Abstract

In this work, we experimentally studied sharp plasmonic resonance on gold gratings in both amplitude and phase domains using a spectroscopic ellipsometry technique. We used numerical and analytical models to analyze the phase delay of TM and TE waves under a surface plasmon excitation condition, and the calculated result fits well with the experimental observations. In addition, the ellipsometry method used here provides an important tool to characterize the phase information in plasmonic and metamaterial devices.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  7. N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
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  10. S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (3)

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Li, Z. L. Wang, S. M. Chen, and K. W. Cheah, “Narrowband plasmonic excitation on gold hole-array nanostructures observed using spectroscopic ellipsometer,” Opt. Express 19, 6348–6353 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase resolved mapping of the near field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, L. Novotny, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “On the concept of imaging nanoscale vector fields,” Nat. Photonics 1, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light scattering by particle and hole arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267–1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Su, S. J. Chen, and T. L. Yeh, “Common path phase shift interferometry surface plasmon resonance imaging system,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1488–1490 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Aieta, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aizpurua, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase resolved mapping of the near field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alkorta, J.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase resolved mapping of the near field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bergmair, I.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bessonov, V. O.

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Capasso, F.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheah, K. W.

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Li, Z. L. Wang, S. M. Chen, and K. W. Cheah, “Narrowband plasmonic excitation on gold hole-array nanostructures observed using spectroscopic ellipsometer,” Opt. Express 19, 6348–6353 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. J.

Chen, S. M.

G. X. Li, Z. L. Wang, S. M. Chen, and K. W. Cheah, “Narrowband plasmonic excitation on gold hole-array nanostructures observed using spectroscopic ellipsometer,” Opt. Express 19, 6348–6353 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolgova, T. V.

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Emani, N. K.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Falkner, M.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, A. A.

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, H.

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

Gaburro, Z.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gajic, R.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light scattering by particle and hole arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267–1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase resolved mapping of the near field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

García-Etxarri, A.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genevet, P.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, L. Novotny, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “On the concept of imaging nanoscale vector fields,” Nat. Photonics 1, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helgert, C.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Hillenbrand, R.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase resolved mapping of the near field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hingerl, K.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hinrichs, K.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A. J.

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Isic, G.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jakovljevic, M. M.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, H. W.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kihm, J. E.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E. B.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, L. Novotny, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “On the concept of imaging nanoscale vector fields,” Nat. Photonics 1, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Larouche, S.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lezec, H. J.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. X.

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. X. Li, Z. L. Wang, S. M. Chen, and K. W. Cheah, “Narrowband plasmonic excitation on gold hole-array nanostructures observed using spectroscopic ellipsometer,” Opt. Express 19, 6348–6353 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. F.

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. C.

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S.

S. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

Martin-Moreno, L.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, C.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

H. Gersen, L. Novotny, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “On the concept of imaging nanoscale vector fields,” Nat. Photonics 1, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oates, T. W. H.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Park, D. J.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, P.

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pertsch, T.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Verlag, 1988).

Ritchie, R. H.

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, M.

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase resolved mapping of the near field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shcherbakov, M. R.

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stibenz, G.

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. D.

Sychev, F. Yu.

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Y. J.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tunnermann, A.

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

Tyler, T.

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vabishchevich, P. P.

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

H. Gersen, L. Novotny, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “On the concept of imaging nanoscale vector fields,” Nat. Photonics 1, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vasic, B.

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. M.

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woo, D. H.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, T. L.

Yoon, Y. C.

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. L.

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. N.

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. X. Li, T. Li, H. Liu, K. F. Li, S. M. Wang, S. N. Zhu, and K. W. Cheah, “Spectral analysis of enhanced third harmonic generation from plasmonic excitations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 261909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Jakovljević, G. Isić, B. Vasić, T. W. H. Oates, K. Hinrichs, I. Bergmair, K. Hingerl, and R. Gajić, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of split ring resonators at infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

P. P. Vabishchevich, V. O. Bessonov, F. Yu. Sychev, M. R. Shcherbakov, T. V. Dolgova, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons in the vicinity of Fano type resonance,” JETP Lett. 92, 575–579 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

C. Helgert, E. Pshenay-Severin, M. Falkner, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, E. B. Kley, A. Tunnermann, F. Lederer, and T. Pertsch, “Chiral metamaterial composed of three dimensional plasmonic nanostructure,” Nano Lett. 11, 4400–4404(2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnell, A. Garcia-Etxarri, J. Alkorta, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Phase resolved mapping of the near field vector and polarization state in nanoscale antenna gaps,” Nano Lett. 10, 3524–3528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. Larouche, Y. J. Tsai, T. Tyler, N. M. Jokerst, and D. R. Smith, “Infrared metamaterial phase holograms,” Nat. Mater. 11, 450–454 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. Schnell, A. García-Etxarri, A. J. Huber, K. Crozier, J. Aizpurua, and R. Hillenbrand, “Controlling the near-field oscillations of loaded plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nat. Photonics 3, 287–291 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee, H. W. Kihm, J. E. Kihm, W. J. Choi, H. Kim, C. Ropers, D. J. Park, Y. C. Yoon, S. B. Choi, D. H. Woo, J. Kim, B. Lee, Q. H. Park, C. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Vector field microscopic imaging of light,” Nat. Photonics 1, 53–56 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, L. Novotny, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “On the concept of imaging nanoscale vector fields,” Nat. Photonics 1, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391, 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

R. H. Ritchie, “Plasma losses by fast electrons in thin films,” Phys. Rev. 106, 874–881 (1957).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Liu, G. X. Li, K. F. Li, S. M. Chen, S. N. Zhu, C. T. Chan, and K. W. Cheah, “Linear and nonlinear Fano resonance on two-dimensional magnetic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 84, 235437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Ropers, D. J. Park, G. Stibenz, G. Steinmeyer, J. Kim, D. S. Kim, and C. Lienau, “Femtosecond light transmission and subradiant damping in plasmonic crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 113901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, P. Park, J. Li, X. C. Lu, W. L. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Negative refractive index in chiral metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 023901 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light scattering by particle and hole arrays,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 1267–1290 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, T. W. Ebbesen, and L. Kuipers, “Light passing through subwavelength apertures,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 729–787 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

N. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, Z. Gaburro, J. Tetienne, and F. Capasso, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science 334, 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, N. K. Emani, A. V. Kildishev, A. Boltasseva, and V. M. Shalaev, “Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas,” Science 335, 427 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ozaki, J. Kato, and S. Kawata, “Surface plasmon holography with white light illumination,” Science 332, 218–220 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer Verlag, 1988).

S. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2007).

H. Fujiwara, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Principles and Applications (Wiley, 2007).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1985).

Suggestions from reviewer in the revision process of this manuscript.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Cross section of one-dimensional gold grating and (b) SEM image of one dimensional gold grating on SiO2/Si. Period, 355 nm; line/space, 11. The thickness of the gold layer is 30 nm, and the grating height is 50 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

White light from a xenon lamp is focused on the gold grating at the incident angle of 50° to 75°. The microlens system was used to focus the incident light with a 200 μm diameter spot for an oblique incident angle. The polarizer is continuously rotating at a frequency of 6 Hz, and the optical axis of the analyzer is fixed at 45° off the incident plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectrally resolved amplitude ratio of (|Ep/Es|) for a large incident angle (50° to 75°). Circles represent the experimental results, and solid curves are the theoretical results using COMSOL Multiphysics.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Full-field distribution calculated using COMSOL Multiphysics. (a) Reflection spectra of TM (circles) and TE (triangles) for an incident angle of 75°, (b), and (c) magnitude distributions of the electric field for TM- and TE-polarized light, respectively, at resonant wavelength λ=710nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured and calculated spectrally resolved phase delay between p and s waves for oblique incidence (50° to 75°). Circles represent experimental values, while solid curves represent theoretical results.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρ=Ep/Es=tan(ψ)exp(iΔ),
ksp(ω)=k0(ω)sin(θ)+mG0,
ksp(ω)=k0(ω)εgold/(εgold+1),
rpo=ngoldcos(θi)cos(θt)ngoldcos(θi)+cos(θt);rso=cos(θi)ngoldcos(θt)cos(θi)+ngoldcos(θt),
rsp=rpoG0(k0sin(θ)+ksp)i(ΓiΓrad)G0(k0sin(θ)+ksp)+i(ΓiΓrad),
ηrsp/rso=|Ep/Es|eiΔ,

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