Abstract

Ocean color climate data records (CDRs) require water-leaving radiances with 5% absolute and 1% relative accuracies as input. Because of the amplification of any sensor calibration errors by the atmospheric correction, the 1% relative accuracy requirement translates into a 0.1% long-term radiometric stability requirement for top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The rigorous prelaunch and on-orbit calibration program developed and implemented for Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) has led to the incorporation of significant changes into the on-orbit calibration methodology over the 13-year lifetime of the instrument. Evolving instrument performance and ongoing algorithm refinement have resulted in updates to approaches for the lunar, solar, and vicarious calibration of SeaWiFS. The uncertainties in the calibrated TOA radiances are addressed in terms of accuracy (biases in the measurements), precision (scatter in the measurements), and stability (repeatability of the measurements). The biases are 2%–3% from lunar calibration and 1%–2% from vicarious calibration. The precision is 0.16% from solar signal-to-noise ratios, 0.13% from lunar residuals, and 0.10% from vicarious gains. The long-term stability of the TOA radiances, derived from the lunar time series, is 0.13%. The stability of the vicariously calibrated TOA radiances, incorporating the uncertainties of the in situ measurements and the atmospheric correction, is 0.30%. This stability of the radiometric calibration of SeaWiFS over its 13-year on-orbit lifetime has allowed the OBPG to produce CDRs from the ocean color data set.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2011 (4)

F. P. Chavez, M. Messie, and J. T. Pennington, “Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3, 227–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Wilson, “The rocky road from research to operations for satellite ocean-colour data in fishery management,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 677–686 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Uncertainty assessment of the SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81530B (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, X. Xiong, and C. R. McClain, “Cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Appl. Opt. 50, 120–133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

D. A. Siegel and B. A. Franz, “Century of phytoplankton change,” Nature 466, 569–571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment vis the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: functional fits to the lunar time series,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 708112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, “Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810X (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

R. E. Eplee, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

2002 (3)

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS detector and gain calibrations: Four year of on-orbit stability,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 282–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and H. W. Yoon, “Radiometric calibration history of visible and near-infrared portable radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 423–426 (2000).

1998 (2)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

Ainsworth, E. J.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. Bailey, “SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach using in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties,” in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997–2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, G. S. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, and C. McClain, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001), pp. 88–96.

Antoine, D.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Bailey, S.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. Bailey, “SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach using in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties,” in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997–2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, G. S. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, and C. McClain, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001), pp. 88–96.

Bailey, S. W.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610(2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and P. J. Werdell, “Quality and consistency of the NASA ocean color data record,” Proc. Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October (2012).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, S. W. Bailey, and P. J. Werdell, “Changes to the on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS,” in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 12–19.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Barnes, R.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Barnes, R. A.

R. E. Eplee, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610(2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS detector and gain calibrations: Four year of on-orbit stability,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 282–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. 23, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, S. W. Bailey, and P. J. Werdell, “Changes to the on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS,” in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 12–19.

Barnes, W.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Barnes, W. L.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. 23, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).

Beaulieu, C.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Behrenfeld, M. J.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Bontempi, P. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Bopp, L.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E. S.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Broenkow, W.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

Brown, S. W.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and H. W. Yoon, “Radiometric calibration history of visible and near-infrared portable radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 423–426 (2000).

Buis, J. P.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caffrey, R. T.

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999).

Chatenet, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chavez, F. P.

F. P. Chavez, M. Messie, and J. T. Pennington, “Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3, 227–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

Culver, M. E.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Dierssen, H. M.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Doney, S. C.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Dunne, J. P.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. E.

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999).

Eck, T. F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Endres, D.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Eplee, R. E.

R. E. Eplee, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, X. Xiong, and C. R. McClain, “Cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Appl. Opt. 50, 120–133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Uncertainty assessment of the SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81530B (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: functional fits to the lunar time series,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 708112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610(2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS detector and gain calibrations: Four year of on-orbit stability,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 282–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, S. W. Bailey, and P. J. Werdell, “Changes to the on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS,” in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 12–19.

R. E. Eplee and F. S. Patt, “Cloud-top radiance analysis for SeaWiFS bilinear knee calibration,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 9, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), pp. 13–16.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Esaias, W. E.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. 23, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).

Evans, R. H.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Feinholz, M. E.

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feinholz, M. F.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Fields, E.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Flora, S. J.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franz, B. A.

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Uncertainty assessment of the SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81530B (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel and B. A. Franz, “Century of phytoplankton change,” Nature 466, 569–571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and P. J. Werdell, “Quality and consistency of the NASA ocean color data record,” Proc. Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October (2012).

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. Bailey, “SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach using in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties,” in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997–2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, G. S. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, and C. McClain, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001), pp. 88–96.

Frouin, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Y.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

Gordon, H. R.

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Halthore, R.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Henson, S. A.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holben, B. N.

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, A. W.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. 23, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Houlihan, T.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jankowiak, I.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

John, J.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. C.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and H. W. Yoon, “Radiometric calibration history of visible and near-infrared portable radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 423–426 (2000).

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999).

Johnston, A. H.

A. H. Johnston, “Radiation damage of electronic and optoelectronic devices in space,” presented at the 4th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Application, Tsukuba, Japan (11–13, October 2000).

Karneli, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, H. H.

R. E. Eplee, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610(2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, G. J.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Knobelspiesse, K. D.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kostadinov, T. S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment vis the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuring, N. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Kwiatkowska, E. J.

Lavenu, F.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lima, I.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maritorena, S.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment vis the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Markham, B.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

R. E. Eplee, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, X. Xiong, and C. R. McClain, “Cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Appl. Opt. 50, 120–133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Uncertainty assessment of the SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81530B (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ahmad, B. A. Franz, C. R. McClain, E. J. Kwiatkowska, J. Werdell, E. P. Shettle, and B. N. Holben, “New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans,” Appl. Opt. 49, 5545–5560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: functional fits to the lunar time series,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 708112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610(2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS detector and gain calibrations: Four year of on-orbit stability,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 282–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. 23, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Meister, G.

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Uncertainty assessment of the SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81530B (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, X. Xiong, and C. R. McClain, “Cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Appl. Opt. 50, 120–133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: functional fits to the lunar time series,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 708112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and P. J. Werdell, “Quality and consistency of the NASA ocean color data record,” Proc. Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October (2012).

Mengelt, C.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Messie, M.

F. P. Chavez, M. Messie, and J. T. Pennington, “Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3, 227–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, G.

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

Mueller, J. L.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. B.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Newcomb, W. W.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, N. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

R. E. Eplee, J.-Q. Sun, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, X. Xiong, and C. R. McClain, “Cross calibration of SeaWiFS and MODIS using on-orbit observations of the Moon,” Appl. Opt. 50, 120–133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Uncertainty assessment of the SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81530B (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: functional fits to the lunar time series,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 708112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS on-orbit gain and detector calibrations: effect on ocean products,” Appl. Opt. 46, 6733–6750 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, R. E. Eplee, G. M. Schmidt, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6682–6700 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee and F. S. Patt, “Cloud-top radiance analysis for SeaWiFS bilinear knee calibration,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 9, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), pp. 13–16.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Pederson, B. A.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Pennington, J. T.

F. P. Chavez, M. Messie, and J. T. Pennington, “Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3, 227–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peters, D.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pietras, C.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pinker, R. T.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ransibrahmanakul, V.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Reagan, J. A.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
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Robinson, W. D.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Sarmiento, J. L.

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Schafer, J. S.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
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Schmidt, G. M.

Setzer, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

Siegel, D. A.

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment vis the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).
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D. A. Siegel and B. A. Franz, “Century of phytoplankton change,” Nature 466, 569–571 (2010).
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D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Slutsker, I.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
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B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, A.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soracco, M.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Stone, T. C.

T. C. Stone, “Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810X (2008).
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T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
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H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stumpf, R. P.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Sun, J.-Q.

Svitek, T.

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. 23, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).

Swan, C. M.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Tanre, D.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tester, P. A.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Tomlinson, M.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Trees, C.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

Truby, E.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Vande Castle, J.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E.

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, K. J.

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

Wang, M.

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
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M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
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R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Werdell, J.

Werdell, P. J.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, P. J. Werdell, and C. R. McClain, “Sensor-independent approach to the vicarious calibration of satellite ocean color radiometry,” Appl. Opt. 46, 5068–5082 (2007).
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R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, S. W. Bailey, and P. J. Werdell, “Changes to the on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS,” in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 12–19.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and P. J. Werdell, “Quality and consistency of the NASA ocean color data record,” Proc. Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October (2012).

Westberry, T. K.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Wilding, J. G.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Wilson, C.

C. Wilson, “The rocky road from research to operations for satellite ocean-colour data in fishery management,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 677–686 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, X.

Yarbrough, M. A.

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, J. A.

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

Yoon, H. W.

B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and H. W. Yoon, “Radiometric calibration history of visible and near-infrared portable radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 423–426 (2000).

Zibordi, G.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. (2)

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. P. Chavez, M. Messie, and J. T. Pennington, “Marine primary production in relation to climate variability and change,” Annu. Rev. Mar. Sci. 3, 227–260 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Astron. J. (1)

H. H. Kieffer and T. C. Stone, “The spectral irradiance of the Moon,” Astron. J. 129, 2887–2901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biogeosciences (2)

T. S. Kostadinov, D. A. Siegel, and S. Maritorena, “Global phytoplankton functional types from space: assessment vis the particle size distribution,” Biogeosciences 7, 3239–3257 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Henson, J. L. Sarmiento, J. P. Dunne, L. Bopp, I. Lima, S. C. Doney, J. John, and C. Beaulieu, “Detection of anthropogenic climate change in satellite records of ocean chlorophyll and productivity,” Biogeosciences 7, 621–640 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Harmful Algae (1)

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, and M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 2, 147–160 (2003).

Icarus (1)

H. H. Kieffer, “Photometric stability of the lunar surface,” Icarus 130, 323–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

ICES J. Mar. Sci. (1)

C. Wilson, “The rocky road from research to operations for satellite ocean-colour data in fishery management,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 68, 677–686 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

D. K. Clark, H. R. Gordon, K. J. Voss, Y. Ge, W. Broenkow, and C. Trees, “Validation of atmospheric correction over the oceans,” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 7293–7307 (1997).

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanre, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. Vande Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, K. D. Knobelspiesse, and C. R. McClain, “Study of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) aerosol optical property data over ocean in combination with the ocean color products,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D10S06 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, and H. W. Yoon, “Radiometric calibration history of visible and near-infrared portable radiometers,” Metrologia 37, 423–426 (2000).

Nature (1)

D. A. Siegel and B. A. Franz, “Century of phytoplankton change,” Nature 466, 569–571 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (10)

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, B. A. Franz, and C. R. McClain, “Uncertainty assessment of the SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration,” Proc. SPIE 8153, 81530B (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, S. W. Bailey, R. A. Barnes, H. H. Kieffer, and C. R. McClain, “Comparison of SeaWiFS on-orbit lunar and vicarious calibrations,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 629610(2006).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: functional fits to the lunar time series,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 708112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, and C. R. McClain, “The on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS: revised temperature and gain corrections,” Proc. SPIE 6677, 66770E (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS detector and gain calibrations: Four year of on-orbit stability,” Proc. SPIE 4814, 282–288 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, S. J. Flora, M. F. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, T. Houlihan, D. Peters, Y. S. Kim, J. L. Mueller, B. C. Johnson, and D. K. Clark, “The Marine Optical BuoY (MOBY) radiometric calibration and uncertainty budget for ocean color satellite sensor vicarious calibration,” Proc. SPIE 6744, 67441M (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Clark, M. E. Feinholz, M. A. Yarbrough, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, Y. S. Kim, and R. A. Barnes, “Overview of the radiometric calibration of MOBY,” Proc. SPIE 4483, 64–76 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, F. S. Patt, G. Meister, and C. R. McClain, “SeaWiFS lunar calibration methodology after six years on orbit,” Proc. SPIE 5542, 1–13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone and H. H. Kieffer, “Use of the Moon to support on-orbit sensor calibration for climate change measurements,” Proc. SPIE 6296, 62960Y (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Stone, “Radiometric calibration stability and inter-calibration of solar-band instruments in orbit using the Moon,” Proc. SPIE 7081, 70810X (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ. (3)

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, T. Nakajima, F. Lavenu, I. Jankowiak, and A. Smirnov, “AERONET—A federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “In-orbit calibration strategy for ocean color sensors,” Remote Sens. Environ. 63, 265–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang and H. R. Gordon, “Calibration of ocean color scanners: how much error is acceptable in the near infrared?,” Remote Sens. Environ. 82, 497–504 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, S. W. Bailey, and P. J. Werdell, “Changes to the on-orbit calibration of SeaWiFS,” in Algorithm Updates for the Fourth SeaWiFS Data Reprocessing, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 22, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2003), pp. 12–19.

A. H. Johnston, “Radiation damage of electronic and optoelectronic devices in space,” presented at the 4th International Workshop on Radiation Effects on Semiconductor Devices for Space Application, Tsukuba, Japan (11–13, October 2000).

R. A. Barnes, A. W. Holmes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, and T. Svitek, SeaWiFS Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration and Spectral Characterization, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, and J. G. Acker, eds. 23, NASA Tech. Memo. 104566 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1994).

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, G. Meister, and P. J. Werdell, “Quality and consistency of the NASA ocean color data record,” Proc. Ocean Optics XXI, Glasgow, Scotland, 8–12 October (2012).

National Research Council, Climate Data Records from Environmental Satellites: Interim Report (The National Academies, 2004).

C. R. McClain, W. E. Esaias, W. Barnes, B. Guenther, D. Endres, S. B. Hooker, G. Mitchell, and R. Barnes, SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Plan, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds., 3 NASA Tech. Memo. 104566, (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1992).

R. E. Eplee and F. S. Patt, “Cloud-top radiance analysis for SeaWiFS bilinear knee calibration,” in SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses, Part 1, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 9, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2000), pp. 13–16.

B. A. Franz, E. J. Ainsworth, and S. Bailey, “SeaWiFS vicarious calibration: an alternative approach using in situ observations of oceanic and atmospheric optical properties,” in In Situ Aerosol Optical Thickness Collected by the SIMBIOS Program (1997–2000): Protocols, Data QC, and Analysis, G. S. Fargion, R. A. Barnes, and C. McClain, eds., NASA Tech. Memo. 209982 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2001), pp. 88–96.

B. C. Johnson, E. E. Early, R. E. Eplee, R. A. Barnes, and R. T. Caffrey, The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS, S. B. Hooker and E. R. Firestone, eds. 4, NASA Tech. Memo. 206892 (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1999).

D. A. Siegel, M. J. Behrenfeld, S. Maritorena, C. R. McClain, D. Antoine, S. W. Bailey, P. S. Bontempi, E. S. Boss, H. M. Dierssen, S. C. Doney, R. E. Eplee, R. H. Evans, G. C. Feldman, E. Fields, B. A. Franz, N. A. Kuring, C. Mengelt, N. B. Nelson, F. S. Patt, W. D. Robinson, J. L. Sarmiento, C. M. Swan, P. J. Werdell, T. K. Westberry, J. G. Wilding, and J. A. Yoder, “Regional and global assessments of phytoplankton dynamics from the SeaWiFS mission,” Remote Sens. Environ. (to be published, 2013).

National Research Council, From Research to Operations in Weather Satellites and Numerical Weather Prediction: Crossing the Valley of Death (The National Academies, 2000).

National Research Council, Satellite Observations of the Earth’s Environment: Accelerating the Transition of Research to Operations (The National Academies, 2003).

National Research Council, Assessing Requirements for Sustained Ocean Color Research and Operations (The National Academies, 2011).

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Ocean color remote sensing. Spectra are shown for low chlorophyll (blue) and high chlorophyll (green) oceans scenes at the top of the atmosphere and at the ocean surface. Atmospheric correction removes 90% of the TOA radiance for a given ocean pixel. A calibration error of 0.1% in the TOA radiances introduces an error of 1% in the water-leaving radiances.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Orbit node drift. (a) The spacecraft altitude had decreased from 705 to 690 km between September 1997 and June 2010. (b) The node crossing time had increased from noon to 2:20 pm over this time. (c) The orbit raising maneuver increased the spacecraft altitude from 690 to 782 km. (d) The orbit raising maneuver reversed the direction of the node drift.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Band 1/B and 2 focal plane layout. The cloud (C) and ocean (O) detectors for each band are laid out on the focal plane as shown.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Calibration curve of Band 1 for the standard gain (Gain 1). (a) Measurements over the entire dynamic range of the band. (b) Measurements in the vicinity of the knees of the bilinear response. The radiance units are mWcm2sr1μm1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Band 1 lunar image. (a) The difference between the spacecraft pitch rate across the Moon and normal pitch rate across the Earth causes the oversampled lunar image. (b) The apparent size of the Moon is derived from the edges in the radiance profile.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Lunar geometry corrections. (a) The Sun–Moon and instrument–Moon distance corrections Kd. (b) The phase function of the Moon at wavelengths of 412, 555, and 865 nm. (c) The time series of phase angles. (d) The libration angles of the subspacecraft and subsolar points.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Spacecraft Track Angle for Lunar Calibrations. The rotation axis of the Moon is indicated by the vector Z. The spacecraft track across the Moon during a pitch maneuver is indicated by the green line. The angle between the rotation axis and the track is the track angle γ. The lunar disk is illuminated by sunlight coming from the right of the figure. The limb of the illuminated disk is for a phase angle of 55°. The limb for a phase angle of 7° would be indistinguishable from the left edge of the Moon.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Lunar oversampling factors. The time series of oversampling factors. As the orbit node drifts, the scan angle at which SeaWiFS observes the Moon for a given phase angle increases and the track angle of the lunar observation becomes significant. The resulting increase in the uncertainty in the size of the lunar image increases the uncertainty in the oversampling correction. These effects became significant in 2007.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Correlated Band 1/Band 5 lunar time series. (a) The time series of fully calibrated lunar observations for Bands 1 and 5 without the coherent noise correction. (b) The time series with the coherent noise correction applied shows the long-term stability of the radiometric calibration of the instrument. (c) The plot of the time series for the two bands shows the correlation of the errors.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Lunar Calibration Time Series. (a) The lunar time series for Bands 1–4, along with long-term radiometric fits. (b) The time series for Bands 5–8, along with long-term radiometric fits.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

SeaWiFS on-Orbit Calibrations. (a) The fully calibrated lunar residuals show the long-term stability of the on-orbit calibration for each band. (b) The mission-averaged lunar residuals from the ROLO model (shown in blue) and the vicarious calibration against MOBY (shown in red) are plotted as functions of wavelength. The error bars for the lunar data are the RMS errors of the time series and the error bars for the vicarious gains are the uncertainties in the gains of 0.001.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Band 7/8 Focal Plane Temperatures. (a) Temperatures during lunar calibrations. (b) Orbit-averaged temperatures for the ocean color dataset. The initial reference temperature of 20°C is shown in green (upper horizontal line) and the revised reference temperature of 16°C is shown in red (lower horizontal line). The changing thermal environment of the spacecraft as a result of the orbit node drift gives rise to the trend in these plots.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Band 8 Lunar Temperature Corrections. The lunar calibration (a) time series and (b) residuals without (blue, with periodicities) and with (red, without periodicities) the focal plane temperature corrections applied.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Solar Calibration Time Series. (a) The β angle time series shows the temporal trend of the orbit node drift. (b) The Band 1 time series (with the long-term radiometric corrections applied) shows the combined effects of the solar β angle variation, the diffuser reflectance degradation, and the orbit node drift. The node drift causes the image of the Sun to move off of the solar diffuser over time, diminishing the radiance reflected by the diffuser.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Band 1 mirror-side reflectances. The relative reflectances for the two sides of the half-angle mirror. The fits to the data are shown in green (solid fitted line). The low signal due to the orbit node drift and the resulting β angles gives rise significantly higher noise in the time starting in early 2006. Due to the noise in the measurements the data plots stop in early 2008, while the fits are extrapolated to the end of the mission.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Detector Calibrations. (a) and (b) The detector calibration time series for Bands 1 and 2. (c) and (d) The detector calibration time series for Bands 5 and 6. The departure of the cloud detectors from the ensemble for these two bands are the maximum departures observed for any detectors in all eight bands.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Bands 7 and 8 gain calibrations. (a) The Band 7 time series; Gain 3 is the only gain in all eight bands that is out of family with the other gains in that band. (b) The Band 8 time series; Gain 3 is impacted by digitization noise. (c) The Band 7 Gain 3/Gain 1 drift correction for the ocean color data are shown in red.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Response Versus Scan Angle. SeaWiFS has odd-numbered band and even-numbered band RVS functions. These functions are based on prelaunch characterization measurements made at seven scan angles centered on nadir. The functions are normalized to a value of unity at nadir, so the maximum RVS effect is at either end of scan.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

RVS Evaluation. Before (blue; lower or left) and after (red; upper or right) full phase. (a) The time series of phase angles of the lunar observations. (b) The corresponding time series of scan angles of the lunar observations. (c) The Band 8 lunar residuals as a function of phase angle. (d) The Band 8 lunar residuals as a function of scan angle. (e) The residuals binned as a function of phase angle. (f) The residuals binned as a function of scan angle. The lunar residuals do not show any significant trends with phase angle or scan angle.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

NIST/SBRS calibration comparisons. (a) The Aqua MODIS, SeaWiFS NIST-based, and SeaWiFS SBRS-based vicarious gains. (b) The lunar ratios for the NIST and SBRS calibrations. (c) The ratio of the NIST calibration to the SBRS calibration, with errors. (d) The correlation between the vicarious gains and lunar ratios for the NIST and SBRS calibrations. The NIST calibration shows a correlation as a function of wavelength, while the SBRS calibration does not.

Tables (18)

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Table 1. Lunar Observationsa

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Table 2. Calibration Updates for Reprocessinga

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Table 3. SeaWiFS Bandsa

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Table 4. Commanded Gainsa

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Table 5. Instrument Calibration Uncertaintiesa

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Table 6. Correlated Fully Calibrated Lunar Time Seriesa

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Table 7. Counts-to-Radiance Conversion Coefficient Adjustments for Reference Temperature Change

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Table 8. Focal Plane Temperature Correction Coefficientsa

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Table 9. SeaWiFS Signal-to-Noise Ratiosa

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Table 10. Differences in Relative Mirror-Side Reflectances

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Table 11. Detector Calibrationsa

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Table 12. Lunar Gain Ratiosa

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Table 13. Vicarious Calibrationa

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Table 14. On-Orbit Measurement Accuracya

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Table 15. Long-Term Stability of the Radiometric Calibrationa

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Table 16. Long-Term Stability of the Vicarious Calibrationa

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Table 17. On-Orbit Measurement Precisiona

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Table 18. SeaWiFS TOA Uncertainty Assessmenta

Equations (33)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LT(λ,t)=(Co(λ,t)Cd(λ,t))Kc(λ)[1+KT(λ)(T(λ,t)Tref(λ))]Krvs(λ,pxl)Kms(λ,i,t),
LMoon(λ,t)=LT(r,λ,t)Kvg(r,λ,t)Kos(t)Kcn(t),
Kvg(r,λ,t)=Kd(r,t)Kph(r,λ,t)Klib(r,t),
Kd(r,t)=(RSunMoon(r,t)AU)2(RInstMoon(r,t)MLD)2
P(λ,t)=Kd(r,t)AMoon(r,λ,t)EInst(r,λ,t)ESun(λ)1=EInst(r,λ,t)Erolo(r,λ,t)1,
Einst(r,λ,t)=IFOV2LT(r,λ,t),
EMoon(λ,t)=P(λ,t)+1P(λ,t(0))+1Kos(t)Kcn(t)=EInst(r,λ,t)EInst(r,λ,t(0))Erolo(r,λ,t(0))Erolo(r,λ,t)Kos(t)Kcn(t),
Ktrack(α,γ)=cosα1(1+cosα)(1cosα)cos2γ.
YMoon(α,γ,t)=2Ktrack(α,γ)+1Yobs(t),
Kos(r,t)=1θYMoon(α,γ,t)DMoonRInstMoon(r,t),
Rcn(λ,t)=EMoon(λ,t)Kos(t)F(λ,t)F(λ,t).
Kcn(t)=1Rcn(λ,t)λ,
1Krc(λ1,2,t)=A0(λ)A1(λ)[1eτ1(λ)(tt0)]A2(λ)[1eτ2(λ)(tt0)]
1Krc(λ38,t)=A0(λ)A1(λ)[1eτ(λ)(tt0)]A2(λ)(tt0),
LMoon(λ,t)=LT(λ,t)Krc(λ,t)Kvg(λ,t)Kos(t),
LMoon(λ,t)=LT(λ,t)Krc(λ,t)Kvg(λ,t)Kos(t)Kcn(t),
Geff(λ,T)=Kc(λ)(1+KT(λ)(TTref)).
Kcn(λ)Kco(λ)=11+KT(λ)(TrefoTrefn),
KTC(λ,T)=1.0+KT(λ)(TTref),
F(λ,t,T)=A0(λ)A1(λ)[1eτ(λ)(tt0)]A2(λ)(tt0)A3(λ)(T(t)Tref).
LSolar(λ,t)=LT(λ,t)Krc(λ,t)Kes(t)Kβ(λ,t)Kdiff(λ,t),
1Kβ(λ,t)=r0(λ)+r1(λ)cos(β(t))+r2(λ)sin(β(t))+r3(λ)Ω(t),
1Kdiff(λ,t)=a0(λ)a1(λ)[1ea2(λ)(tt0)],
SNR(λ,t)=LSolar(λ,t)σ(LSolar(λ,t)),
Rms(λ,i,t)=2LSolar(λ,i,t)LSolar(λ,1,t)+LSolar(λ,2,t)=1Kms(λ,i,t).
Rdet(λ,deti,t)=LSolar(λ,deti,t)LSolar(λ,det41,t).
GRX(λ,t)=CP(GX,λ,t)CP(G1,λ,t),
1Kg3(λ7,t)=A0(λ7)+A1(λ7)(tt0)+A2(λ7)(tt0)2,
LEarth(λ16,8,t)=LT(λ,t)Krc(λ,t)LEarth(λ7,t)=LT(λ7,t)Krc(λ7,t)Kg3(λ7,t),
Kvc(λ,t)=Lw(λ,t)tw(λ,t)+Lf(λ,t)tf(λ,t)+Lr(λ,t)tr(λ,t)+La(λ,t)ta(λ,t)LEarth(λ,t),
LVEarth(λ16,t)=LT(λ,t)Krc(λ,t)Kvc(λ)LVEarth(λ7,t)=LT(λ7,t)Krc(λ7,t)Kg3(λ7,t)Kvc(λ7)LVEarth(λ8,t)=LT(λ8,t)Krc(λ8,t),
Gcomb(λ)=Kc(λ)Gvic(λ).
Accuracy=SeaWiFSReference1,

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