Abstract

Above-water measurements of water-leaving radiance are widely used for water-quality monitoring and ocean-color satellite data validation. Reflected skylight in above-water radiometry needs to be accurately estimated prior to derivation of water-leaving radiance. Up-to-date methods to estimate reflection of diffuse skylight on rough sea surfaces are based on radiative transfer simulations and sky radiance measurements. But these methods neglect the polarization state of the incident skylight, which is generally highly polarized. In this paper, the effects of polarization on the sea surface reflectance and the subsequent water-leaving radiance estimation are investigated. We show that knowledge of the polarization field of the diffuse skylight significantly improves above-water radiometry estimates, in particular in the blue part of the spectrum where the reflected skylight is dominant. A newly developed algorithm based on radiative transfer simulations including polarization is described. Its application to the standard Aerosol Robotic Network-Ocean Color and hyperspectral radiometric measurements of the 1.5-year dataset acquired at the Long Island Sound site demonstrates the noticeable importance of considering polarization for water-leaving radiance estimation. In particular it is shown, based on time series of collocated data acquired in coastal waters, that the azimuth range of measurements leading to good-quality data is significantly increased, and that these estimates are improved by more than 12% at 413 nm. Full consideration of polarization effects is expected to significantly improve the quality of the field data utilized for satellite data validation or potential vicarious calibration purposes.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (6)

2010 (5)

Y. You, D. Stramski, M. Darecki, and G. W. Kattawar, “Modeling of wave-induced irradiance fluctuations at near-surface depths in the ocean: a comparison with measurements,” Appl. Opt. 49, 1041–1053 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Aurin, H. M. Dierssen, M. S. Twardowski, and C. S. Roesler, “Optical complexity in Long Island Sound and implications for coastal ocean color remote sensing,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, C07011 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and N. Souaidia, “POLRADS: polarization radiance distribution measurement system,” Opt. Express 18, 19672–19680 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

F. Waquet, B. Cairns, K. Knobelspiesse, J. Chowdhary, L. D. Travis, B. Schmid, and M. I. Mishchenko, “Polarimetric remote sensing of aerosols over land,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D01206 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zibordi, B. N. Holben, I. Slutsker, D. Giles, D. D’Alimonte, F. Mélin, J. F. Berthon, D. Vandemark, H. Feng, G. Schuster, B. Fabbri, S. Kaitala, and J. Seppala, “AERONET-OC: a network for the validation of ocean color primary radiometric products,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol 26, 1634–1651 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Kay, J. D. Hedley, and S. Lavender, “Sun glint correction of high and low spatial resolution images of aquatic scenes: a review of methods for visible and near-infrared wavelengths,” Remote Sensing 1, 697–730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Ottaviani, R. Spurr, K. Stamnes, W. Li, W. Su, and W. Wiscombe, “Improving the description of sunglint for accurate prediction of remotely sensed radiances,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 2364–2375 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, F. d’Ortenzio, S. B. Hooker, G. Bécu, B. Gentili, D. Tailliez, and A. J. Scott, “Assessment of uncertainty in the ocean reflectance determined by three satellite ocean color sensors (MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS-A) at an offshore site in the Mediterranean Sea (BOUSSOLE project),” J. Geophys. Res. 113, C07013 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, A. Marchand, B. Roger, and P. Lallart, “Aerosol remote sensing from POLDER/ADEOS over the ocean: improved retrieval using a nonspherical particle model,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, 1–11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

2003 (2)

G. Thuillier, M. Herse, D. Labs, T. Foujols, W. Peetermans, D. Gillotay, P. C. Simon, and H. Mandel, “The solar spectral irradiance from 200 to 2400 nm as measured by the SOLSPEC spectrometer from the ATLAS and EURECA missions,” Solar Phys. 214, 1–22 (2003).

N. T. O’Neill, T. F. Eck, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, and S. Thulasiraman, “Spectral discrimination of coarse and fine mode optical depth,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4559 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

G. Zibordi, S. B. Hooker, J. F. Berthon, and D. D’Alimonte, “Autonomous above-water radiance measurements from an offshore platform: a field assessment experiment,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 808–819 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Horvath, A. Barta, J. Gal, B. Suhai, and O. Haiman, “Ground-based full-sky imaging polarimetry of rapidly changing skies and its use for polarimetric cloud detection,” Appl. Opt. 41, 543–559 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Hooker, G. Lazin, G. Zibordi, and S. McLean, “An evaluation of above-and in-water methods for determining water-leaving radiances,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 19, 486–515, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, and O. Dubovik, “Baseline maritime aerosol: methodology to derive the optical thickness and scattering properties,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 3251–3256 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

O. Dubovik, A. Smirnov, B. N. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, and I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, P. Goloub, M. Herman, A. Marchand, G. Perry, S. Susana, and D. Tanre, “Estimate of the aerosol properties over the ocean with POLDER,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 15329–15346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik and M. D. King, “A flexible inversion algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical properties from sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 20673–20696(2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

1998 (2)

A. A. Lacis, J. Chowdhary, M. I. Mishchenko, and B. Cairns, “Modeling errors in diffuse-sky radiation: vector vs. scalar treatment,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 135–138 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Holben, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, D. Tanre, J. P. Buis, A. Setzer, E. Vermote, J. A. Reagan, Y. J. Kaufman, and T. Nakajima, “AERONET: a federated instrument network and data archive for aerosol characterization,” Remote Sens. Environ. 66, 1–16 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. G. Steward, T. G. Peacock, C. O. Davis, and J. L. Mueller, “Remote sensing reflectance and inherent optical properties of oceanic waters derived from above-water measurements,” Ocean Optics XIII, 160–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lee, K. L. Carder, T. G. Peacock, and R. G. Steward, “Remote sensing reflectance measured with and without a vertical polarizer,” Proc. SPIE, 2963, 483–488 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, “Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery in the Earth observing system era,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17081–17106 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E. P. Zege and L. I. Chaikovskaya, “New approach to the polarized radiative transfer problem,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 55, 19–31 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1989 (1)

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere-ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanog. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

K. L. Carder and R. G. Steward, “A remote-sensing reflectance model of a red-tide dinoflagellate off west Florida,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 286–298 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1978 (2)

K. T. Whitby, “The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols,” Atmos. Environ. 12, 135–159 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawata, “Circular polarization of sunlight reflected by planetary atmospheres,” Icarus 33, 217–232 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 577–585 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

C. Junge, “The size distribution and aging of natural aerosols as determined from electrical and optical data on the atmosphere,” J. Meteorol. 12, 13–25 (1955).

1954 (2)

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter,” J. Mar Res. 13, 198–227 (1954).

C. Cox and W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the suns glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Abuhassan, N.

B. N. Holben, D. Tanré, A. Smirnov, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, N. Abuhassan, W. W. Newcomb, J. S. Schafer, B. Chatenet, F. Lavenu, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Castle, A. Setzer, B. Markham, D. Clark, R. Frouin, R. Halthore, A. Karneli, N. T. O’Neill, C. Pietras, R. T. Pinker, K. Voss, and G. Zibordi, “An emerging ground-based aerosol climatology: aerosol optical depth from AERONET,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 12067–12097 (2001).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Definition of the viewing geometry convention used: θi is the incident angle of a beam of light illuminating the surface, θ and ϕ are the zenith angle and the relative azimuth with the viewing direction of the incident beam considered, θv is the viewing zenith angle, and Θ is the scattering angle.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fresnel coefficient R11 and the Fresnel coefficients R12 and R13 normalized by R11. The viewing zenith angle is set to 40°. The concentric circles represent the solar zenith angles by step of 10° (from 0° to 70°), and angles in the polar diagrams represent the relative azimuth with the Sun. By convention, the azimuth is equal to 0° when the Sun and the sensor are in opposition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sea surface reflectance at 550 nm for no-wind conditions with respect to the solar angle computed (a) in ignoring the polarization terms of the Fresnel matrix (i.e., R12=R13=0) and (b) in fully considering polarization behavior of skylight reflection at the sea surface. (c) Relative difference expressed in percent between the sea surface reflectances displayed in (a) and (b). The results are shown for two different azimuths, namely 90° (solid curves) and 135° (dashed curves), and for different aerosol optical thicknesses: 0 (blue), 0.1 (green), and 0.2 (red).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative difference Δρsurf at 550 nm and an aerosol optical thickness of 0.1 for different wind speed conditions: (a) 0, (b) 4, and (c) 10ms1. The polar diagrams account for all the azimuth and solar angles for a given viewing angle of 40°. The concentric circles represent the solar zenith angles by a step of 10° (from 0° to 70°), and angles in the polar diagrams represent the relative azimuth with the Sun.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time series of the normalized water-leaving radiances (in mWcm2sr1μm1) obtained from the LISCO SeaPRISM Level 2.0 data by the NASA algorithm (black dots) and the radiative-transfer-based algorithm without (red dots) and with polarization (green dots) at (a) 413, (b) 442, (c) 491, (d) 551, and (e) 668 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Comparison of the exact normalized water-leaving radiances (in mWcm2sr1μm1) derived from SeaPRISM measurements through (a) the standard data processing and the radiative-transfer-based correction scheme ignoring polarization and (b) the radiative-transfer-based correction modality ignoring polarization and that fully considering the polarization impacts.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Exact water-leaving radiance spectra (in mWcm2sr1μm1) retrieved through (a) the standard and (b) the new polarization-based correction scheme applied to the HyperSAS data of August 19, 2010. The colors indicate the different relative azimuths ϕ for which measurements were performed.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Comparison of the exact normalized water-leaving radiances (in mWcm2sr1μm1) derived from HYPERSAS measurements through the standard data processing and the polarization-based correction scheme. The azimuth range is between 70° and 180°.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Comparison of the exact normalized water-leaving radiances (in mWcm2sr1μm1) derived from HYPERSAS and SeaPRISM measurements through (a), (c) the standard data processing and (b), (d) the radiative-transfer-based correction scheme. The azimuth range of HyperSAS data acquisition is comprised (a), (b) between 70° and 180° and (c), (d) between 30° and 70°.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Summary of the Statistical Indicators for the Comparison of the Exact Normalized Water-Leaving Radiances of Fig. 6

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of the Statistical Indicators for the Comparison of the Exact Normalized Water-Leaving Radiances of Fig. 8

Tables Icon

Table 3. Summary of the Statistical Indicators for the Comparison of the Exact Normalized Water-Leaving Radiances of Fig. 9

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ρt(θs,θv,ϕ)=πLt(θs,θv,ϕ)Es(θs),
St=Sg+Ssurf+Swc+Sw.
St=Ssurf+Sw+ε,
cos2θi=cosθcosθvsinθsinθvcosϕ,
rf(θi)=12(rr*+rr*rr*rr*00rr*rr*rr*+rr*0000R{2rr*}I{2rr*}00I{2rr*}R{2rr*}),
r=cosθin2sin2θicosθi+n2sin2θi,r=n2cosθin2sin2θin2cosθi+n2sin2θi.
Rf(θi)=L(πσ2)rf(θi)L(σ1),
cosσ1=cosθvcosθcosΘsinθsinΘ,cosσ2=cosθcosθvcosΘsinθvsinΘ.
Ssurf(θs,θv,ϕ)=Rf(θi)Ssky(θs,θ=πθv,ϕ),
ρsurf=R11ρsky+R12qsky+R13usky+R14vsky,
Ssurf=θ=0π/2ϕ=02πCsRf(θi)4cosθvcos4θnp(θ,θv,ϕ;ws,ϕwind)Ssky(θs,θ,ϕ)dθdϕ.
Lw(θs,θv,ϕ)=Lt*(θs,θv,ϕ)f(θs,θv,ϕ,ws)Lsky(θs,θ=πθv,ϕ).
ρw(θs,θv,ϕ)=πLt*(θs,θv,ϕ)Esρsurf(θs,θv,ϕ).
Δρsurf=100ρsurf(scalar)ρsurf(vector)ρsurf(vector)%.
dN(r)=1σ2πexp[12(logrlogr¯σ)2]dlogr,
ρsurf(τa(λ);θs,θv,ϕ)=γρsurff(τa(λ);θs,θv,ϕ)+(1γ)ρsurfc(τa(λ);θs,θv,ϕ),
γ=τaf(λ)τa(λ).
Lw(θs,θv,ϕ)=Lt*(θs,θv,ϕ)ρsurf(θs,θv,ϕ)Es(θs)π.
LWN=CRQ(θs,θv,ϕ,τa,IOP,ws)Cf/Q(θs,τa,IOP)Lw(θs,θv,ϕ)Es(θs)F¯0,
Es(θs)=Ttot(θs)cos(θs)D2F¯0,
Ttot_SeaPRISM(λ,θs)=exp([0.5τr(λ)+Caτa(λ)+τO3(λ)]cosθ0),
URPD=200×1Ni=1Nyixixi+yi,
|URPD|=200×1Ni=1N|yixixi+yi|,

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