Abstract

We report airborne measurements of the column abundance of atmospheric methane made over an altitude range of 3–11 km using a direct detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidar with a pulsed laser emitting at 1651 nm. The laser transmitter was a tunable, seeded optical parametric amplifier pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, and the receiver used a photomultiplier detector and photon-counting electronics. The results follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude, and the measured line shapes and optical depths show good agreement with theoretical calculations.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (4)

T. August, D. Klaes, P. Schlussel, T. Hultberg, M. Crapeau, A. Arriaga, A. O’Carroll, D. Coppens, R. Munro, and X. Calbet, “IASI on Metop-A: operational level 2 retrievals after five years in orbit,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1340–1371 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. M. W. Anthony, P. Anthony, G. Grosse, and J. Chanton, “Geologic methane seeps along boundaries of Arctic permafrost thaw and melting glaciers,” Nat. Geosci. 5, 419–426 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Kort, S. Wofsy, B. Daube, M. Diao, J. Elkins, R. Gao, E. Hintsa, D. Hurst, R. Jimenez, F. Moore, J. Spackman, and M. Zondio, “Atmospheric observations of Arctic Ocean methane emissions up to 82° north,” Nat. Geosci. 5, 318–321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Numata, H. Riris, S. Li, S. Wu, S. R. Kawa, M. Krainak, and J. Abshire, “Ground demonstration of a trace gas lidar based on optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 6, 063561 (2012).

2011 (6)

R. W. Zureka, A. Chicarrob, M. A. Allen, J.-L. Bertaux, R. T. Clancy, F. Daerden, V. Formisano, J. B. Garvin, G. Neukum, and M. D. Smith, “Assessment of a 2016 mission concept: the search for trace gases in the atmosphere of Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 59, 284–291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Stephan, M. Alpers, B. Millet, G. Ehret, P. Flamant, and C. Deniel, “MERLIN: a space-based methane monitor,” Proc. SPIE 8159, 815908 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” [Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements for Atmospheric Remote Sensing VII, 818206], Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Morino, O. Uchino, M. Inoue, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, P. O. Wennberg, G. C. Toon, D. Wunch, C. M. Roehl, J. Notholt, T. Warneke, J. Messerschmidt, D. W. T. Griffith, N. M. Deutscher, V. Sherlock, B. Connor, J. Robinson, R. Sussmann, and M. Rettinger, “Preliminary validation of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from GOSAT short-wavelength infrared spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1061–1076 (2011).

Y. Yoshida, O. Yoshifumi, E. Nawo, K. Nobuhiro, N. Koji, T. Ha, M. Isamu, and Y. Tatsuya, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1047 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Xiaoli Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62, 770–783 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Coheur, X. Xiong, C. D. Barnet, Q. Zhuang, T. Machida, C. Sweeney, and P. K. Patra, “Mid-upper tropospheric methane in the high Northern Hemisphere: spaceborne observations by AIRS, aircraft measurements, and model simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D19309 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, C. Barnet, E. Maddy, J. Wei, X. Liu, and T. S. Pagano, “Seven years’ observation of mid-upper tropospheric methane from atmospheric infrared sounder,” Remote Sens 2, 2509–2530 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

A. Razavi, C. Clerbaux, C. Wespes, L. Clarisse, D. Hurtmans, S. Payan, C. Camy-Peyret, and P. Coheur, “Characterization of methane retrievals from the IASI space-borne sounder,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9, 7889–7899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: first preliminary results,” Sci. Online Lett. Atmos. 5, 160–163 (2009).

E. J. Dlugokencky, L. Bruhwiler, J. W. C. White, L. K. Emmons, P. C. Novelli, S. A. Montzka, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, A. M. Crotwell, J. B. Miller, and L. V. Gatti, “Observational constraints on recent increases in the atmospheric CH4burden,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L18803 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Mumma, G. L. Villanueva, R. E. Novak, T. Hewagama, B. P. Bonev, M. A. DiSanti, A. M. Mandell, and M. D. Smith, “Strong release of methane on Mars in northern summer 2003,” Science 323, 1041–1045 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Smith, L. K. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. V. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. C. Catling, B. C. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, M. H. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, S. P. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. T. Lemmon, M. B. Madsen, W. J. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. P. McKay, M. T. Mellon, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, W. T. Pike, N. Renno, U. Staufer, C. Stoker, P. Taylor, J. A. Whiteway, and A. P. Zent, “H2O at the Phoenix Landing Site,” Science 325, 58 (2009).

Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, A. Azarm, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, Z.-D. Sun, J. Bernhardt, S. C. Lessard, F. Lessard, G. Roy, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing of trace methane using mobile femtosecond laser system of T&T Lab,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2062–2065 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houwling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Crosson, “A cavity ring-down analyzer for measuring atmospheric levels of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapour,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 403–408 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Murdock, S. V. Stearns, R. T. Lines, D. Lenz, D. M. Brown, and C. R. Philbrick, “Applications of real-world gas detection: airborne natural gas emission lidar (ANGEL) system,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 2, 023518 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Smith, “Spacecraft observations of the Martian atmosphere,” Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 36, 191–219 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Maddy, C. D. Barnet, M. Goldberg, C. Sweeney, and X. Liu, “CO2 retrievals from the atmospheric infrared sounder: methodology and validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D11301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

I. Aben, O. Hasekamp, and W. Hartmann, “Uncertainties in the space-based measurements of CO2 columns due to scattering in the Earth’s atmosphere,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 104, 450–459 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Bergamaschi, C. Frankenberg, J. F. Meirink, M. C. Krol, F. J. Dentener, T. Wagner, U. Platt, J. O. Kaplan, S. Körner, M. Heimann, E. J. Dlugokencky, and A. De Goede, “Satellite chartography of atmospheric methane from SCIAMACHY on board ENVISAT2. Evaluation based on inverse model simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 112, D02304 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

C. Frankenberg, J. F. Meirink, P. Bergamaschi, A. P. H. Goede, M. Heimann, S. Körner, U. Platt, M. van Weele, and T. Wagner, “Satellite cartography of atmospheric methane from SCIAMACHY on board ENVISAT: analysis of the years 2003 and 2004,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D07303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Keppler, J. T. G. Hamilton, M. Bra, and T. Roeckmann, “Methane emissions from terrestrial plants under aerobic conditions,” Nature 439, 187–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Wright, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “A compact quantum-cascade laser based spectrometer for monitoring the concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 243–249 (2006).
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2005 (2)

C. Webster, “Measuring methane and its isotopes CH412, CH413, and CH3D on the surface of Mars with in situ laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44, 1226–1235 (2005).
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2004 (5)

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2003 (2)

M. J. Mumma, R. E. Novak, M. A. DiSanti, and B. P. Bonev, “A sensitive search for methane on Mars,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 35, 937–938 (2003).

E. J. Dlugokencky, S. Houweling, L. Bruhwiler, K. A. Masarie, P. M. Lang, J. B. Miller, and P. P. Tans, “Atmospheric methane levels off: temporary pause or a new steady state,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1–4 (2003).
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1999 (1)

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1995 (1)

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1994 (1)

1993 (1)

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K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572 nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1047 (2011).
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Akerman, H. J.

T. R. Christensen, T. Johansson, H. J. Akerman, M. Mastepanov, N. Malmer, T. Friborg, P. Crill, and B. H. Vensson, “Thawing sub-arctic permafrost: effects on vegetation and methane emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 31, L04501 (2004).
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Allan, G.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Xiaoli Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62, 770–783 (2010).
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A. Amediek, A. Fix, M. Wirth, and G. Ehret, “Development of an OPO system at 1.57 μm for integrated path DIAL measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Phys. B 92, 295–302 (2008).
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A. Amediek, X. Sun, and J. B. Abshire, “Analysis of column height measurements from a pulsed airborne CO2 integrated path differential absorption lidar,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (to be published).

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T. August, D. Klaes, P. Schlussel, T. Hultberg, M. Crapeau, A. Arriaga, A. O’Carroll, D. Coppens, R. Munro, and X. Calbet, “IASI on Metop-A: operational level 2 retrievals after five years in orbit,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 1340–1371 (2012).
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Bass, D.

P. H. Smith, L. K. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. V. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. C. Catling, B. C. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, M. H. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, S. P. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. T. Lemmon, M. B. Madsen, W. J. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. P. McKay, M. T. Mellon, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, W. T. Pike, N. Renno, U. Staufer, C. Stoker, P. Taylor, J. A. Whiteway, and A. P. Zent, “H2O at the Phoenix Landing Site,” Science 325, 58 (2009).

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, A. Azarm, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, Z.-D. Sun, J. Bernhardt, S. C. Lessard, F. Lessard, G. Roy, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing of trace methane using mobile femtosecond laser system of T&T Lab,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2062–2065 (2009).
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R. W. Zureka, A. Chicarrob, M. A. Allen, J.-L. Bertaux, R. T. Clancy, F. Daerden, V. Formisano, J. B. Garvin, G. Neukum, and M. D. Smith, “Assessment of a 2016 mission concept: the search for trace gases in the atmosphere of Mars,” Planet. Space Sci. 59, 284–291 (2011).
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Biraud, S.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Xiaoli Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62, 770–783 (2010).
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Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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P. H. Smith, L. K. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. V. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. C. Catling, B. C. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, M. H. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, S. P. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. T. Lemmon, M. B. Madsen, W. J. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. P. McKay, M. T. Mellon, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, W. T. Pike, N. Renno, U. Staufer, C. Stoker, P. Taylor, J. A. Whiteway, and A. P. Zent, “H2O at the Phoenix Landing Site,” Science 325, 58 (2009).

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D. S. Bomse and D. J. Kane, “An adaptive singular value decomposition (SVD) algorithm for analysis of wavelength modulation spectra,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 461–466 (2006).
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M. J. Mumma, G. L. Villanueva, R. E. Novak, T. Hewagama, B. P. Bonev, M. A. DiSanti, A. M. Mandell, and M. D. Smith, “Strong release of methane on Mars in northern summer 2003,” Science 323, 1041–1045 (2009).
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M. J. Mumma, R. E. Novak, M. A. DiSanti, B. P. Bonev, and N. Dello Russo, “Detection and mapping of methane and water on Mars,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 36, 1127 (2004).

M. J. Mumma, R. E. Novak, M. A. DiSanti, and B. P. Bonev, “A sensitive search for methane on Mars,” Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 35, 937–938 (2003).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, J. F. Meirink, A. P. H. Goede, P. Bergamaschi, S. Körner, M. Heimann, and A. Schulz, “Atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide from SCIAMACHY satellite data: initial comparison with chemistry and transport models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 941–962 (2005).
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P. H. Smith, L. K. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. V. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. C. Catling, B. C. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, M. H. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, S. P. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. T. Lemmon, M. B. Madsen, W. J. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. P. McKay, M. T. Mellon, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, W. T. Pike, N. Renno, U. Staufer, C. Stoker, P. Taylor, J. A. Whiteway, and A. P. Zent, “H2O at the Phoenix Landing Site,” Science 325, 58 (2009).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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M. Buchwitz, R. De Beek, J. P. Burrows, H. Bovensmann, T. Warneke, J. Notholt, J. F. Meirink, A. P. H. Goede, P. Bergamaschi, S. Körner, M. Heimann, and A. Schulz, “Atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide from SCIAMACHY satellite data: initial comparison with chemistry and transport models,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 941–962 (2005).
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A. Fix, C. Büdenbender, M. Wirth, M. Quatrevalet, A. Amediek, C. Kiemle, and G. Ehret, “Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers for airborne and spaceborne active remote sensing of CO2 and CH4,” [Lidar Technologies, Techniques, and Measurements for Atmospheric Remote Sensing VII, 818206], Proc. SPIE 8182, 818206 (2011).
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P. H. Smith, L. K. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. V. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. C. Catling, B. C. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, M. H. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, S. P. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. T. Lemmon, M. B. Madsen, W. J. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. P. McKay, M. T. Mellon, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, W. T. Pike, N. Renno, U. Staufer, C. Stoker, P. Taylor, J. A. Whiteway, and A. P. Zent, “H2O at the Phoenix Landing Site,” Science 325, 58 (2009).

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Y. Kamali, J. F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, A. Azarm, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, Z.-D. Sun, J. Bernhardt, S. C. Lessard, F. Lessard, G. Roy, J. Dubois, and S. L. Chin, “Remote sensing of trace methane using mobile femtosecond laser system of T&T Lab,” Opt. Commun. 282, 2062–2065 (2009).
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P. H. Smith, L. K. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. V. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. C. Catling, B. C. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, M. H. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, S. P. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. T. Lemmon, M. B. Madsen, W. J. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. P. McKay, M. T. Mellon, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, W. T. Pike, N. Renno, U. Staufer, C. Stoker, P. Taylor, J. A. Whiteway, and A. P. Zent, “H2O at the Phoenix Landing Site,” Science 325, 58 (2009).

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Wu, S. T.

Wunch, D.

I. Morino, O. Uchino, M. Inoue, Y. Yoshida, T. Yokota, P. O. Wennberg, G. C. Toon, D. Wunch, C. M. Roehl, J. Notholt, T. Warneke, J. Messerschmidt, D. W. T. Griffith, N. M. Deutscher, V. Sherlock, B. Connor, J. Robinson, R. Sussmann, and M. Rettinger, “Preliminary validation of column-averaged volume mixing ratios of carbon dioxide and methane retrieved from GOSAT short-wavelength infrared spectra,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 1061–1076 (2011).

Xiaoli Sun, X.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Xiaoli Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, R. S. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus 62, 770–783 (2010).
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Y. Yoshida, O. Yoshifumi, E. Nawo, K. Nobuhiro, N. Koji, T. Ha, M. Isamu, and Y. Tatsuya, “Retrieval algorithm for CO2 and CH4 column abundances from short-wavelength infrared spectral observations by the Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. 4, 717–734 (2011).

T. Yokota, Y. Yoshida, N. Eguchi, Y. Ota, T. Tanaka, H. Watanabe, and S. Maksyutov, “Global concentrations of CO2 and CH4 retrieved from GOSAT: first preliminary results,” Sci. Online Lett. Atmos. 5, 160–163 (2009).

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Yu, A. W.

H. Riris, S. Li, K. Numata, S. Wu, J. Burris, A. W. Yu, M. Krainak, and J. B. Abshire, “Methane measurements using optical parametric technology,” American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2009 (American Geophysical Union, 2009), abstract no. A41C-0106.

Zent, A. P.

P. H. Smith, L. K. Tamppari, R. E. Arvidson, D. Bass, D. Blaney, W. V. Boynton, A. Carswell, D. C. Catling, B. C. Clark, T. Duck, E. DeJong, D. Fisher, W. Goetz, H. P. Gunnlaugsson, M. H. Hecht, V. Hipkin, J. Hoffman, S. F. Hviid, H. U. Keller, S. P. Kounaves, C. F. Lange, M. T. Lemmon, M. B. Madsen, W. J. Markiewicz, J. Marshall, C. P. McKay, M. T. Mellon, D. W. Ming, R. V. Morris, W. T. Pike, N. Renno, U. Staufer, C. Stoker, P. Taylor, J. A. Whiteway, and A. P. Zent, “H2O at the Phoenix Landing Site,” Science 325, 58 (2009).

Zhuang, Q.

P. F. Coheur, X. Xiong, C. D. Barnet, Q. Zhuang, T. Machida, C. Sweeney, and P. K. Patra, “Mid-upper tropospheric methane in the high Northern Hemisphere: spaceborne observations by AIRS, aircraft measurements, and model simulations,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D19309 (2010).
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E. Kort, S. Wofsy, B. Daube, M. Diao, J. Elkins, R. Gao, E. Hintsa, D. Hurst, R. Jimenez, F. Moore, J. Spackman, and M. Zondio, “Atmospheric observations of Arctic Ocean methane emissions up to 82° north,” Nat. Geosci. 5, 318–321 (2012).
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S. Wright, G. Duxbury, and N. Langford, “A compact quantum-cascade laser based spectrometer for monitoring the concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide in the troposphere,” Appl. Phys. B 85, 243–249 (2006).
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G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, W. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houwling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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Atmos. Meas. Tech. (2)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Two-way atmospheric transmittance of methane at 1651 nm from a 400 km orbit for a U.S. standard atmosphere. The dotted curve is the two-way atmospheric transmittance without methane (background).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Block diagram of the OPA-based IPDA lidar.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Block diagram of the airborne lidar. The idler and residual pump beams were not used and are not shown in the diagram.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(left) NASA’s DC-8 aircraft at DAOF prior to a methane flight and (right) the methane lidar in the aircraft. The lidar used two aircraft racks and a transceiver.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flight paths in Central Valley, California (red: August 23 flight; blue: August 24 flight; yellow: August 25 flight).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Flight altitude profiles for the three methane lidar flights in 2011.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Examples of calculated OD examples (log scale) as a function of wavelength for different flight altitudes, and calculated DOD as a function of altitude for the August 25 flight using GMAO data and HITRAN 2008.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Retrieved transmittance versus wavelength at a flight altitude of 9.6 km and comparison with the prediction using line-by-line calculations with the HITRAN 2008 database for the August 25 flight. A 20 s averaging period was used.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured lidar range and the corresponding DOD versus time for the August 25 flight.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured DOD versus theoretical DOD prediction with a linear fit for the August 25 flight (right). A 20 s averaging period was used.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Comparison of the lidar methane mixing ratio with the in situ CRDS instrument (Picarro) values as a function of flight time in decimal hours (UTC) for the August 25 flight. A 20 s averaging period was used.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Flight Lidar Parameters

Equations (2)

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E = E 0 η A R 2 β π τ 2 ( ν ) ,
τ ( ν ) = e 2 0 R σ ( ν , T , P ) N ( r ) d r ,

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