Abstract

Total internal reflection (TIR) lenses are optical components that are used to collimate the light or to generate a desired uniform illumination. However, most TIR designs do not pay attention to color uniformity, an increasingly important issue for the quality of lighting, and have a considerable dimension, which also limits their applications. In this study, we proposed an effective design principle of color mixing, and a phosphor-converted white LED module integrated with a compact modified free form TIR component was presented and optimized to achieve compact size and high angular color uniformity (ACU). Optimization results indicated that modified LED packages could achieve a smaller size in vertical height (0.52) within the same horizontal radius, compared with LEDs integrated with classic TIR lenses. Meanwhile, the enhancement of ACU with an optimum appropriate divergence half angle (65°) reached as high as 84% in terms of normalized standard deviation of yellow–blue ratio from 0.888 to 0.429.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Liu and X. B. Luo, Design of LED Packaging for Lighting Applications (Wiley, 2011).
  2. G. Z. Wang, L. L. Wang, F. L. Li, and G. J. Zhang, “Collimating lens for light-emitting-diode light source based on non-imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 51, 10984–10995 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “Compact non-imaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 70–81 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. R. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, and J. P. Rolland, “Fast freeform reflector generation using source-target maps,” Opt. Express 18, 5259–5304 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. R. Fournier, “A review of beam shaping strategies for LED lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817007 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. R. Zheng, X. Hao, and X. Liu, “Freeform surface lens for LED uniform illumination,” Appl. Opt. 48, 6627–6634 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Zhao, K. Wang, F. Chen, D. Wu, and S. Liu, “Lens design of LED searchlight of high brightness and distant spot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 815–820 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. W. Sun, S. Z. Jin, and S. Y. Cen, “Free-form microlens for illumination application,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5520–5527 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A 33, 680–687 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1860–1862 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angular uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513–515 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Wu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, and A. Bierman, “Improving the performance of mixed-color white LED systems by using scattered photon extraction technique,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666905 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality lighting-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16, 12958–12966 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Bortz and N. Shatz, “Generalized functional method of nonimaging optical design,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 633805 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Kim, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Reverse functional design of discontinuous refractive optics using an extended light source for flat illuminance distributions and high color uniformity,” Opt. Express 19, 1794–1807 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

G. Z. Wang, L. L. Wang, F. L. Li, and G. J. Zhang, “Collimating lens for light-emitting-diode light source based on non-imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 51, 10984–10995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

F. R. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, and J. P. Rolland, “Fast freeform reflector generation using source-target maps,” Opt. Express 18, 5259–5304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A 33, 680–687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angular uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

H. Wu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, and A. Bierman, “Improving the performance of mixed-color white LED systems by using scattered photon extraction technique,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Bortz and N. Shatz, “Generalized functional method of nonimaging optical design,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 633805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “Compact non-imaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 70–81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bierman, A.

H. Wu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, and A. Bierman, “Improving the performance of mixed-color white LED systems by using scattered photon extraction technique,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bortz, J.

J. Bortz and N. Shatz, “Generalized functional method of nonimaging optical design,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 633805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassarly, W. J.

F. R. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, and J. P. Rolland, “Fast freeform reflector generation using source-target maps,” Opt. Express 18, 5259–5304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cen, S. Y.

Chen, F.

Chen, J. J.

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angular uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y.

Fournier, F. R.

F. R. Fournier, “A review of beam shaping strategies for LED lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, and J. P. Rolland, “Fast freeform reflector generation using source-target maps,” Opt. Express 18, 5259–5304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P. F.

Gu, Y.

H. Wu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, and A. Bierman, “Improving the performance of mixed-color white LED systems by using scattered photon extraction technique,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

Huang, K. L.

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. Z.

Kang, S.

Kim, B.

Kim, H.

Lai, P. T.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angular uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, F. L.

G. Z. Wang, L. L. Wang, F. L. Li, and G. J. Zhang, “Collimating lens for light-emitting-diode light source based on non-imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 51, 10984–10995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. T.

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Zhao, K. Wang, F. Chen, D. Wu, and S. Liu, “Lens design of LED searchlight of high brightness and distant spot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 815–820 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A 33, 680–687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality lighting-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu and X. B. Luo, Design of LED Packaging for Lighting Applications (Wiley, 2011).

Liu, T. S.

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Liu, Z. Y.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A 33, 680–687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality lighting-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. B.

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A 33, 680–687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality lighting-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu and X. B. Luo, Design of LED Packaging for Lighting Applications (Wiley, 2011).

Narendran, N.

H. Wu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, and A. Bierman, “Improving the performance of mixed-color white LED systems by using scattered photon extraction technique,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Parkyn, W. A.

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “Compact non-imaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 70–81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pelka, D. G.

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “Compact non-imaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 70–81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J. P.

F. R. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, and J. P. Rolland, “Fast freeform reflector generation using source-target maps,” Opt. Express 18, 5259–5304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shatz, N.

J. Bortz and N. Shatz, “Generalized functional method of nonimaging optical design,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 633805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L. W.

Tsai, M. D.

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. Z.

G. Z. Wang, L. L. Wang, F. L. Li, and G. J. Zhang, “Collimating lens for light-emitting-diode light source based on non-imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 51, 10984–10995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

S. Zhao, K. Wang, F. Chen, D. Wu, and S. Liu, “Lens design of LED searchlight of high brightness and distant spot,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 815–820 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, D. Wu, F. Chen, Z. Y. Liu, X. B. Luo, and S. Liu, “Angular color uniformity enhancement of white light-emitting diodes integrated with freeform lenses,” Opt. Lett. 35, 1860–1862 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A 33, 680–687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality lighting-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. L.

G. Z. Wang, L. L. Wang, F. L. Li, and G. J. Zhang, “Collimating lens for light-emitting-diode light source based on non-imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 51, 10984–10995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. Y.

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. H.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angular uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Wu, H.

H. Wu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, and A. Bierman, “Improving the performance of mixed-color white LED systems by using scattered photon extraction technique,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. J.

G. Z. Wang, L. L. Wang, F. L. Li, and G. J. Zhang, “Collimating lens for light-emitting-diode light source based on non-imaging optics,” Appl. Opt. 51, 10984–10995 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, S.

Zheng, Z. R.

Zhu, L.

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angular uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Zhu, X. H. Wang, P. T. Lai, and H. W. Choi, “Angular uniform white light-emitting diodes using an integrated reflector cup,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22, 513–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A (1)

Z. Y. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, and X. B. Luo, “Studies on optical consistency of white LEDs affected by phosphor thickness and concentration using optical simulation,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part A 33, 680–687 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

F. Chen, S. Liu, K. Wang, Z. Y. Liu, and X. B. Luo, “Free-form lenses for high illumination quality lighting-emitting diode MR16 lamps,” Opt. Eng. 48, 123002 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Y. Ding, X. Liu, Z. R. Zheng, and P. F. Gu, “Freeform LED lens for uniform illumination,” Opt. Express 16, 12958–12966 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Kim, H. Kim, and S. Kang, “Reverse functional design of discontinuous refractive optics using an extended light source for flat illuminance distributions and high color uniformity,” Opt. Express 19, 1794–1807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Chen, T. Y. Wang, K. L. Huang, T. S. Liu, M. D. Tsai, and C. T. Lin, “Freeform lens design for LED collimating illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 1794–1807 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. R. Fournier, W. J. Cassarly, and J. P. Rolland, “Fast freeform reflector generation using source-target maps,” Opt. Express 18, 5259–5304 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (4)

F. R. Fournier, “A review of beam shaping strategies for LED lighting,” Proc. SPIE 8170, 817007 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Parkyn and D. G. Pelka, “Compact non-imaging lens with totally internally reflecting facets,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 70–81 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Bortz and N. Shatz, “Generalized functional method of nonimaging optical design,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 633805 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wu, N. Narendran, Y. Gu, and A. Bierman, “Improving the performance of mixed-color white LED systems by using scattered photon extraction technique,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666905 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. Liu and X. B. Luo, Design of LED Packaging for Lighting Applications (Wiley, 2011).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Classic TIR lens. (b) Traditional white LED packaging. (c) YBR distributions of traditional LED and the LED integrated with a classic TIR lens.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Design principle of the modified TIR lens. (a) Original YBR distribution and (b) desired YBR distribution.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sketch map of designed ray paths through the modified TIR lens.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Sketch map of (a) the generation method of the discrete points of the top surface and (b) a designed TIR lens with (θ=60°, γ=45°, β=65°). Modified TIR lens has a larger divergence half angle than the classic TIR lens.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Optimization processes of minimizing modified TIR lens dimensions as well as maximizing the ACU and (b) YBR distributions of the traditional LED and modified TIR lens with β=65°.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Detailed structure of the packaging. (b) Relative illuminance distributions on a 700mm×700mm target based on the extended light source in one meter away. Uniformity of illuminance is enhanced by 19.9% from 53.1% to 63.7%. Larger divergence angle of the modified TIR lens results in lower central illuminance compared with the classic TIR lens while the marginal illuminance of the modified TIR lens on a large enough receiver is higher (not shown here).

Equations (2)

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N⃗=(O⃗nI⃗)/[1+n22n(O⃗I⃗)]1/2,
NSD=1EYBRσ(YBR),

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