Abstract

The low concentrating photovoltaic (PV) system such as a 2× V-trough system can be a promising choice for enhancing the power output from conventional PV panels with the inclusion of thermal management. This system is more attractive when the reflectors are retrofitted to the stationary PV panels installed in a high aspect ratio in the north–south direction and are tracked 12 times a year manually according to preset angles, thus eliminating the need of diurnal expensive tracking. In the present analysis, a V-trough system facing exactly the south direction is considered, where the tilt angle of the PV panels’ row is kept constant at 18.34°. The system is installed on the terrace of CSIR-Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute in Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India (21.47 N, 71.15 E). The dimension of the entire PV system is 9.64m×0.55m. The V-troughs made of anodized aluminum reflectors (70% specular reflectivity) had the same dimensions. An in-house developed; experimentally validated Monte Carlo ray-trace model was used to study the effect of the angular variation of the reflectors throughout a year for the present assembly. Results of the ray trace for the optimized angles showed the maximum simulated optical efficiency to be 85.9%. The spatial distribution of solar intensity over the 0.55 m dimension of the PV panel due to the V-trough reflectors was also studied for the optimized days in periods that included solstices and equinoxes. The measured solar intensity profiles with and without the V-trough system were used to calculate the actual optical efficiencies for several sunny days in the year, and results were validated with the simulated efficiencies within an average error limit of 10%.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Tang and X. Liu, “Optical performance and design optimization of V-trough concentrators for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy 85, 2154–2166 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. F. Chiam, “Planar concentrators for flat plate solar collectors,” Sol. Energy 26, 503–509 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. P. Garg and D. S. Hrishikesan, “Enhancement of solar energy on flat-plate collector by plane booster mirrors,” Sol. Energy 40, 295–307 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. M. S. Hussein, G. E. Ahmad, and M. A. Mohamad, “Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems,” Energy 25, 529–542 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. D. J. Pucar and A. R. Despic, “The enhancement of energy gain of solar collectors and photovoltaic panels by the reflection of solar beams,” J. Energy 27, 205–223 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. E. Ahmad, H. M. S. Hussein, and H. H. El-Ghetany, “Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of PV panels,” Renew. Energy 28, 1159–1168 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. S. Sangani and C. S. Solanki, “Experimental evaluation of V-trough (2 suns) PV concentrator system using commercial PV panels,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 453–459 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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  11. http://www.nrel.gov/midc/solpos/solpos.html .
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    [CrossRef]
  13. T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building facade integration in the UK,” Sol. Energy 77, 319–327 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Sarmah, B. S. Richards, and T. K. Mallick, “Evaluation and optimization of the optical performance of low-concentrating dielectric compound parabolic concentrator using ray tracing methods,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3303–3310 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

R. Tang and X. Liu, “Optical performance and design optimization of V-trough concentrators for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy 85, 2154–2166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Maiti, S. Banerjee, K. Vyas, P. Patel, and P. K. Ghosh, “Self regulation of photovoltaic panel temperature in V-trough using a metal–wax composite phase change matrix,” Sol. Energy 85, 1805–1816 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarmah, B. S. Richards, and T. K. Mallick, “Evaluation and optimization of the optical performance of low-concentrating dielectric compound parabolic concentrator using ray tracing methods,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3303–3310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. S. Sangani and C. S. Solanki, “Experimental evaluation of V-trough (2 suns) PV concentrator system using commercial PV panels,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 453–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building facade integration in the UK,” Sol. Energy 77, 319–327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. E. Ahmad, H. M. S. Hussein, and H. H. El-Ghetany, “Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of PV panels,” Renew. Energy 28, 1159–1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. D. J. Pucar and A. R. Despic, “The enhancement of energy gain of solar collectors and photovoltaic panels by the reflection of solar beams,” J. Energy 27, 205–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. M. S. Hussein, G. E. Ahmad, and M. A. Mohamad, “Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems,” Energy 25, 529–542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1992

1988

H. P. Garg and D. S. Hrishikesan, “Enhancement of solar energy on flat-plate collector by plane booster mirrors,” Sol. Energy 40, 295–307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

H. F. Chiam, “Planar concentrators for flat plate solar collectors,” Sol. Energy 26, 503–509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

I. S. Taha and S. M. Eldighidy, “Effect of off-south orientation on optimum conditions for maximum solar energy absorbed by flat plate collector augmented by plane reflector,” Sol. Energy 25, 373–379 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, G. E.

G. E. Ahmad, H. M. S. Hussein, and H. H. El-Ghetany, “Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of PV panels,” Renew. Energy 28, 1159–1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. S. Hussein, G. E. Ahmad, and M. A. Mohamad, “Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems,” Energy 25, 529–542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, S.

S. Maiti, S. Banerjee, K. Vyas, P. Patel, and P. K. Ghosh, “Self regulation of photovoltaic panel temperature in V-trough using a metal–wax composite phase change matrix,” Sol. Energy 85, 1805–1816 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiam, H. F.

H. F. Chiam, “Planar concentrators for flat plate solar collectors,” Sol. Energy 26, 503–509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Despic, A. R.

M. D. J. Pucar and A. R. Despic, “The enhancement of energy gain of solar collectors and photovoltaic panels by the reflection of solar beams,” J. Energy 27, 205–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eames, P. C.

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building facade integration in the UK,” Sol. Energy 77, 319–327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eldighidy, S. M.

I. S. Taha and S. M. Eldighidy, “Effect of off-south orientation on optimum conditions for maximum solar energy absorbed by flat plate collector augmented by plane reflector,” Sol. Energy 25, 373–379 (1980).
[CrossRef]

El-Ghetany, H. H.

G. E. Ahmad, H. M. S. Hussein, and H. H. El-Ghetany, “Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of PV panels,” Renew. Energy 28, 1159–1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fraidenraich, N.

Garg, H. P.

H. P. Garg and D. S. Hrishikesan, “Enhancement of solar energy on flat-plate collector by plane booster mirrors,” Sol. Energy 40, 295–307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, P. K.

S. Maiti, S. Banerjee, K. Vyas, P. Patel, and P. K. Ghosh, “Self regulation of photovoltaic panel temperature in V-trough using a metal–wax composite phase change matrix,” Sol. Energy 85, 1805–1816 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hrishikesan, D. S.

H. P. Garg and D. S. Hrishikesan, “Enhancement of solar energy on flat-plate collector by plane booster mirrors,” Sol. Energy 40, 295–307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hussein, H. M. S.

G. E. Ahmad, H. M. S. Hussein, and H. H. El-Ghetany, “Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of PV panels,” Renew. Energy 28, 1159–1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. S. Hussein, G. E. Ahmad, and M. A. Mohamad, “Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems,” Energy 25, 529–542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hyde, T. J.

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building facade integration in the UK,” Sol. Energy 77, 319–327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

R. Tang and X. Liu, “Optical performance and design optimization of V-trough concentrators for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy 85, 2154–2166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Maiti, S.

S. Maiti, S. Banerjee, K. Vyas, P. Patel, and P. K. Ghosh, “Self regulation of photovoltaic panel temperature in V-trough using a metal–wax composite phase change matrix,” Sol. Energy 85, 1805–1816 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, T. K.

N. Sarmah, B. S. Richards, and T. K. Mallick, “Evaluation and optimization of the optical performance of low-concentrating dielectric compound parabolic concentrator using ray tracing methods,” Appl. Opt. 50, 3303–3310 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building facade integration in the UK,” Sol. Energy 77, 319–327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mohamad, M. A.

H. M. S. Hussein, G. E. Ahmad, and M. A. Mohamad, “Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems,” Energy 25, 529–542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Norton, B.

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building facade integration in the UK,” Sol. Energy 77, 319–327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patel, P.

S. Maiti, S. Banerjee, K. Vyas, P. Patel, and P. K. Ghosh, “Self regulation of photovoltaic panel temperature in V-trough using a metal–wax composite phase change matrix,” Sol. Energy 85, 1805–1816 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pucar, M. D. J.

M. D. J. Pucar and A. R. Despic, “The enhancement of energy gain of solar collectors and photovoltaic panels by the reflection of solar beams,” J. Energy 27, 205–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. S.

Sangani, C. S.

C. S. Sangani and C. S. Solanki, “Experimental evaluation of V-trough (2 suns) PV concentrator system using commercial PV panels,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 453–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sarmah, N.

Solanki, C. S.

C. S. Sangani and C. S. Solanki, “Experimental evaluation of V-trough (2 suns) PV concentrator system using commercial PV panels,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 453–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sukhatme, S. P.

S. P. Sukhatme, Solar Energy: Principles of Thermal Collection and Storage, 2nd ed. (Tata McGraw-Hill, 2006).

Taha, I. S.

I. S. Taha and S. M. Eldighidy, “Effect of off-south orientation on optimum conditions for maximum solar energy absorbed by flat plate collector augmented by plane reflector,” Sol. Energy 25, 373–379 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tang, R.

R. Tang and X. Liu, “Optical performance and design optimization of V-trough concentrators for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy 85, 2154–2166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vyas, K.

S. Maiti, S. Banerjee, K. Vyas, P. Patel, and P. K. Ghosh, “Self regulation of photovoltaic panel temperature in V-trough using a metal–wax composite phase change matrix,” Sol. Energy 85, 1805–1816 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Energy

H. M. S. Hussein, G. E. Ahmad, and M. A. Mohamad, “Optimization of operational and design parameters of plane reflector-tilted flat plate solar collector systems,” Energy 25, 529–542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Energy

M. D. J. Pucar and A. R. Despic, “The enhancement of energy gain of solar collectors and photovoltaic panels by the reflection of solar beams,” J. Energy 27, 205–223 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Energy

G. E. Ahmad, H. M. S. Hussein, and H. H. El-Ghetany, “Theoretical analysis and experimental verification of PV panels,” Renew. Energy 28, 1159–1168 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

R. Tang and X. Liu, “Optical performance and design optimization of V-trough concentrators for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy 85, 2154–2166 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. S. Taha and S. M. Eldighidy, “Effect of off-south orientation on optimum conditions for maximum solar energy absorbed by flat plate collector augmented by plane reflector,” Sol. Energy 25, 373–379 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Chiam, “Planar concentrators for flat plate solar collectors,” Sol. Energy 26, 503–509 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Garg and D. S. Hrishikesan, “Enhancement of solar energy on flat-plate collector by plane booster mirrors,” Sol. Energy 40, 295–307 (1988).
[CrossRef]

S. Maiti, S. Banerjee, K. Vyas, P. Patel, and P. K. Ghosh, “Self regulation of photovoltaic panel temperature in V-trough using a metal–wax composite phase change matrix,” Sol. Energy 85, 1805–1816 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Mallick, P. C. Eames, T. J. Hyde, and B. Norton, “The design and experimental characterisation of an asymmetric compound parabolic photovoltaic concentrator for building facade integration in the UK,” Sol. Energy 77, 319–327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells

C. S. Sangani and C. S. Solanki, “Experimental evaluation of V-trough (2 suns) PV concentrator system using commercial PV panels,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 91, 453–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. P. Sukhatme, Solar Energy: Principles of Thermal Collection and Storage, 2nd ed. (Tata McGraw-Hill, 2006).

http://www.nrel.gov/midc/solpos/solpos.html .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Image of the installed PV V-trough system with high aspect ratio to reduce reflection losses.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Optimized north- and south-side reflector angles for the PV V-trough system throughout the year.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Nomenclature for the angles of the reflectors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of the possible behavior of the incident rays within a PV V-trough system.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ray-trace diagram at 1:00 p.m. with the system configuration for four optimized days (a) 21 March, (b) 20 May, (c) 20 September, and (d) 21 January. 100 representative rays were considered for all ray-trace modeling.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of angular acceptance during a day for the different configurations of the V-trough system over a year.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Diurnal variation of optical efficiency at the 12 tilts of V-trough reflectors in a year.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Intensity distribution over the entire length of PV panel during selected time of the year.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Correlation of solar incident angle and the angular acceptance for the system configuration during (a) 20 September, (b) 22 March, (c) 20 May, and (d) 21 January.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Variation of experimental and simulated optical efficiencies with time of day in different periods in a year.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Time Period in Days for a Given Average Declination of the Sun

Equations (2)

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dS=23.45×sin[360×(284+ND)365].
Optical Efficiency=(G)PV-Vtrough{(G)PV}×CR×100,

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