Abstract

The ability to simulate atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory is a crucial part of testing and developing astronomical adaptive optics (AO) technology. We report on the development of a technique for creating phase plates that involves the strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of these plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried’s parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2–1.2 mm, with a Kolmogorov power law. These phase plates have been successfully used by the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed as part of the Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments (Villages) calibration system and during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager. Measurements of the turbulence from the plate in Villages are compared to the sky, which shows the plate produces good representative atmospheric aberrations. We are now distributing the plates to other members of the AO community.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  6. C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. C. Max, “Lecture 5: the optical effects of atmospheric turbulence,” Astronomy (University of California, 2010), Vol. 289.

2010 (1)

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

2008 (1)

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

O. Keskin, L. Jolissaint, and C. Bradley, “Hot-air optical turbulence generator for the testing of adaptive optics systems: principles and characterization,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4888–4897 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hippler, F. Hormuth, D. J. Butler, W. Brandner, and T. Henning, “Atmosphere-like turbulence generation with surface-etched phase screens,” Opt. Express 14, 10139–10148(2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

2005 (1)

J. D. Phillips, M. E. Goda, and J. Schmidt, “Atmospheric turbulence simulation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 589406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 372–383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1941 (1)

A. Kolmogorov, “The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluids at very large Reynolds numbers,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301–305 (1941).

1938 (1)

G. I. Taylor, “The spectrum of turbulence,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 164, 476–490 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Ammons, S. M.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angel, R. P.

Bähr, J.

Baker, K. L.

Barbier, P. R.

C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bauman, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Baumann, B.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, C.

Brandner, W.

Butler, D. J.

Davis, C. C.

C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dillon, D.

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Doyon, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Egner, S.

Erikson, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Evans, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Fried, D. L.

Gates, E.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

K. L. Baker, E. A. Stappaerts, S. C. Wilks, P. E. Young, D. Gavel, J. Tucker, D. A. Silva, and S. S. Olivier, “Open- and closed-loop aberration correction using a quadrature interferometric wave-front sensor,” Opt. Lett. 29, 47–49 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D. T.

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 372–383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Goda, M. E.

J. D. Phillips, M. E. Goda, and J. Schmidt, “Atmospheric turbulence simulation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 589406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Graham, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Grigsby, B.

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Henning, T.

Hippler, S.

Hormuth, F.

Johansson, E. M.

E. M. Johansson and D. T. Gavel, “Simulation of stellar speckle imaging,” Proc. SPIE 2201, 372–383 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. C.

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

Jolissaint, L.

Keskin, O.

Kolmogorov, A.

A. Kolmogorov, “The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluids at very large Reynolds numbers,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301–305 (1941).

Larkin, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Lockwood, C.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macintosh, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Macintosh, B. A.

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

Max, C.

C. Max, “Lecture 5: the optical effects of atmospheric turbulence,” Astronomy (University of California, 2010), Vol. 289.

Morzinski, K.

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Olivier, S. S.

Oppenheimer, B.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Palmer, D.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Phillion, D.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Phillips, J. D.

J. D. Phillips, M. E. Goda, and J. Schmidt, “Atmospheric turbulence simulation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 589406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Plett, M. L.

C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polak-Kingles, P.

C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Poyneer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Reinig, M.

K. Morzinski, L. C. Johnson, D. T. Gavel, B. Grigsby, D. Dillon, M. Reinig, and B. A. Macintosh, “Performance of MEMS-based visible-light adaptive optics at Lick Observatory: closed- and open-loop control,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 77361O (2010).

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rhoadarmer, T. A.

Rush, D. W.

C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saddlemyer, L.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Schmidt, J.

J. D. Phillips, M. E. Goda, and J. Schmidt, “Atmospheric turbulence simulation using liquid-crystal spatial light modulators,” Proc. SPIE 5894, 589406 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serverson, S.

B. Grigsby, C. Lockwood, B. Baumann, D. Gavel, J. Johnson, S. M. Ammons, D. Dillon, K. Morzinski, M. Reinig, D. Palmer, S. Serverson, and E. Gates, “ViLLaGEs: opto-mechanical design of an on-sky visible-light MEMS-based AO system,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701841 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D. A.

Sivaramakrishnan, A.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Soummer, R.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Stappaerts, E. A.

Taylor, G. I.

G. I. Taylor, “The spectrum of turbulence,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 164, 476–490 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Thibault, S.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Thomas, S.

S. Thomas, “A simple turbulence simulator for adaptive optics,” Proc. SPIE 5490, 766–773 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, J.

Veran, J.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Wallace, K.

B. Macintosh, J. Graham, D. Palmer, R. Doyon, D. Gavel, J. Larkin, B. Oppenheimer, L. Saddlemyer, K. Wallace, B. Bauman, J. Evans, D. Erikson, K. Morzinski, D. Phillion, L. Poyneer, A. Sivaramakrishnan, R. Soummer, S. Thibault, and J. Veran, “The Gemini Planet Imager,” Proc. SPIE 6272, 62720L (2006).

Wilks, S. C.

Xu, W.

Young, P. E.

Zhang, Y.

C. C. Davis, Y. Zhang, M. L. Plett, P. Polak-Kingles, P. R. Barbier, and D. W. Rush, “Characterization of a liquid-filled turbulence simulator,” Proc. SPIE 3432, 38–49 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR (1)

A. Kolmogorov, “The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluids at very large Reynolds numbers,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301–305 (1941).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. (1)

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Proc. SPIE (7)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Other (2)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Left) Diagram of the spraying apparatus. (Right) Arrows indicate the path followed by the can while coating the substrate.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Left) Aerosol can suspended from the two motorized slides. The plate being sprayed is also visible beneath the can, near the bottom left. (Right) Entire setup as viewed from outside the Plexiglas enclosure.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Images from the Zygo interferometer show the presence of light scattering pigments in the enamel spray. (Left) Uncoated plastic disk and (right) disk coated with the Ace enamel, at the same magnification. Each image is 3 mm by 1.5 mm. The “ripples” seen on the uncoated disk are interference patterns due to the disk surface not being perfectly perpendicular to the beam.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectra for the two substrates, plastic (green) and glass (red), and for the acrylic spray on glass (blue). The presence of the spray on glass causes no significant decrease in transmission, and the slight increase (blue curve is slightly above the red) is likely due to lensing by the uneven surface of the acrylic.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Top) Resulting structure function and radially averaged power spectrum for eight locations on a 14 cm diameter disk. The dashed red curves represent Kolmogorov theory for r0=0.3mm, at 650 nm wavelength. (Bottom) Reconstructed phase from the QPI for three of the data points. These are each 1.4 cm across and verify the uniformity of the turbulence across the plate.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(Top) Resulting structure function and radially averaged power spectrum for eight locations on a 7.6 cm diameter disk, where the red curves represent Kolmogorov theory for r0=0.8mm, at 650 nm wavelength. (Bottom) Reconstructed phase from QPI for three of the locations tested. These are an indicator of the uniformity of the turbulence.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Eight versions of computer-generated phases with the same spatial scale and number of pixels were evaluated, three of which are shown. The similarity between these and the physical plates indicates our analysis is valid.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(Top) Resulting structure function and radially averaged power spectrum for five locations on a 14 cm diameter disk. The dashed red curves represent Kolmogorov theory for r0=0.2mm, at 650 nm wavelength. (Bottom) Reconstructed phase from the QPI for three of the data points.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(Top) Resulting structure function and radially averaged power spectrum for eight locations on a 14 cm diameter disk. The dashed red curves represent Kolmogorov theory for r01.2mm, at 650 nm wavelength. The gray curve toward the bottom of the power spectrum represents the noise present in QPI. A remnant of the vibration near 2×104cycles/m is evident in the data here and also in plate C. (Bottom) Reconstructed phase from the QPI for three of the data points.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Power spectrum of the turbulence plate in the Villages instrument. The black curve shows measurements from the open-loop path, the horizontal line is the noise floor, and the tilted line represents Kolmogorov theory, which the data match very well.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Example of shallow sky power spectrum. The black curve shows measurements from the open-loop path, the horizontal line is the noise floor, and the tilted line represents Kolmogorov theory. This occurred in about a third of the 40 data sets examined.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Example of bowed sky power spectrum. The black curve shows measurements from the open-loop path, the horizontal line is the noise floor, and the tilted line represents Kolmogorov theory. This type of shape was also seen in a third of the 40 data sets examined.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Example of sky power spectrum that follows Kolmogorov statistics well. The black curve shows measurements from the open-loop path, the horizontal line is the noise floor, and the tilted line represents Kolmogorov theory. This was only observed in a third of the 40 data sets examined.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Visual Comparison of Different Types and Brands of Aerosols

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Table 2. Values of r0, RMS, and Peak-to-Valleya

Equations (3)

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P(k)=0.027r05/3k11/3,
DΦ(r)=[Φ(x)Φ(x+r)]2,
DΦ(r)=6.88(rr0)5/3.

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