Abstract

A high-speed parallel optical interconnect (POI) incorporating silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguides was realized that takes advantage of an eight-channel input/output interface based on grating couplers (GCs) in alignment with fiber arrays. For each of the channels, a straight waveguide in the middle is linked to a GC via a taper, which is addressed by a single-mode fiber (SMF) at the input and a multimode fiber at the output. To verify the feasibility of the interconnect, the alignment tolerance has been explored in terms of the position and angle of incidence of the SMF with respect to the GC. This has been conducted by probing into the optical throughput of the proposed POI, which is determined by different sources of loss associated with the proposed Si3N4 waveguide device. For a typical GC, the measured coupling loss was 5.2 dB at the center wavelength of 1590 nm, when addressed by a SMF. For a 1 dB loss penalty, the positional tolerance of the fiber was discovered to about ±3μm and 45 μm along the lateral direction and the direction inclined at 16 deg normal to the device, respectively. The corresponding angular tolerance was ±1deg. We ultimately confirmed that 8×10Gbps high-speed digital signals were efficiently delivered through the proposed POI.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

X. Zheng, F. Y. Liu, J. Lexau, D. Patil, G. Li, Y. Luo, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow power 80  Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 641–650 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Tekin, H. Schroder, L. Zimmermann, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “Fibre-array optical interconnection for silicon photonics,” Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 5, 93–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring nanophotonics to application—silicon photonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletters 22, 4–14 (2008).

2006 (5)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14, 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. E. Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yadin, and M. Orenstein, “Parallel optical interconnects over multimode waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 380–386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2000 (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14, 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakir, B. B.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C. W.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

Bellutti, P.

Bernabe, S.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring nanophotonics to application—silicon photonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletters 22, 4–14 (2008).

T. Tekin, H. Schroder, L. Zimmermann, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “Fibre-array optical interconnection for silicon photonics,” Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 5, 93–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14, 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, H. Schroder, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, and T. Tekin, “Epixpack-advanced smart packaging solutions for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, 2008), pp. 33–36.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dumon, “G-Pack—A generic testbed package for Silicon photonics devices,” in Proc. Group IV Photon (IEEE, 2008), pp. 371–373.

Bour, D. P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Budd, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. E. Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and D. X. Xu, “Optical off-chip interconnects in multichannel planar waveguide devices,” U.S. patent 7376308 B2 (20May2008).

Chiniwalla, P.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crivellari, M.

Cunningham, J. E.

Daldosso, N.

Dangel, R.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D. W.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Parallel-optical interconnects >100  Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2055–2063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring nanophotonics to application—silicon photonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletters 22, 4–14 (2008).

T. Tekin, H. Schroder, L. Zimmermann, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “Fibre-array optical interconnection for silicon photonics,” Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 5, 93–94 (2008).
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P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14, 664–669 (2006).
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L. Zimmermann, H. Schroder, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, and T. Tekin, “Epixpack-advanced smart packaging solutions for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, 2008), pp. 33–36.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dumon, “G-Pack—A generic testbed package for Silicon photonics devices,” in Proc. Group IV Photon (IEEE, 2008), pp. 371–373.

Fedeli, J.-M.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

Flower, G. M.

Foresi, J.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giboney, K. S.

Girardini, M.

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. E. Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grot, A.

Gruhlke, R. W.

Guckenberger, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Han, X.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

Horst, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jaenen, P.

Janz, S.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and D. X. Xu, “Optical off-chip interconnects in multichannel planar waveguide devices,” U.S. patent 7376308 B2 (20May2008).

Jian, X.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

John, R. A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kash, J. A.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, C.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kucharski, D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuchta, D. M.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwark, Y. H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lacey, J. P. R.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
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Lamontagne, B.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and D. X. Xu, “Optical off-chip interconnects in multichannel planar waveguide devices,” U.S. patent 7376308 B2 (20May2008).

Lardenois, S.

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. E. Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Law, B.

Lee, K. K.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

Li, G.

Li, Y.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Libsch, F.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Libsch, F. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. R.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Parallel-optical interconnects >100  Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2055–2063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F. Y.

Luan, H. C.

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lui, A.

Luo, Y.

Marris-Morini, D.

Masini, G.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Melchiorri, M.

Melhaoui, L. E.

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Montalbo, T.

T. Montalbo, “Fiber to waveguide couplers for silicon photonics,” S.M. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004).

Morthier, G.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Narasimha, A.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nyikal, H.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nystrom, M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Offrein, B. J.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

Orobtchouk, R.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. E. Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patel, C. S.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

Pavesi, L.

Payne, F. P.

F. P. Payne and J. P. R. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguide,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Porcel, M.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Porte, H.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pucker, G.

Raj, K.

Rankin, G.

Riboli, F.

Rosenau, S. A.

Rosner, J.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schares, L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schow, C. L.

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrank, F.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, H.

T. Tekin, H. Schroder, L. Zimmermann, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “Fibre-array optical interconnection for silicon photonics,” Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 5, 93–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, H. Schroder, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, and T. Tekin, “Epixpack-advanced smart packaging solutions for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, 2008), pp. 33–36.

Schroeder, H.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring nanophotonics to application—silicon photonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletters 22, 4–14 (2008).

Schuste, C.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shan, L.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shubin, I.

Simon, J. N.

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, D. Van Thourhout, D. Taillaert, R. Baets, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, and P. Jaenen, “Compact wavelength router based on a silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating pigtailed to a fiber array,” Opt. Express 14, 664–669 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, “Grating couplers as interface between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ghent University, 2005).

Tan, M. R. T.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Parallel-optical interconnects >100  Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2055–2063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, A.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Windover, J. N. Simon, S. A. Rosenau, K. S. Giboney, G. M. Flower, L. W. Mirkarimi, A. Grot, B. Law, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, R. W. Gruhlke, H. Xia, G. Rankin, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Parallel-optical interconnects >100  Gb/s,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 2055–2063 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tekin, T.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Tekin, H. Schroder, L. Zimmermann, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “Fibre-array optical interconnection for silicon photonics,” Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 5, 93–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring nanophotonics to application—silicon photonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletters 22, 4–14 (2008).

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dumon, “G-Pack—A generic testbed package for Silicon photonics devices,” in Proc. Group IV Photon (IEEE, 2008), pp. 371–373.

L. Zimmermann, H. Schroder, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, and T. Tekin, “Epixpack-advanced smart packaging solutions for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, 2008), pp. 33–36.

Thacker, H. D.

Thourhout, D. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trewhella, J. M.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trott, G. R.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, C. K.

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vermeulen, D.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. M. Fédéli, and L. E. Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Windover, L. B.

Wouters, J.

Xia, H.

Xu, D. X.

P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and D. X. Xu, “Optical off-chip interconnects in multichannel planar waveguide devices,” U.S. patent 7376308 B2 (20May2008).

Yadin, Y.

Yao, J.

Zhao, M.

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Zimmermann, L.

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Tekin, H. Schroder, L. Zimmermann, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “Fibre-array optical interconnection for silicon photonics,” Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 5, 93–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring nanophotonics to application—silicon photonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletters 22, 4–14 (2008).

L. Zimmermann, H. Schroder, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, and T. Tekin, “Epixpack-advanced smart packaging solutions for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, 2008), pp. 33–36.

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dumon, “G-Pack—A generic testbed package for Silicon photonics devices,” in Proc. Group IV Photon (IEEE, 2008), pp. 371–373.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. K. Lee, D. R. Lim, H. C. Luan, A. Agrawal, J. Foresi, and L. C. Kimerling, “Effect of size and roughness on light transmission in a Si/SiO2 waveguide: experiments and model,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1617–1619 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

L. Schares, J. A. Kash, F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. Schuste, D. M. Kuchta, P. K. Pepeljugoski, J. M. Trewhella, C. W. Baks, R. A. John, L. Shan, Y. H. Kwark, R. A. Budd, P. Chiniwalla, F. R. Libsch, J. Rosner, C. K. Tsang, C. S. Patel, J. D. Schaub, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, D. Kucharski, D. Guckenberger, S. Hegde, H. Nyikal, C. K. Lin, A. Tandon, G. R. Trott, M. Nystrom, D. P. Bour, M. R. T. Tan, and D. W. Dolfi, “Terabus: terabit/second-class card-level optical interconnect technologies,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1032–1044 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Kopp, S. Bernabe, B. B. Bakir, J.-M. Fedeli, R. Orobtchouk, F. Schrank, H. Porte, L. Zimmermann, and T. Tekin, “Silicon photonic circuits: on-CMOS integration, fiber optical coupling, and packaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 498–509 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-enabled CMOS photonics platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17, 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE LEOS Newsletters (1)

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, H. Schroeder, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “How to bring nanophotonics to application—silicon photonics packaging,” IEEE LEOS Newsletters 22, 4–14 (2008).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, D. Pascal, and E. Cassan, “Size influence on the propagation loss induced by sidewall roughness in ultrasmall SOI waveguides,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 16, 1661–1663 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging (1)

F. E. Doany, C. L. Schow, C. W. Baks, D. M. Kuchta, P. Pepeljugoski, L. Schares, R. Budd, F. Libsch, R. Dangel, F. Horst, B. J. Offrein, and J. A. Kash, “160  Gb/s bidirectional polymer-waveguide board-level optical interconnects using CMOS-based transceivers,” IEEE Trans. Adv. Packaging 32, 345–359 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

L. Wang, Y. Li, M. Porcel, D. Vermeulen, X. Han, J. Wang, X. Jian, R. Baets, M. Zhao, and G. Morthier, “A polymer-based surface grating coupler with an embedded Si3N4 layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 111, 114507 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. (1)

T. Tekin, H. Schroder, L. Zimmermann, P. Dumon, and W. Bogaerts, “Fibre-array optical interconnection for silicon photonics,” Proc. 34th Eur. Conf. Opt. Commun. 5, 93–94 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

L. Zimmermann, H. Schroder, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, and T. Tekin, “Epixpack-advanced smart packaging solutions for silicon photonics,” in Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO, 2008), pp. 33–36.

“Refractive index database,” http://www.filmetrics.com/refractive-index-database .

D. Taillaert, “Grating couplers as interface between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides,” Ph.D. dissertation (Ghent University, 2005).

T. Montalbo, “Fiber to waveguide couplers for silicon photonics,” S.M. thesis (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2004).

P. Cheben, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, and D. X. Xu, “Optical off-chip interconnects in multichannel planar waveguide devices,” U.S. patent 7376308 B2 (20May2008).

L. Zimmermann, T. Tekin, W. Bogaerts, and P. Dumon, “G-Pack—A generic testbed package for Silicon photonics devices,” in Proc. Group IV Photon (IEEE, 2008), pp. 371–373.

“High-speed detectors,” http://www.lightwavestore.com/product_datasheet/OTI-Rx-015C_pdf1.pdf .

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the proposed POI. (b) Schematic diagram showing the losses for different sections of the interconnect. A cross section of the Si3N4 GC is included, with structural parameters (Λ, period; t1, thickness of the upper cladding; t2, thickness of the core; t3, thickness of the lower cladding).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulation setup for coupling between a fiber and GC.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabrication procedure for the Si3N4 GC integrated with the SMW using a standard complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor-compatible process.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Microscope image of the fabricated device, showing the eight-channel waveguides, addressed by the GCs with a pitch of 250 μm. (b) SEM images of a typical GC, taken from the side before the deposition of the upper oxide cladding (left) and taken from the top after the deposition (right).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Observed propagation loss of the straight waveguide obtained through the cutback method, with a guided mode profile included as an inset.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transfer characteristics of a single GC accessed via an SMF for the TE polarization.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured alignment tolerance for a GC accessed by an SMF and MMF for the input and output, respectively. (a) Transmission with the transverse position of the input SMF. (b) Transmission depending on the separation of the center of the SMF from the GC surface for an optimum tilt angle of 16 deg. (c) Transmission in terms of the angle of incidence.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Prepared angle-polished fiber array showing the side view and front face of both the SMF and MMF arrays. (b) Fiber array placed on top of the Si3N4 chip during the alignment. DUT, device under test.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured transmission characteristics for the eight-channel interface consisting of the fiber arrays and GCs.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured eye diagrams for the transmission of 10 Gbps standard Ethernet signals.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Losses Involved in the Proposed POI for Different Combinations of SMF and MMF for the Input and Output

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