Abstract

In this paper, we demonstrate different optical logic gates using a single Mach–Zehnder interferometer with controlled phase modulators in each arm. The operational conditions to obtain 16 optical logic circuits, using the same design, are investigated and are a result of a constructive or destructive interference process. The proposed configuration presents significant low complexity and high scalability, and its feasibility is evaluated through numerical simulations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Vilar, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical DGD monitor for packet-switched networks based on an integrated active Mach–Zehnder interferometer operating as logic XOR gate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5330–5334 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P.-L. Li, D. Huang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhu, “Ultrahigh-speed all-optical half adder based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 11839–11847 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Calabretta, H. Jung, and H. Dorren, “All-optical label swapping techniques for optical packets at bit-rate beyond 160  Gb/s,” J. Netw. 5, 1343–1349 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Miyoshi, K. Ikeda, H. Tobioka, I. Takashi, S. Namiki, and K. Kitayama, “Ultrafast all-optical logic gate using a nonlinear optical loop mirror based multi-periodic transfer function,” Opt. Express 16, 2570–2577 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates based on multi-mode interference waveguides for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836–2846 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Wu and T. Shih, “New all-optical logic gates based on the local nonlinear Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Express 16, 248–257 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z. Li and G. Li, “Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341–1343(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Sun, J. Qiu, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical logic gates (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).
  12. J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15, 150–165 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Chattopadhyay, “Optical programmable Boolean logic unit,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6049–6056 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach (Springer, 2006).
  15. R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling (Artech, 1994), p. 183.
  16. C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Chattopadhyay, “All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and using it to design reconfigurable logic unit,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 558–567 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Daily and T. L. Koch, “Simple rules for optimizing asymmetries in SOA-based Mach–Zehnder wavelength converters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27, 1480–1488 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates based on multi-mode interference waveguides for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836–2846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chattopadhyay, “All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and using it to design reconfigurable logic unit,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 558–567 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chattopadhyay, “Optical programmable Boolean logic unit,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6049–6056 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

N. Calabretta, H. Jung, and H. Dorren, “All-optical label swapping techniques for optical packets at bit-rate beyond 160  Gb/s,” J. Netw. 5, 1343–1349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Hardy and J. Shamir, “Optics inspired logic architecture,” Opt. Express 15, 150–165 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P.-L. Li, D. Huang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhu, “Ultrahigh-speed all-optical half adder based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 11839–11847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Li, “Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341–1343(2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

Avramopoulos, H.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Calabretta, N.

N. Calabretta, H. Jung, and H. Dorren, “All-optical label swapping techniques for optical packets at bit-rate beyond 160  Gb/s,” J. Netw. 5, 1343–1349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chattopadhyay, T.

T. Chattopadhyay, “All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and using it to design reconfigurable logic unit,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 558–567 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Chattopadhyay, “Optical programmable Boolean logic unit,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6049–6056 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. R.

K. Sun, J. Qiu, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical logic gates (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Chi, N.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clavero, R.

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colle, D.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daily, J. M.

Dorren, H.

N. Calabretta, H. Jung, and H. Dorren, “All-optical label swapping techniques for optical packets at bit-rate beyond 160  Gb/s,” J. Netw. 5, 1343–1349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gomez, L.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, A.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, G.

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach (Springer, 2006).

Hardy, J.

Herrera, J.

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holm-Nielsen, V. P.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

Ikeda, K.

Ishizaka, Y.

Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates based on multi-mode interference waveguides for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836–2846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jin, B.-B.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.

N. Calabretta, H. Jung, and H. Dorren, “All-optical label swapping techniques for optical packets at bit-rate beyond 160  Gb/s,” J. Netw. 5, 1343–1349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, A.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates based on multi-mode interference waveguides for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836–2846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kehayas, E.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kitayama, K.

Koch, T. L.

Koonen, A. M. J.

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates based on multi-mode interference waveguides for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836–2846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laskowski, E.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Z. Li and G. Li, “Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341–1343(2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.-L.

Li, Z.

Z. Li and G. Li, “Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341–1343(2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X.-W.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.-Q.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

R. Vilar, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical DGD monitor for packet-switched networks based on an integrated active Mach–Zehnder interferometer operating as logic XOR gate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5330–5334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. M.

R. Vilar, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical DGD monitor for packet-switched networks based on an integrated active Mach–Zehnder interferometer operating as logic XOR gate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5330–5334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, M. J.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

März, R.

R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling (Artech, 1994), p. 183.

Miyoshi, Y.

Monroy, T. I.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

Oswald, P.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach (Springer, 2006).

Pickavet, M.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

K. Sun, J. Qiu, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical logic gates (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Ramos, F.

R. Vilar, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical DGD monitor for packet-switched networks based on an integrated active Mach–Zehnder interferometer operating as logic XOR gate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5330–5334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riposati, B.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rochette, M.

K. Sun, J. Qiu, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical logic gates (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Saitoh, K.

Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates based on multi-mode interference waveguides for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836–2846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shamir, J.

Shih, T.

Stampoulidis, L.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

K. Sun, J. Qiu, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical logic gates (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

Takashi, I.

Tobioka, H.

Tsiokos, D.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Caenegem, R.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vilar, R.

R. Vilar, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical DGD monitor for packet-switched networks based on an integrated active Mach–Zehnder interferometer operating as logic XOR gate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5330–5334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wong-Foy, A.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.-B.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Wu, Z.-J.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, N.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zheng, Z.-G.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P.-L. Li, D. Huang, X. Zhang, and G. Zhu, “Ultrahigh-speed all-optical half adder based on four-wave mixing in semiconductor optical amplifier,” Opt. Express 14, 11839–11847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

AIP Adv.

X.-W. Lin, J.-B. Wu, W. Hu, Z.-G. Zheng, Z.-J. Wu, G. Zhu, F. Xu, B.-B. Jin, and Y.-Q. Lu, “Self-polarizing terahertz liquid crystal phase shifter,” AIP Adv. 1, 032133 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

Y. Ishizaka, Y. Kawaguchi, K. Saitoh, and M. Koshiba, “Design of optical XOR, XNOR, NAND, and OR logic gates based on multi-mode interference waveguides for binary-phase-shift-keyed signal,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 29, 2836–2846 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Ramos, E. Kehayas, M. J. Martinez, R. Clavero, J. Marti, L. Stampoulidis, D. Tsiokos, H. Avramopoulos, J. Zhang, V. P. Holm-Nielsen, N. Chi, P. Jeppesen, N. Yan, T. I. Monroy, A. M. J. Koonen, M. T. Hill, Y. Liu, H. J. S. Dorren, R. Van Caenegem, D. Colle, M. Pickavet, and B. Riposati, “ISTLASAGNE: towards all-optical label swapping employing optical logic gates and optical flip-flops,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23, 2993–3011 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. K. Madsen, P. Oswald, M. Cappuzzo, E. Chen, L. Gomez, A. Griffin, A. Kasper, E. Laskowski, L. Stulz, and A. Wong-Foy, “Reset-free integrated polarization controller using phase shifters,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 431–438 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. M. Martinez, Y. Liu, R. Clavero, A. M. J. Koonen, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, H. J. S. Dorren, and J. Marti, “All-optical processing based on a logic XOR gate and a flip-flop memory for packet-switched networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1316–1318 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li and G. Li, “Ultrahigh-speed reconfigurable logic gates based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1341–1343(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Netw.

N. Calabretta, H. Jung, and H. Dorren, “All-optical label swapping techniques for optical packets at bit-rate beyond 160  Gb/s,” J. Netw. 5, 1343–1349 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

R. Vilar, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, “All-optical DGD monitor for packet-switched networks based on an integrated active Mach–Zehnder interferometer operating as logic XOR gate,” Opt. Commun. 281, 5330–5334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

T. Chattopadhyay, “All-optical cross-bar network architecture using TOAD based interferometric switch and using it to design reconfigurable logic unit,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17, 558–567 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Sun, J. Qiu, M. Rochette, and L. R. Chen, “All-optical logic gates (XOR, AND, and OR) based on cross phase modulation in a highly nonlinear fiber,” in Proceedings of European Conference on Optical Communication, ECOC 2009 (IEEE, 2009), pp. 1–2.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic, 2006).

L. Pavesi and G. Guillot, Optical Interconnects: The Silicon Approach (Springer, 2006).

R. März, Integrated Optics: Design and Modeling (Artech, 1994), p. 183.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of proposed MZI-based 16 logical operation circuits. PM, phase modulator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variation of normalized output power (a.u.) with Δθ (in degrees).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variation of cross talk (in dB) with Δθ (in degrees).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Proposed configuration of the optical 16 Boolean logic circuits based on a single MZI. NRZ, non-return-to-zero.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated curves for each logic gate. (a) XY(AND), (b) X¯+Y¯(NAND), (c) XY¯, (d) X¯+Y, (e) X¯Y, (f) X+Y¯, (g) XY(XOR), (h) XY¯(XNOR), (i) 0(False), (j) 1(True), (k) X, (l) X¯, (m) Y, (n) Y¯, (o) X+Y(OR), and (p) X¯Y¯(NOR).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic diagram of the optical thresholder circuit [6]. VOA, variable optical attenuator.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Simulated curves for each logic gate after thresholder function. (a) XY(AND), (b) X¯+Y¯(NAND), (c) XY¯, (d) X¯+Y, (e) X¯Y, (f) X+Y¯, (g) XY(XOR), (h) XY¯(XNOR), (i) 0(False), (j) 1(True), (k) X, (l) X¯, (m) Y, (n) Y¯, (o) X+Y(OR), and (p) X¯Y¯(NOR).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Block diagram of our proposed MZI-based logic unit. (b) Complex logic circuit using three cascaded MZI.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Simulated waveform of the proposed complex circuit shown in Fig. 8(b).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical AND/NAND Logic Gate

Tables Icon

Table 2. 16 Boolean Optical Gates Using a Single MZI

Tables Icon

Table 3. ER before and after the Thresholder Circuit

Tables Icon

Table 4. Inputs and Outputs for All Ports of Complex Circuit of Fig. 8(b)

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δθ=2Lπλ(n1n2)=2LπλΔn=θ1θ2.
[1εjεjε1ε].
[ECED]=[12j12j1212]·[EAEB].
[ejΔθ200ejΔθ2],
[12j12j1212]·[ejΔθ200ejΔθ2]·[12j12j1212].
[12ejΔθ212ejΔθ2j12ejΔθ2+j12ejΔθ2j12ejΔθ2+j12ejΔθ212ejΔθ2+12ejΔθ2].
[EIEJ]=[jsinΔθ2jcosΔθ2jcosΔθ2jsinΔθ2]·[EAEB].
PI=EI·EI*=sin2(Δθ2)PAPJ=EJ·EJ*=cos2(Δθ2)PA.
XT=10log(PntPt).
ER=10log(Pavg1Pavg0),
LE|#1=[f(x,y)]·[f(a,b)],
LE|#2=[f(x,y)]·[(a,b)¯],
LE|#3=[f(x,y)¯]·[f(a,b)],
LE|#4=[f(x,y)¯]·[f(a,b)¯],

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