for sorting cotton boll worm pupae by sex,” in IEEE Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 1988), pp. 538–542.

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii and T. Shimada, “Sex determination in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: a female determinant on the W chromosome and the sex-determining gene cascade,” Semi. Cell Dev. Biol. 18, pp. 379–388 (2007).

Hirayama, C.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Hosokawa, A.

Y. Seo, H. Morishima, and A. Hosokawa, “Separation of male and female silkworm pupae by weight: prediction of separability,” J. Japan. Soc. Agri. Mach. 47, 191–195 (1985).

Jin, T.

T. Jin, L. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Chen, “Differentiation of male, female and dead silkworms while in the cocoon by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 3, 89–95 (1995).

Jordan, J.

J. Jordan, J. Ellington, and J. McCoy, “An electronic vision system for sorting cotton boll worm pupae by sex,” in IEEE Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 1988), pp. 538–542.

Kanai, M.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Katsuma, S.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Keawhorm, W.

W. Keawhorm, The Queen Sirikit Department of Sericulture, Saraburi, Thailand (personal communication, 2011).

Khee, I.- J.

S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).

Kim, M. S.

Kim, Y.-T.

S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).

Kosegawa, E.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Lee, S.-P.

S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).

Lim, B.- H.

S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).

Lim, J.- S.

S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).

Lim, S.-H.

S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. H. Ren, H. Z. Wang, P. Q. Yang, and X. L. Zhang, “Analysis on gender of silkworms by MRI technology,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Information (2008), pp. 8–12.

Liu, L.

T. Jin, L. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Chen, “Differentiation of male, female and dead silkworms while in the cocoon by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 3, 89–95 (1995).

Ma, Y. L.

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

McCoy, J.

J. Jordan, J. Ellington, and J. McCoy, “An electronic vision system for sorting cotton boll worm pupae by sex,” in IEEE Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 1988), pp. 538–542.

McMurtrey, J. E.

Meng, Y.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Mertins, J. W.

J. W. Mertins and H. C. Coppel, “Seed dockage sieves for sex-separation of pine sawfly cocoons,” Ann. Entom. Soc. America 65, 1424–1425 (1972).

Morishima, H.

Y. Seo, H. Morishima, and A. Hosokawa, “Separation of male and female silkworm pupae by weight: prediction of separability,” J. Japan. Soc. Agri. Mach. 47, 191–195 (1985).

Mulchi, C. L.

Nakamura, M.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Pane, A.

G. Saccone, A. Pane, and L. C. Polito, “Sex determination in flies, fruitflies, and butterflies,” Genetica 116, 15–23(2002).

Peipei, T.

T. Peipei, “Sex identification method for silkworm larva,” China patent, CN1990881 (4 July, 2007).

Polito, L. C.

G. Saccone, A. Pane, and L. C. Polito, “Sex determination in flies, fruitflies, and butterflies,” Genetica 116, 15–23(2002).

Ray, A. K.

T. Acharya and A. K. Ray, Image Processing Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2005).

Ren, Z. H.

C. Liu, Z. H. Ren, H. Z. Wang, P. Q. Yang, and X. L. Zhang, “Analysis on gender of silkworms by MRI technology,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Information (2008), pp. 8–12.

Ruike, Y.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Saccone, G.

G. Saccone, A. Pane, and L. C. Polito, “Sex determination in flies, fruitflies, and butterflies,” Genetica 116, 15–23(2002).

Schulte, J.

J. Schulte, H.- P. Shih, and C. Cummings, “Sex-specific automated sorting of non-human animals,” U.S. patent application US2006/0123489 (8 June, 2006).

Seo, Y.

Y. Seo, H. Morishima, and A. Hosokawa, “Separation of male and female silkworm pupae by weight: prediction of separability,” J. Japan. Soc. Agri. Mach. 47, 191–195 (1985).

Shen, W. D.

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

Shih, H.- P.

J. Schulte, H.- P. Shih, and C. Cummings, “Sex-specific automated sorting of non-human animals,” U.S. patent application US2006/0123489 (8 June, 2006).

Shimada, T.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

T. Fujii and T. Shimada, “Sex determination in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: a female determinant on the W chromosome and the sex-determining gene cascade,” Semi. Cell Dev. Biol. 18, pp. 379–388 (2007).

Somboonkaew, A.

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and A. Somboonkaew, “TAD2: the first truly non-intrusive lie detection system deployed in real crime cases,” Proc. SPIE 7854, 78540Z (2010).

Sumriddetchkajorn, S.

K. Suwansukho, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, and P. Buranasiri, “Demonstration of a single-wavelength spectral imaging-based Thai jasmine rice identification,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4024–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Suwansukho, and P. Buranasiri, “Two-wavelength spectral image-based Thai rice breed identification,” Proc. SPIE 7715, 77150I (2010).

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and A. Somboonkaew, “TAD2: the first truly non-intrusive lie detection system deployed in real crime cases,” Proc. SPIE 7854, 78540Z (2010).

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and K. Chaitavon, “Field test studies of our infrared-based human temperature screening system embedded with a parallel measurement approach,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 52, 119–123 (2009).

Suwansukho, K.

K. Suwansukho, S. Sumriddetchkajorn, and P. Buranasiri, “Demonstration of a single-wavelength spectral imaging-based Thai jasmine rice identification,” Appl. Opt. 50, 4024–4030 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Suwansukho, and P. Buranasiri, “Two-wavelength spectral image-based Thai rice breed identification,” Proc. SPIE 7715, 77150I (2010).

Suzuki, M. G.

M. G. Suzuki, “Sex determination: insights from the silkworm,” J. Genet. 89, 357–363 (2010).

Tang, X.

T. Jin, L. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Chen, “Differentiation of male, female and dead silkworms while in the cocoon by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 3, 89–95 (1995).

Tsujimoto, G.

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Wang, H. Z.

C. Liu, Z. H. Ren, H. Z. Wang, P. Q. Yang, and X. L. Zhang, “Analysis on gender of silkworms by MRI technology,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Information (2008), pp. 8–12.

Xu, N. A.

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

Yang, P. Q.

C. Liu, Z. H. Ren, H. Z. Wang, P. Q. Yang, and X. L. Zhang, “Analysis on gender of silkworms by MRI technology,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Information (2008), pp. 8–12.

Yi, S. Q.

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

Yu, X. H.

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

Zhang, X. L.

C. Liu, Z. H. Ren, H. Z. Wang, P. Q. Yang, and X. L. Zhang, “Analysis on gender of silkworms by MRI technology,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Information (2008), pp. 8–12.

Zhang, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

Zhou, L. X.

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

Ann. Entom. Soc. America (1)

J. W. Mertins and H. C. Coppel, “Seed dockage sieves for sex-separation of pine sawfly cocoons,” Ann. Entom. Soc. America 65, 1424–1425 (1972).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Genetica (1)

G. Saccone, A. Pane, and L. C. Polito, “Sex determination in flies, fruitflies, and butterflies,” Genetica 116, 15–23(2002).

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and K. Chaitavon, “Field test studies of our infrared-based human temperature screening system embedded with a parallel measurement approach,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 52, 119–123 (2009).

J. Genet. (1)

M. G. Suzuki, “Sex determination: insights from the silkworm,” J. Genet. 89, 357–363 (2010).

J. Japan. Soc. Agri. Mach. (1)

Y. Seo, H. Morishima, and A. Hosokawa, “Separation of male and female silkworm pupae by weight: prediction of separability,” J. Japan. Soc. Agri. Mach. 47, 191–195 (1985).

J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (1)

T. Jin, L. Liu, X. Tang, and H. Chen, “Differentiation of male, female and dead silkworms while in the cocoon by near infrared spectroscopy,” J. Near Infrared Spectroscopy 3, 89–95 (1995).

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1)

T. Daimon, C. Hirayama, M. Kanai, Y. Ruike, Y. Meng, E. Kosegawa, M. Nakamura, G. Tsujimoto, S. Katsuma, and T. Shimada, “The silkworm Green b locus encodes a quercetin 5-O-glucosyltransferase that produces green cocoons with UV-shielding properties,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 11471–11476 (2010).

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Sumriddetchkajorn and A. Somboonkaew, “TAD2: the first truly non-intrusive lie detection system deployed in real crime cases,” Proc. SPIE 7854, 78540Z (2010).

S. Sumriddetchkajorn, K. Suwansukho, and P. Buranasiri, “Two-wavelength spectral image-based Thai rice breed identification,” Proc. SPIE 7715, 77150I (2010).

Sci. China Ser. D (1)

Y. Q. Zhang, X. H. Yu, W. D. Shen, Y. L. Ma, L. X. Zhou, N. A. Xu, and S. Q. Yi, “Mechanism of fluorescent cocoon sex identification for silkworms Bombyx mori,” Sci. China Ser. D 53, 1330–1339 (2010).

Semi. Cell Dev. Biol. (1)

T. Fujii and T. Shimada, “Sex determination in the silkworm, Bombyx mori: a female determinant on the W chromosome and the sex-determining gene cascade,” Semi. Cell Dev. Biol. 18, pp. 379–388 (2007).

Other (9)

The Queen Sirikit Department of Sericulture, Bangkok, Thailand, http://www.qthaisilk.com , accessed on 5 April, 2011.

T. Peipei, “Sex identification method for silkworm larva,” China patent, CN1990881 (4 July, 2007).

J. Schulte, H.- P. Shih, and C. Cummings, “Sex-specific automated sorting of non-human animals,” U.S. patent application US2006/0123489 (8 June, 2006).

J. Jordan, J. Ellington, and J. McCoy, “An electronic vision system for sorting cotton boll worm pupae by sex,” in IEEE Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, Vol. 2 (IEEE, 1988), pp. 538–542.

S.-H. Lim, Y.-T. Kim, S.-P. Lee, I.- J. Khee, J.- S. Lim, and B.- H. Lim, Sericulture Training Manual (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1990).

H. Aruga, “Cocoon,” in Principles of Sericulture (A. A. Balkema, 1994), Chap. 8, pp. 303–341.

T. Acharya and A. K. Ray, Image Processing Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2005).

W. Keawhorm, The Queen Sirikit Department of Sericulture, Saraburi, Thailand (personal communication, 2011).

C. Liu, Z. H. Ren, H. Z. Wang, P. Q. Yang, and X. L. Zhang, “Analysis on gender of silkworms by MRI technology,” in Proceedings of Biomedical Engineering Information (2008), pp. 8–12.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Proposed optical penetration-based silkworm pupa sex identification architecture.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Flowchart of the proposed simple image processing operations embedded in the electronic controlling and processing unit.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup. LED: light emitting diode.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Examples of female (left) and male (right) silkworm pupae used in the experiment under (a) a digital camera in the reflection mode and (b) three red LEDs in the proposed optical penetration mode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Original image (A) of a silkworm pupa for (a) female and (b) male after going through (B) the one-level image thresholding, (C) the first blob filtering, (D) the image inversion, (E) the second blob filtering, and (F) the coordinate determination processes.

Equations (5)

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Iout(x,y)={255,ThminIin(x,y)Thmax0,Otherwise.
AR=Ab/As.
Iout(x,y)={255,ifIin(x,y)=00,ifIin(x,y)=255.
xc=i=1Nxj=1NyI(xi,yj)xi/i=1Nxj=1NyI(xi,yj),
yc=i=1Nxj=1NyI(xi,yj)yj/i=1Nxj=1NyI(xi,yj).

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