Abstract

We present a survey on five years of experiments of excimer laser irradiation of linen fabrics, seeking a coloration mechanism able to reproduce the microscopic complexity of the body image embedded onto the Shroud of Turin. We achieved a superficial, Shroud-like coloration in a narrow range of irradiation parameters. We also obtained latent coloration that appears after artificial or natural aging of linen following laser irradiations that, at first, did not generate any visible effect. Most importantly, we have recognized photochemical processes that account for both coloration and latent coloration.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

G. Fanti, “Can corona discharge explain the body image of the Turin Shroud?,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 020508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Fanti, J. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, R. Schneider, and N. Svensson, “Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Garlaschelli, “Life-size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin and its image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, and A. Santoni, “Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311R (2009).

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

R. N. Rogers, “Studies on the radiocarbon sample from the Shroud of Turin,” Thermochim. Acta 425, 189–194(2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Ferrero, F. Testore, C. Tonin, and R. Innocenti, “Surface degradation of linen textiles induced by laser treatment,” AUTEX Res. J. 2, 109–114 (2002).

1994 (1)

M. Yatagai and S. H. Zeronian, “Effect of ultraviolet light and heat on the properties of cotton cellulose,” Cellulose 1, 205–214 (1994).

1990 (1)

J. P. Jackson, “Is the image on the Shroud due to a process heretofore unknown to modern science?,” Shroud Spectrum Int. 34, 3–29 (1990).

1989 (1)

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1982 (2)

L. A. Schwalbe and R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Baima Bollone, “Indagini identificative su fili della Sindone,” G. Accad. Med. Torino 1, 228–239 (1982).

1981 (3)

J. H. Heller and A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14, 81–103 (1981).

S. F. Pellicori and M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (1981).

V. D. Miller and S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Biol. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

1980 (7)

1978 (1)

B. J. Culliton, “The mystery of the Shroud challenges 20th-century science,” Science 201, 235–239 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

A. Bos, “The UV spectra of cellulose and some model compounds,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 16, 2567–2576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Accetta, J. S.

Adler, A. D.

J. H. Heller and A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14, 81–103 (1981).

J. H. Heller and A. D. Adler, “Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2742–2744 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, and J. R. Druzik, “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, Vol. 205 of ACS Advances in Chemistry Series (American Chemical Society, 1984), pp. 447–476.

Ambers, J.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Bagniuk, J.

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baima Bollone, P. L.

P. L. Baima Bollone, “Indagini identificative su fili della Sindone,” G. Accad. Med. Torino 1, 228–239 (1982).

Baldacchini, G.

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, and A. Santoni, “Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311R (2009).

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1278–1285(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, and A. Santoni, “A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 116–125, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p01.pdf .

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Sub-micrometer coloration depth of linens by vacuum ultraviolet radiation,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 3–10, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Colorazione di tessuti di lino con laser ad eccimeri e confronto con l’immagine sindonica,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2006/70/FIM (ENEA, 2006).

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Colorazione simil-sindonica di tessuti di lino tramite radiazione nel lontano ultravioletto,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2011/14/ENEA (ENEA, 2011), retrieved 10 October 2012, http://opac.bologna.enea.it:8991/RT/2011/2011_14_ENEA.pdf .

Baumgart, J. S.

Bonani, G.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Bos, A.

A. Bos, “The UV spectra of cellulose and some model compounds,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 16, 2567–2576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Botella, J.

G. Fanti, J. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, R. Schneider, and N. Svensson, “Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Botella, J. A.

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Bowman, S.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Bronk, C.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Crosilla, F.

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Culliton, B. J.

B. J. Culliton, “The mystery of the Shroud challenges 20th-century science,” Science 201, 235–239 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Damon, P. E.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

De Liso, G.

G. De Liso, “Shroud-like experimental image formation during seismic activity,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 11–18, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Del Sole, R.

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Di Lazzaro, P.

G. Fanti, J. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, R. Schneider, and N. Svensson, “Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, and A. Santoni, “Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311R (2009).

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1278–1285(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, and A. Santoni, “A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 116–125, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p01.pdf .

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Sub-micrometer coloration depth of linens by vacuum ultraviolet radiation,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 3–10, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Colorazione di tessuti di lino con laser ad eccimeri e confronto con l’immagine sindonica,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2006/70/FIM (ENEA, 2006).

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Colorazione simil-sindonica di tessuti di lino tramite radiazione nel lontano ultravioletto,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2011/14/ENEA (ENEA, 2011), retrieved 10 October 2012, http://opac.bologna.enea.it:8991/RT/2011/2011_14_ENEA.pdf .

Donahue, D.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Druzik, J. R.

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, and J. R. Druzik, “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, Vol. 205 of ACS Advances in Chemistry Series (American Chemical Society, 1984), pp. 447–476.

Ercoline, W. R.

Evans, M. S.

S. F. Pellicori and M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (1981).

Fanti, G.

G. Fanti, J. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, R. Schneider, and N. Svensson, “Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Fanti, “Can corona discharge explain the body image of the Turin Shroud?,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 020508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, and A. Santoni, “Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311R (2009).

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1278–1285(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, and A. Santoni, “A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 116–125, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p01.pdf .

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Colorazione di tessuti di lino con laser ad eccimeri e confronto con l’immagine sindonica,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2006/70/FIM (ENEA, 2006).

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Ferrero, F.

F. Ferrero, F. Testore, C. Tonin, and R. Innocenti, “Surface degradation of linen textiles induced by laser treatment,” AUTEX Res. J. 2, 109–114 (2002).

Garlaschelli, L.

L. Garlaschelli, “Life-size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin and its image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, M.

Gilbert, R.

Goldoni, C.

C. Goldoni, “The Shroud of Turin and the bilirubin blood stains,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti, ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 442–445, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p04.pdf .

Gore, B.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Gori, F.

See, e.g., F. Gori, “Diffractive optics, an introduction,” in Diffractive Optics and Optical Microsystems, S. Martellucci and A. N. Chester, eds. (Plenum, 1997), pp. 3–23.

Hall, E.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Hatheway, A.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Hedges, R.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Heller, J. H.

J. H. Heller and A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14, 81–103 (1981).

J. H. Heller and A. D. Adler, “Blood on the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 2742–2744 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, and J. R. Druzik, “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, Vol. 205 of ACS Advances in Chemistry Series (American Chemical Society, 1984), pp. 447–476.

Housley, R.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Innocenti, R.

F. Ferrero, F. Testore, C. Tonin, and R. Innocenti, “Surface degradation of linen textiles induced by laser treatment,” AUTEX Res. J. 2, 109–114 (2002).

Jackson, J. P.

J. P. Jackson, “Is the image on the Shroud due to a process heretofore unknown to modern science?,” Shroud Spectrum Int. 34, 3–29 (1990).

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, and W. R. Ercoline, “Correlation of image intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D structure of a human body shape,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2244–2270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, and J. R. Druzik, “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, Vol. 205 of ACS Advances in Chemistry Series (American Chemical Society, 1984), pp. 447–476.

Jull, A.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Jumper, E. J.

J. P. Jackson, E. J. Jumper, and W. R. Ercoline, “Correlation of image intensity on the Turin Shroud with the 3-D structure of a human body shape,” Appl. Opt. 23, 2244–2270 (1984).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper and W. Mottern, “Scientific investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1909–1912 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, and J. R. Druzik, “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, Vol. 205 of ACS Advances in Chemistry Series (American Chemical Society, 1984), pp. 447–476.

Knapik, A.

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lattarulo, F.

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Law, I.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Leese, M.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Linick, T.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Lojewska, J.

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

London, J. R.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, and J. R. London, “X-ray fluorescence investigation on the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. 9, 40–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mazeau, K.

S. Perez and K. Mazeau, Polysaccharides: Structural Diversity and Functional Versatility, S. Dumitriu, Ed. (Dekker, 2004), Chap. 2.

McCrone, W. C.

W. C. McCrone and C. Skirius, “Light microscopical study of the Shroud of Turin,” Microscope 28, 105–111 (1980).

Miller, V. D.

V. D. Miller and S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Biol. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

Missori, M.

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Morris, R. A.

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, and J. R. London, “X-ray fluorescence investigation on the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. 9, 40–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mosca Conte, A.

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mottern, W.

Murra, D.

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, and A. Santoni, “Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311R (2009).

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Coloring linens with excimer lasers to simulate the body image of the Turin Shroud,” Appl. Opt. 47, 1278–1285(2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, and A. Santoni, “A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 116–125, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p01.pdf .

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Sub-micrometer coloration depth of linens by vacuum ultraviolet radiation,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 3–10, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Colorazione di tessuti di lino con laser ad eccimeri e confronto con l’immagine sindonica,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2006/70/FIM (ENEA, 2006).

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Colorazione simil-sindonica di tessuti di lino tramite radiazione nel lontano ultravioletto,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2011/14/ENEA (ENEA, 2011), retrieved 10 October 2012, http://opac.bologna.enea.it:8991/RT/2011/2011_14_ENEA.pdf .

Nichelatti, E.

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, and A. Santoni, “A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 116–125, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p01.pdf .

Nicolotti, A.

A. Nicolotti, I Templari e la Sindone. Storia di un falso(Salerno, 2011), Chaps. 1, 3, and 4.

Novelli, G.

G. Novelli, “La Sindone e la scienza chimica,” in Proceedings of the Worldwide Congress Sindone 2000, A. Russi and E. Marinelli, eds. (Gerni, 2002), pp. 175–181.

Pellicori, S. F.

V. D. Miller and S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Biol. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

S. F. Pellicori and M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (1981).

S. F. Pellicori, “Spectral properties of the Shroud of Turin,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1913–1920 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, and J. R. Druzik, “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, Vol. 205 of ACS Advances in Chemistry Series (American Chemical Society, 1984), pp. 447–476.

Perez, S.

S. Perez and K. Mazeau, Polysaccharides: Structural Diversity and Functional Versatility, S. Dumitriu, Ed. (Dekker, 2004), Chap. 2.

Pope John Paul II,

Pope John Paul II, “The Shroud is a challenge to our intelligence,” address during the visit to Turin (24May1998).

Pulci, O.

A. Mosca Conte, O. Pulci, A. Knapik, J. Bagniuk, R. Del Sole, J. Lojewska, and M. Missori, “Role of cellulose oxidation in the yellowing of ancient paper,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 158301 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, R. N.

R. N. Rogers, “Studies on the radiocarbon sample from the Shroud of Turin,” Thermochim. Acta 425, 189–194(2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Schwalbe and R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Santoni, A.

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, and A. Santoni, “Colouring fabrics with excimer lasers to simulate encoded images: the case of the Shroud of Turin,” Proc. SPIE 7131, 71311R (2009).

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Colorazione simil-sindonica di tessuti di lino tramite radiazione nel lontano ultravioletto,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2011/14/ENEA (ENEA, 2011), retrieved 10 October 2012, http://opac.bologna.enea.it:8991/RT/2011/2011_14_ENEA.pdf .

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Sub-micrometer coloration depth of linens by vacuum ultraviolet radiation,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 3–10, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, and A. Santoni, “A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 116–125, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p01.pdf .

Scavone, D.

D. Scavone, “Documenting the Shroud’s missing years,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 87–94, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Schneider, R.

G. Fanti, J. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, R. Schneider, and N. Svensson, “Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Schwalbe, L. A.

L. A. Schwalbe and R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Morris, L. A. Schwalbe, and J. R. London, “X-ray fluorescence investigation on the Shroud of Turin,” X-Ray Spectrom. 9, 40–47 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Skirius, C.

W. C. McCrone and C. Skirius, “Light microscopical study of the Shroud of Turin,” Microscope 28, 105–111 (1980).

Svensson, N.

G. Fanti, J. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, R. Schneider, and N. Svensson, “Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Svensson, “Medical and forensic aspects on the man depicted on the Shroud of Turin,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 181–186, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Testore, F.

F. Ferrero, F. Testore, C. Tonin, and R. Innocenti, “Surface degradation of linen textiles induced by laser treatment,” AUTEX Res. J. 2, 109–114 (2002).

Tite, M.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Tonin, C.

F. Ferrero, F. Testore, C. Tonin, and R. Innocenti, “Surface degradation of linen textiles induced by laser treatment,” AUTEX Res. J. 2, 109–114 (2002).

Toolin, L.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Trumbore, S.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Van Haelst, R.

R. Van Haelst, “A critical review of the radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 267–273, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Wanger, A.

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

Woelfli, W.

P. E. Damon, D. Donahue, B. Gore, A. Hatheway, A. Jull, T. Linick, P. Sercel, L. Toolin, C. Bronk, E. Hall, R. Hedges, R. Housley, I. Law, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. Ambers, S. Bowman, M. Leese, and M. Tite, “Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin,” Nature 337, 611–615(1989).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, M.

M. Yatagai and S. H. Zeronian, “Effect of ultraviolet light and heat on the properties of cotton cellulose,” Cellulose 1, 205–214 (1994).

Zeronian, S. H.

M. Yatagai and S. H. Zeronian, “Effect of ultraviolet light and heat on the properties of cotton cellulose,” Cellulose 1, 205–214 (1994).

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

L. A. Schwalbe and R. N. Rogers, “Physics and chemistry of the Shroud of Turin, a summary of the 1978 investigation,” Anal. Chim. Acta 135, 3–49 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Archaeology (1)

S. F. Pellicori and M. S. Evans, “The Shroud of Turin through the microscope,” Archaeology 34, 34–43 (1981).

AUTEX Res. J. (1)

F. Ferrero, F. Testore, C. Tonin, and R. Innocenti, “Surface degradation of linen textiles induced by laser treatment,” AUTEX Res. J. 2, 109–114 (2002).

Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. (1)

J. H. Heller and A. D. Adler, “A chemical investigation of the Shroud of Turin,” Can. Soc. Forensic Sci. J. 14, 81–103 (1981).

Cellulose (1)

M. Yatagai and S. H. Zeronian, “Effect of ultraviolet light and heat on the properties of cotton cellulose,” Cellulose 1, 205–214 (1994).

G. Accad. Med. Torino (1)

P. L. Baima Bollone, “Indagini identificative su fili della Sindone,” G. Accad. Med. Torino 1, 228–239 (1982).

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (1)

A. Bos, “The UV spectra of cellulose and some model compounds,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 16, 2567–2576 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Photogr. (1)

V. D. Miller and S. F. Pellicori, “Ultraviolet fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin,” J. Biol. Photogr. 49, 71–85 (1981).

J. Imaging Sci. Technol. (4)

G. Fanti, “Can corona discharge explain the body image of the Turin Shroud?,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 020508 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Fanti, J. Botella, P. Di Lazzaro, R. Schneider, and N. Svensson, “Microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of the Shroud of Turin image superficiality,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040201 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Garlaschelli, “Life-size reproduction of the Shroud of Turin and its image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, G. Fanti, E. Nichelatti, and G. Baldacchini, “Deep ultraviolet radiation simulates the Turin Shroud image,” J. Imaging Sci. Technol. 54, 040302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Microscope (1)

W. C. McCrone and C. Skirius, “Light microscopical study of the Shroud of Turin,” Microscope 28, 105–111 (1980).

Nature (1)

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Other (21)

T. Heimburger, “A detailed critical review of the chemical studies on the Turin Shroud: facts and interpretations,” (2001), http://www.shroud.com/pdfs/thibault%20final%2001.pdf .

I. Piczek, “Is the Shroud of Turin a painting?,” (1995), retrieved on 10 October 2012, http://www.shroud.com/piczek.htm .

P. Di Lazzaro, G. Baldacchini, G. Fanti, D. Murra, E. Nichelatti, and A. Santoni, “A physical hypothesis on the origin of the body image embedded into the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Shroud of Turin: Perspectives on a Multifaceted Enigma, G. Fanti ed. (Libreria Progetto Padova, 2009), pp. 116–125, http://www.ohioshroudconference.com/papers/p01.pdf .

S. Perez and K. Mazeau, Polysaccharides: Structural Diversity and Functional Versatility, S. Dumitriu, Ed. (Dekker, 2004), Chap. 2.

E. J. Jumper, A. D. Adler, J. P. Jackson, S. F. Pellicori, J. H. Heller, and J. R. Druzik, “A comprehensive examination of the various stains and images on the Shroud of Turin,” in Archaeological Chemistry III, Vol. 205 of ACS Advances in Chemistry Series (American Chemical Society, 1984), pp. 447–476.

D. Scavone, “Documenting the Shroud’s missing years,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 87–94, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

A. Nicolotti, I Templari e la Sindone. Storia di un falso(Salerno, 2011), Chaps. 1, 3, and 4.

N. Svensson, “Medical and forensic aspects on the man depicted on the Shroud of Turin,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 181–186, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

G. Baldacchini, P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, and G. Fanti, “Colorazione di tessuti di lino con laser ad eccimeri e confronto con l’immagine sindonica,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2006/70/FIM (ENEA, 2006).

G. Fanti, J. A. Botella, F. Crosilla, F. Lattarulo, N. Svensson, R. Schneider, and A. Wanger, “List of evidences of the Turin Shroud,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approch to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 67–75, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

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P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Sub-micrometer coloration depth of linens by vacuum ultraviolet radiation,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images, P. Di Lazzaro, ed. (ENEA, 2010), pp. 3–10, http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/proceedings.php .

P. Di Lazzaro, D. Murra, A. Santoni, and G. Baldacchini, “Colorazione simil-sindonica di tessuti di lino tramite radiazione nel lontano ultravioletto,” Technical Report ENEA RT/2011/14/ENEA (ENEA, 2011), retrieved 10 October 2012, http://opac.bologna.enea.it:8991/RT/2011/2011_14_ENEA.pdf .

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photograph of the Shroud of Turin and its negative black/white obtained by Jasc software. The image is clearly a negative, not a positive. The dimensions of the Shroud are 441 cm in length and 113 cm in width. From http://www.sindone.org.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Setup of excimer laser irradiations of linens. The laser pulses are focused by the lens on the linen fabric L. The laser fluence/intensity on the linen is varied by moving L along the optical axis of the lens. Part of the laser pulse is reflected by the beam splitter BS and monitored by the photodiode PD and the oscilloscope OS connected to a personal computer PC, which processes the data, taking into account the shot-to-shot energy fluctuations. The distance between the XeCl and the ArF excimer lasers and the lens is about 1 m and 25 cm, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Photomicrograph of the cloth irradiated with 100 XeCl laser pulses. Intensity (fluence)=16MW/cm2 (0.5J/cm2) per pulse.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photomicrograph of a warp thread of flax irradiated with ArF laser at a total laser fluence FT=26.4J/cm2. The thread was crushed with forceps to separate the fibers and highlight their yellow color. At the center of the thread, there is a uncolored zone due to a weft thread that shadowed the laser radiation [36].

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Area of the linen irradiated by the ArF laser beam shows different characteristics that depend on the local values of F(x,y). (1) Colored area, (2) ablated area, and (3) area irradiated below the threshold for coloration [36].

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Photomicrographs of the cross section of two linen threads, irradiated by (a) ArF and (b) XeCl laser beams, respectively, “from top” of photos. In (a) VUV colors a very thin topmost part of the thread, corresponding to few fibers. In (b)  UV colors more than one half of the section of the thread. Both threads have an average diameter of 300 μm [35].

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Microscope image of a single linen fiber colored after ArF laser irradiation. The mechanical damage in the central part allows observation of small broken pieces of colored primary cell wall (see inside circles) on a colorless inner part of the fiber. The average diameter of the fiber is 20 μm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Linen fabric cut after irradiation below threshold for coloration. (1) Irradiated area after heating. (2) Irradiated area, not heated. (3) Nonirradiated area. Latent coloration is limited to the area of the linen irradiated below threshold and appears only after artificial aging of the upper part of irradiated linen [36].

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Blue fluorescence induced by UV lamp on linen after irradiation with ArF laser. (a) In the working point of the third row of Table 1. The irradiated area shows a reduced fluorescence. (b) By using a laser beam having a “holed” spatial profile of the intensity. In this case the fluorescence reduction is not uniform over the whole laser spot.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

The solid curves show the absolute reflectance of the linen of the Shroud in areas of no image as a function of the wavelength [3]. The dashed curve shows the absolute hemispherical reflectance of the linen used in our experiments [35].

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Plot of the absolute value of the absorbance of the linen versus the wavelength, according to our experimental values inserted in Eq. (3). The thickness of the plot gives the error associated to the measurement.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Petrographic microscope observation of a linen fiber. In the middle there is a partly colored fiber of linen in oil 1.515 between crossed polarizers. The left part of the fiber is the nonirradiated region, which is enlarged in the inset below. On the right there is the region irradiated by XeCl laser, enlarged in the inset above. From [32].

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

(a) (Left) Photo of the linen during XeCl laser irradiation. (Right) Same picture seen in infrared light. The color scale at the bottom shows that the warmest region of the linen (in the middle of the laser spot) reaches 33°C, while the nonirradiated area is at the room temperature of 20°C. (b) (Left) Photo of the linen during ArF laser irradiation. (Right) Same frame seen in infrared light. The color scale reveals that the warmest area of the irradiated linen is at 25°C, while the nonirradiated area is at the room temperature of 21°C.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

(a) Main molecular structure common to both cellulose and hemicellulose. There are two possible transitions (a)(b)(c) and (a)(d)(e) that generate chromophores after oxidation and dehydration. The CC and CO double bonds in (c) and (e) act as chromophores and are responsible for the yellow color of the fibers of image on the Shroud of Turin.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

One-dimensional intensity/fluence profile of our laser beam measured by a CCD camera Andor Model DV-430UV, with a 22 μm single-pixel resolution. The inset shows an enlargement of the high-frequency spatial fluctuations. Note that the contribution of CCD noise to the spatial fluctuations on the plateau is negligible, of about 4×103.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Photomicrograph of linen threads after ArF laser irradiation. Single colored fibers are visible next to uncolored fibers, like in the Shroud image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of Main Visual Inspection Results on Linen as a Function of the ArF Laser Irradiation Parameters

Equations (3)

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F=(1/A)×sF(x,y)dxdy,
FT=(N/A)×sF(x,y)dxdy,
A(λ)=1R(λ)T(λ),

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