Abstract

In order to increase the illumination uniformity of the position-sensitive detector (PSD) in a sensing optical system, an optimization method is introduced in this paper. The ratio of the oblique ray section to the paraxial ray section is adjusted by circular and annular obscurations with different parameters; thus, the relative illumination on the image plane can be optimized. In our case, the size and position of the circular and annular obscurations are optimization variables. The result shows illumination uniformity on a PSD is enhanced from the original 12%–69.7%, and the precision is greatly improved. The method in this paper is proved to be effective and low cost and to have potential in many other applications.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. Lei, J. Fu, and Q. Guo, “Correction of uneven illumination on gun bore image,” Laser Optoelectron. Prog. 48, 061002 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Wang, G. He, and X. Shen, “A system for examining the image planes’ illumination nonuniformity of image-forming system on photoelectric measuring equipment using CCD,” Optoelectron. Devices Technol. 28, 212–215 (2008).
  3. http://www.schneiderkreuznach.com/pdf/foto/centerfilter.pdf .
  4. R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, D. J. Schertler, and G. M. Morris, “LED illumination control and color mixing with engineered diffusers,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 133–140 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. http://www.opto-engineering.com/telecentric-lenses-tutorial.html .
  6. S. Salvatori, G. Mazzeo, and G. R. Conte, “Voltage division position sensitive detectors based on photoconductive materials part II: device performances and experimental results,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 218–224 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Mäkynen, J. Kostamovaara, and R. Myllylä, “Positioning resolution of the position-sensitive detectors in high background illumination,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 324–326 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. G. Huisstede and B. D. van Rooijen, “Dependence of silicon position-detector bandwidth on wavelength, power, and bias,” Opt. Lett. 31, 610–612 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Lu, H. Yuan, and A. He, “Experimental study of the effect of light source on position precision of PSD,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 192–195 (2000).
  10. Y. Wang, Fish-Eye Lens Optics (Science, 2006), pp. 61–64.
  11. S. T. Yang, R. L. Hsieh, Y. H. Lee, and R. F. W. Pease, “Effect of central obscuration on image formation in projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 477–485(1990).
    [CrossRef]
  12. ZEMAX Optical Design Program User’s Guide (ZEMAX Development, 2009), p. 715.

2011 (1)

J. Lei, J. Fu, and Q. Guo, “Correction of uneven illumination on gun bore image,” Laser Optoelectron. Prog. 48, 061002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

L. Wang, G. He, and X. Shen, “A system for examining the image planes’ illumination nonuniformity of image-forming system on photoelectric measuring equipment using CCD,” Optoelectron. Devices Technol. 28, 212–215 (2008).

S. Salvatori, G. Mazzeo, and G. R. Conte, “Voltage division position sensitive detectors based on photoconductive materials part II: device performances and experimental results,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 218–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (1)

R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, D. J. Schertler, and G. M. Morris, “LED illumination control and color mixing with engineered diffusers,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 133–140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Lu, H. Yuan, and A. He, “Experimental study of the effect of light source on position precision of PSD,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 192–195 (2000).

1996 (1)

A. Mäkynen, J. Kostamovaara, and R. Myllylä, “Positioning resolution of the position-sensitive detectors in high background illumination,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. T. Yang, R. L. Hsieh, Y. H. Lee, and R. F. W. Pease, “Effect of central obscuration on image formation in projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 477–485(1990).
[CrossRef]

Chakmakjian, S.

R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, D. J. Schertler, and G. M. Morris, “LED illumination control and color mixing with engineered diffusers,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 133–140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Conte, G. R.

S. Salvatori, G. Mazzeo, and G. R. Conte, “Voltage division position sensitive detectors based on photoconductive materials part II: device performances and experimental results,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 218–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.

J. Lei, J. Fu, and Q. Guo, “Correction of uneven illumination on gun bore image,” Laser Optoelectron. Prog. 48, 061002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Q.

J. Lei, J. Fu, and Q. Guo, “Correction of uneven illumination on gun bore image,” Laser Optoelectron. Prog. 48, 061002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, A.

A. Lu, H. Yuan, and A. He, “Experimental study of the effect of light source on position precision of PSD,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 192–195 (2000).

He, G.

L. Wang, G. He, and X. Shen, “A system for examining the image planes’ illumination nonuniformity of image-forming system on photoelectric measuring equipment using CCD,” Optoelectron. Devices Technol. 28, 212–215 (2008).

Hsieh, R. L.

S. T. Yang, R. L. Hsieh, Y. H. Lee, and R. F. W. Pease, “Effect of central obscuration on image formation in projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 477–485(1990).
[CrossRef]

Huisstede, J. H. G.

Kostamovaara, J.

A. Mäkynen, J. Kostamovaara, and R. Myllylä, “Positioning resolution of the position-sensitive detectors in high background illumination,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

S. T. Yang, R. L. Hsieh, Y. H. Lee, and R. F. W. Pease, “Effect of central obscuration on image formation in projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 477–485(1990).
[CrossRef]

Lei, J.

J. Lei, J. Fu, and Q. Guo, “Correction of uneven illumination on gun bore image,” Laser Optoelectron. Prog. 48, 061002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lu, A.

A. Lu, H. Yuan, and A. He, “Experimental study of the effect of light source on position precision of PSD,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 192–195 (2000).

Mäkynen, A.

A. Mäkynen, J. Kostamovaara, and R. Myllylä, “Positioning resolution of the position-sensitive detectors in high background illumination,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mazzeo, G.

S. Salvatori, G. Mazzeo, and G. R. Conte, “Voltage division position sensitive detectors based on photoconductive materials part II: device performances and experimental results,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 218–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, D. J. Schertler, and G. M. Morris, “LED illumination control and color mixing with engineered diffusers,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 133–140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Myllylä, R.

A. Mäkynen, J. Kostamovaara, and R. Myllylä, “Positioning resolution of the position-sensitive detectors in high background illumination,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pease, R. F. W.

S. T. Yang, R. L. Hsieh, Y. H. Lee, and R. F. W. Pease, “Effect of central obscuration on image formation in projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 477–485(1990).
[CrossRef]

Sales, R. M.

R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, D. J. Schertler, and G. M. Morris, “LED illumination control and color mixing with engineered diffusers,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 133–140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Salvatori, S.

S. Salvatori, G. Mazzeo, and G. R. Conte, “Voltage division position sensitive detectors based on photoconductive materials part II: device performances and experimental results,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 218–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schertler, D. J.

R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, D. J. Schertler, and G. M. Morris, “LED illumination control and color mixing with engineered diffusers,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 133–140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X.

L. Wang, G. He, and X. Shen, “A system for examining the image planes’ illumination nonuniformity of image-forming system on photoelectric measuring equipment using CCD,” Optoelectron. Devices Technol. 28, 212–215 (2008).

van Rooijen, B. D.

Wang, L.

L. Wang, G. He, and X. Shen, “A system for examining the image planes’ illumination nonuniformity of image-forming system on photoelectric measuring equipment using CCD,” Optoelectron. Devices Technol. 28, 212–215 (2008).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, Fish-Eye Lens Optics (Science, 2006), pp. 61–64.

Yang, S. T.

S. T. Yang, R. L. Hsieh, Y. H. Lee, and R. F. W. Pease, “Effect of central obscuration on image formation in projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 477–485(1990).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.

A. Lu, H. Yuan, and A. He, “Experimental study of the effect of light source on position precision of PSD,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 192–195 (2000).

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

S. Salvatori, G. Mazzeo, and G. R. Conte, “Voltage division position sensitive detectors based on photoconductive materials part II: device performances and experimental results,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 218–224 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

A. Mäkynen, J. Kostamovaara, and R. Myllylä, “Positioning resolution of the position-sensitive detectors in high background illumination,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 45, 324–326 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laser Optoelectron. Prog. (1)

J. Lei, J. Fu, and Q. Guo, “Correction of uneven illumination on gun bore image,” Laser Optoelectron. Prog. 48, 061002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. Lu, H. Yuan, and A. He, “Experimental study of the effect of light source on position precision of PSD,” Opt. Laser Technol. 24, 192–195 (2000).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optoelectron. Devices Technol. (1)

L. Wang, G. He, and X. Shen, “A system for examining the image planes’ illumination nonuniformity of image-forming system on photoelectric measuring equipment using CCD,” Optoelectron. Devices Technol. 28, 212–215 (2008).

Proc. SPIE (2)

R. M. Sales, S. Chakmakjian, D. J. Schertler, and G. M. Morris, “LED illumination control and color mixing with engineered diffusers,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 133–140 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Yang, R. L. Hsieh, Y. H. Lee, and R. F. W. Pease, “Effect of central obscuration on image formation in projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 1264, 477–485(1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

ZEMAX Optical Design Program User’s Guide (ZEMAX Development, 2009), p. 715.

http://www.opto-engineering.com/telecentric-lenses-tutorial.html .

http://www.schneiderkreuznach.com/pdf/foto/centerfilter.pdf .

Y. Wang, Fish-Eye Lens Optics (Science, 2006), pp. 61–64.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Principle of PSD sensing optics.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layout of PSD sensing lens.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative illumination of original system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relation of oblique ray section and circular obscuration.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ka of circular obscuration versus field (R=25mm, l=40mm).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Relation of oblique ray section and annular obscuration.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Ka of annular obscuration versus field (R=25mm, l=40mm).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Relative illumination optimized by circular obscuration.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Relative illumination optimized by compounds of circular and annular obscuration.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

3D layout of optimized optical system.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d=D2I2I1I2+I1,
E(ω)=E0·cos4ω,
EPSD(ω)=E(ω)·E(ω).
EPSD(ω)=E(ω)·E(ω)=Ka(ω)·E0·cos4ω·E(ω),
EPSD(ω)E0=Ka(ω)·cos4ω·E(ω)=1,
Ka(ω)=1cos4ω·E(ω).
d=ltanω.
{Ka=1d>R+rKa=R2r2R2d<RrKa=πR2S1πR2Rr<d<R+r,
{S1=2(dRy1r2(dy)2·dy+y1rR2y2·dy)y1=R2+d2r22d.
{Ka=1d>R+roKa=πR2S2πR2R+ri<d<R+roKa=πR2S3πR2roR<d<R+riKa=πR2S4πR2riR<d<roRKa=1d<riR,
{S2=2(dRyoro2(dy)2·dy+yoroR2y2·dy)S3=2(dRyoro2(dy)2·dy+yoroR2y2·dy)2(dRyiri2(dy)2·dy+yiriR2y2·dy)S4=πR22(dRyiri2(dy)2·dy+yiriR2y2·dy)yi=R2+d2ri22dyo=R2+d2ro22d.

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