Abstract

Atmospheric vertical profiles of ozone, nitrous oxide, methane, dichlorodifluoromethane, and water are retrieved from data collected with a widely tunable external-cavity quantum-cascade laser heterodyne radiometer (EC-QC-LHR) covering a spectral range between 1120 and 1238cm1. The instrument was operated in solar occultation mode during a two-month measurement campaign at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, UK, in winter 2010/2011, and ultrahigh-resolution (60 MHz or 0.002cm1) transmission spectra were recorded for multiple narrow spectral windows (1cm1 width) specific to each molecule. The ultrahigh spectral resolution of the EC-QC-LHR allows retrieving altitudinal profiles from transmission spectra that contain only few (1–3) significant absorption lines of a target molecule. Profiles are validated by comparing with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts operational atmospheric profiles (ozone and water), with other data in the literature (nitrous oxide, methane, dichlorodifluoromethane), and with retrievals from a lower resolution (600 MHz or 0.02cm1) Fourier transform spectroscopy data that were also recorded during the measurement campaign.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012

T. Tsai and G. Wysocki, “Active wavelength control of an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 415–421 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. Parker, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, A. Fraser, L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, J. Messerschmidt, N. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, J. Notholt, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch, “Methane observations from the greenhouse gases observing SATellite: Comparison to ground-based TCCON data and model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L15807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, B. J. Perrett, N. A. Macleod, and R. M. Jenkins, “Hollow waveguide photomixing for quantum cascade laser heterodyne spectro-radiometry,” Opt. Express 19, 9074–9085(2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, T. Tsai, N. A. Macleod, and G. Wysocki, “Atmospheric observations of multiple molecular species using ultra-high-resolution external cavity quantum cascade laser heterodyne radiometry,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1951–1953 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Wofsy, “HIAPER pole-to-pole observations (HIPPO): fine-grained, global-scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 2073–2086 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061103–061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 μm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann and G. Wysocki, “High-resolution broadband (>100  cm−1) infrared heterodyne spectro-radiometry using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 17, 248–259 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

D. Stupar, J. Krieg, P. Krötz, G. Sonnabend, M. Sornig, T. F. Giesen, and R. Schieder, “Fully reflective external-cavity setup for quantum-cascade lasers as a local oscillator in mid-infrared wavelength heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 47, 2993–2997 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

D. Weidmann, W. J. Reburn, and K. M. Smith, “Ground-based prototype quantum cascade laser heterodyne radiometer for atmospheric studies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 073107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Weidmann, W. J. Reburn, and K. M. Smith, “Retrieval of atmospheric ozone profiles from an infrared quantum cascade laser heterodyne radiometer: results and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7162–7171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. K. Ejiri, Y. Terao, T. Sugita, H. Nakajima, T. Yokota, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, H. Irie, N. Saitoh, T. Tanaka, H. Kanzawa, M. Shiotani, S. Aoki, G. Hashida, T. Machida, T. Nakazawa, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Sasano, “Validation of the improved limb atmospheric spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) version 1.4 nitrous oxide and methane profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22S90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

P. F. Fogal, R. D. Blatherwick, F. J. Murcray, and J. R. Olson, “Infra-red FTS measurements of CH4, N2O, O3, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11 and CFC-12 from the MANTRA balloon campaign,” Atmos. Ocean 43, 351–359 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, C. Boone, R. Nassar, K. Walker, P. Bernath, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, J. C. McConnell, and L. Chiou, “Trends of HF, HCl, CCl2F2, CCl3F, CHClF2 (HCFC-22), and SF6 in the lower stratosphere from atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) and atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) measurements near 30°N latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L16S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Trenberth, J. Fasullo, and L. Smith, “Trends and variability in column-integrated atmospheric water vapor,” Clim. Dyn. 24, 741–758 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769–777(2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. R. Karl and K. E. Trenberth, “Modern global climate change,” Science 302, 1719–1723 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. J. Wuebbles and K. Hayhoe, “Atmospheric methane and global change,” Earth-Sci. Rev. 57, 177–210 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

P. L. Kinney, “The pulmonary effects of outdoor ozone and particle air pollution,” Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 20, 601–607 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

W. Bell, N. A. Martin, T. D. Gardiner, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, P. F. Fogal, and J. W. Waters, “Column measurements of stratospheric trace species over Åre, Sweden in the winter of 1991–1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1347–1350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. McNaughton, D. McGilvery, and E. G. Robertson, “High-resolution FTIR-jet spectroscopy of CCl2F2,” J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 1055–1060 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

1981

M. Morillon–Chapey, A. O. Diallo, and J. C. Deroche, “Isotopic and vibrational assignments of fluorocarbon-12 in the 8.6 μm and 10.8 μm regions,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 88, 424–427(1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

F. Allario, J. Hoell, S. Katzberg, and J. Larsen, “An experiment concept to measure stratospheric trace constituents by laser heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. A 23, 47–56 (1980).

1978

M. M. Abbas, T. Kostiuk, M. J. Mumma, D. Buhl, V. G. Kunde, and L. W. Brown, “Stratospheric ozone measurement with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 317–320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

R. T. Menzies and R. K. Seals, “Ozone monitoring with an infrared heterodyne radiometer,” Science 197, 1275–1277 (1977).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Frerking and D. J. Muehlner, “Infrared heterodyne spectroscopy of atmospheric ozone,” Appl. Opt. 16, 526–528 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1967

D. R. Bates and P. B. Hays, “Atmospheric nitrous oxide,” Planet. Space Sci. 15, 189–197 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. M. Abbas, T. Kostiuk, M. J. Mumma, D. Buhl, V. G. Kunde, and L. W. Brown, “Stratospheric ozone measurement with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 317–320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Allario, F.

F. Allario, J. Hoell, S. Katzberg, and J. Larsen, “An experiment concept to measure stratospheric trace constituents by laser heterodyne spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. A 23, 47–56 (1980).

Aoki, S.

M. K. Ejiri, Y. Terao, T. Sugita, H. Nakajima, T. Yokota, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, H. Irie, N. Saitoh, T. Tanaka, H. Kanzawa, M. Shiotani, S. Aoki, G. Hashida, T. Machida, T. Nakazawa, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Sasano, “Validation of the improved limb atmospheric spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) version 1.4 nitrous oxide and methane profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22S90 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bates, D. R.

D. R. Bates and P. B. Hays, “Atmospheric nitrous oxide,” Planet. Space Sci. 15, 189–197 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061103–061103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beer, R.

Bell, W.

W. Bell, N. A. Martin, T. D. Gardiner, N. R. Swann, P. T. Woods, P. F. Fogal, and J. W. Waters, “Column measurements of stratospheric trace species over Åre, Sweden in the winter of 1991–1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1347–1350 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P.

C. P. Rinsland, C. Boone, R. Nassar, K. Walker, P. Bernath, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, J. C. McConnell, and L. Chiou, “Trends of HF, HCl, CCl2F2, CCl3F, CHClF2 (HCFC-22), and SF6 in the lower stratosphere from atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) and atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) measurements near 30°N latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L16S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blaser, S.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 μm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 814–816 (2009).
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Blatherwick, R. D.

P. F. Fogal, R. D. Blatherwick, F. J. Murcray, and J. R. Olson, “Infra-red FTS measurements of CH4, N2O, O3, HNO3, HCl, CFC-11 and CFC-12 from the MANTRA balloon campaign,” Atmos. Ocean 43, 351–359 (2005).
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Blavier, J. F.

G. Toon, J. F. Blavier, R. Waschenfelder, D. Wunsch, G. Keppel–Aleks, P. Wennberg, B. Connor, V. Sherlock, D. Griffith, N. Deutscher, and J. Notholt, “Total column carbon observing network (TCCON),” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), JMA3.

Blavier, J.-F.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
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Blumenstock, T.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boesch, H.

R. Parker, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, A. Fraser, L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, J. Messerschmidt, N. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, J. Notholt, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch, “Methane observations from the greenhouse gases observing SATellite: Comparison to ground-based TCCON data and model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L15807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, Y.

A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 μm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 814–816 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061103–061103 (2009).
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Boone, C.

C. P. Rinsland, C. Boone, R. Nassar, K. Walker, P. Bernath, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, J. C. McConnell, and L. Chiou, “Trends of HF, HCl, CCl2F2, CCl3F, CHClF2 (HCFC-22), and SF6 in the lower stratosphere from atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) and atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) measurements near 30°N latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L16S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boone, C. D.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Brown, L. W.

M. M. Abbas, T. Kostiuk, M. J. Mumma, D. Buhl, V. G. Kunde, and L. W. Brown, “Stratospheric ozone measurement with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 317–320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, D.

M. M. Abbas, T. Kostiuk, M. J. Mumma, D. Buhl, V. G. Kunde, and L. W. Brown, “Stratospheric ozone measurement with an infrared heterodyne spectrometer,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 5, 317–320 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bulliard, J. M.

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769–777(2005).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Catoire, V.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, L.

C. P. Rinsland, C. Boone, R. Nassar, K. Walker, P. Bernath, E. Mahieu, R. Zander, J. C. McConnell, and L. Chiou, “Trends of HF, HCl, CCl2F2, CCl3F, CHClF2 (HCFC-22), and SF6 in the lower stratosphere from atmospheric chemistry experiment (ACE) and atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) measurements near 30°N latitude,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L16S03 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Coffey, M.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cogan, A.

R. Parker, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, A. Fraser, L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, J. Messerschmidt, N. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, J. Notholt, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch, “Methane observations from the greenhouse gases observing SATellite: Comparison to ground-based TCCON data and model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L15807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

C. Gmachl, D. L. Sivco, R. Colombelli, F. Capasso, and A. Y. Cho, “Ultra-broadband semiconductor laser,” Nature 415, 883–887 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Connor, B.

G. Toon, J. F. Blavier, R. Waschenfelder, D. Wunsch, G. Keppel–Aleks, P. Wennberg, B. Connor, V. Sherlock, D. Griffith, N. Deutscher, and J. Notholt, “Total column carbon observing network (TCCON),” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), JMA3.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769–777(2005).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Mazière, M.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Demoulin, P.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deroche, J. C.

M. Morillon–Chapey, A. O. Diallo, and J. C. Deroche, “Isotopic and vibrational assignments of fluorocarbon-12 in the 8.6 μm and 10.8 μm regions,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 88, 424–427(1981).
[CrossRef]

Deutscher, N.

R. Parker, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, A. Fraser, L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, J. Messerschmidt, N. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, J. Notholt, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch, “Methane observations from the greenhouse gases observing SATellite: Comparison to ground-based TCCON data and model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L15807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Toon, J. F. Blavier, R. Waschenfelder, D. Wunsch, G. Keppel–Aleks, P. Wennberg, B. Connor, V. Sherlock, D. Griffith, N. Deutscher, and J. Notholt, “Total column carbon observing network (TCCON),” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), JMA3.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J. P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J. M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J. Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen–Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi–Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simecková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Diallo, A. O.

M. Morillon–Chapey, A. O. Diallo, and J. C. Deroche, “Isotopic and vibrational assignments of fluorocarbon-12 in the 8.6 μm and 10.8 μm regions,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 88, 424–427(1981).
[CrossRef]

Duchatelet, P.

E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
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E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
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G. Wysocki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, R. Maulini, J. M. Bulliard, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade laser for high resolution spectroscopic applications,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 769–777(2005).
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G. Toon, J. F. Blavier, R. Waschenfelder, D. Wunsch, G. Keppel–Aleks, P. Wennberg, B. Connor, V. Sherlock, D. Griffith, N. Deutscher, and J. Notholt, “Total column carbon observing network (TCCON),” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), JMA3.

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E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
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A. Hugi, R. Terazzi, Y. Bonetti, A. Wittmann, M. Fischer, M. Beck, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum cascade laser tunable from 7.6 to 11.4 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 061103–061103 (2009).
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A. Wittmann, Y. Bonetti, M. Fischer, J. Faist, S. Blaser, and E. Gini, “Distributed-feedback quantum-cascade lasers at 9 μm operating in continuous wave up to 423 K,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21, 814–816 (2009).
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S. C. Wofsy, “HIAPER pole-to-pole observations (HIPPO): fine-grained, global-scale measurements of climatically important atmospheric gases and aerosols,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 369, 2073–2086 (2011).
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E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
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R. Parker, H. Boesch, A. Cogan, A. Fraser, L. Feng, P. I. Palmer, J. Messerschmidt, N. Deutscher, D. W. T. Griffith, J. Notholt, P. O. Wennberg, and D. Wunch, “Methane observations from the greenhouse gases observing SATellite: Comparison to ground-based TCCON data and model calculations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 38, L15807 (2011).
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G. Toon, J. F. Blavier, R. Waschenfelder, D. Wunsch, G. Keppel–Aleks, P. Wennberg, B. Connor, V. Sherlock, D. Griffith, N. Deutscher, and J. Notholt, “Total column carbon observing network (TCCON),” in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2009), JMA3.

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T. Tsai and G. Wysocki, “Active wavelength control of an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. B 109, 415–421 (2012).
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M. K. Ejiri, Y. Terao, T. Sugita, H. Nakajima, T. Yokota, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, G. Wetzel, H. Oelhaf, J. Urban, D. Murtagh, H. Irie, N. Saitoh, T. Tanaka, H. Kanzawa, M. Shiotani, S. Aoki, G. Hashida, T. Machida, T. Nakazawa, H. Kobayashi, and Y. Sasano, “Validation of the improved limb atmospheric spectrometer-II (ILAS-II) version 1.4 nitrous oxide and methane profiles,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D22S90 (2006).
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E. Mahieu, P. Duchatelet, P. Demoulin, K. A. Walker, E. Dupuy, L. Froidevaux, C. Randall, V. Catoire, K. Strong, C. D. Boone, P. F. Bernath, J.-F. Blavier, T. Blumenstock, M. Coffey, M. De Mazière, D. Griffith, J. Hannigan, F. Hase, N. Jones, K. W. Jucks, A. Kagawa, Y. Kasai, Y. Mebarki, S. Mikuteit, R. Nassar, J. Notholt, C. P. Rinsland, C. Robert, O. Schrems, C. Senten, D. Smale, J. Taylor, C. Tétard, G. C. Toon, T. Warneke, S. W. Wood, R. Zander, and C. Servais, “Validation of ACE-FTS v2.2 measurements of HCl, HF, CCl3F and CCl2F2 using space-, balloon- and ground-based instrument observations,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6199–6221 (2008).
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Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (United Nations, 1998).

J. H. Seinfeld and S. N. Pandis, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2nd ed. (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

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C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice, Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics (World Scientific, 2000), Vol. 2.

A. Dudhia, “Reference forward model software user’s manual,” http://www.atm.ox.ac.uk/RFM/sum .

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, “ECMWF data archive services,” http://www.ecmwf.int/products/data/archive/ .

R. G. Prinn, R. F. Weiss, P. J. Fraser, P. G. Simmonds, S. O’Doherty, P. Salameh, L. Porter, P. Krummel, R. H. J. Wang, B. R. Miller, C. Harth, B. Greally, F. A. Van Woy, L. P. Steele, J. Muehle, G. Sturrock, F. N. Alyea, J. Huang, and D. E. Hartley, “The ALE/GAGE/AGAGE network,” http://cdiac.ornl.gov/ndps/alegage.html .

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Raw signals acquired during a single spectral scan and (b) flow diagram of data postprocessing. Q and I signal represent the quadrature and in-phase lock-in signal, respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Prior analysis data used for optimization of the altitude grid. AKs for the retrieval of ozone between 1129.90 and 1130.30cm1 resulting from (a) 0–36 km altitude grid with 1 km spacing, (b) an optimized seven-level altitude grid. The black dotted lines indicate the sum of the AK elements at each altitude (top axis), and in (b) the number labels indicate the altitude associated with each AK peak, and (c) shows a comparison of percentage retrieval errors estimated for the two altitudinal grids.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Prior analysis data for ozone in the spectral window between 1129.90 and 1130.30cm1 on a 1 km spaced grid covering 0 to 36 km: (a) is the simulated spectra, (b) is the weighting function, and (c) is the gain matrix. The color bar in (b) gives the values of the weighting function in units of ppmv1 and in (c) gives the gain matrix values in units of ppmv with different colors indicating positive or negative gain. The oscillations in (c) are related to competing contributions of spectral channels with altitude caused by pressure and temperature atmospheric profiles.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Spectral window 1. The top plot is an RFM simulation of the transmission spectrum for standard atmospheric conditions; the center plot is the experimental spectrum (black dots) with the OEM fit overlaid in red; and the bottom plot shows the residual differences between the OEM fit and the data. The gray box in the center plot indicates the truncated spectral range used for O3 retrieval.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Retrieved profiles of ozone and resulting AKs after fitting using the OEM retrieval algorithm. (a) and (b) show, respectively the profiles and AKs obtained from the full spectral window 1, (c) and (d) show, respectively the profiles and AKs from a retrieval over a truncated range of 1129.99 to 1130.29cm1. In (a) and (c) the retrieval error and profiles are plotted on a log scale and are compared to the ECMWF profiles (dashed line). Relative retrieval errors are plotted on the right of (a) and (c). The total retrieval error (Tot) includes the retrieval error from smoothing (S) and measurement noise (M). In (b) and (d) the sums of the AKs are indicated on the right plots.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral window 2. The top plot is an RFM simulation of the transmission spectrum for standard atmospheric conditions; the center plot is the experimental spectrum with the OEM fit overlaid; and the bottom plot shows the residual differences between the OEM fit and the data.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

AK values for spectral window 2.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

N2O vertical profile retrieved from the single absorption line appearing in spectral window 2 (left) and the corresponding AK values (right).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral window 4. The top plot is an RFM simulation of the transmission spectrum for standard atmospheric conditions; the center plot is the experimental spectrum with the OEM fit overlaid; and the bottom plot shows the residual differences between the OEM fit and the data. The OEM fit is performed using a full range of spectral window 4. An improved retrieval is obtained for a reduced spectral range containing the single CH4 line at 1216.6cm1, as described in the text.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Methane vertical profile (left) retrieved from a truncated spectral range (1216.491216.75cm1) containing a single isolated CH4 line and AKs corresponding to the OEM fit (right).

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

RFM simulation for standard atmospheric conditions (top plot), acquired spectral data shown as black dots and OEM fit shown as red line (center plot), and fit residuals (bottom plot) in spectral window 3.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Comparison of vertical profiles (top left) and retrieval errors (top right) for all five target molecules retrieved from FTS data (solid lines, solid symbols) and from EC-QC-LHR spectral windows (dotted lines, open symbols). The spectral ranges of the two instruments are illustrated in the bottom plot, in which the FTS spectrum covers 1120 to 1220cm1 and the EC-QC-LHR spectral windows are noted by red vertical lines.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Main Target Absorption Lines within the Four Spectral Windows Selected for Atmospheric Profilinga

Equations (2)

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y=F(x)+ε,
χ2=(yF(xn))Sε1(yF(xn))T+(xaxn)Sa1(xaxn)T,

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