Abstract

This paper presents hardware implementation of an efficient solution to recovering gray-scale data pixels of images that have undergone interpixel interference in holographic data storage systems. The adopted algorithm, called the turbo receiver using interference-aware dual-list (TRIDL) detection, enjoys benefits of low error rate performance and low complexity. To verify the functionality and feasibility, this paper implements TRIDL detection with some circuit design techniques such as resource sharing on a field-programmable gate array.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Curtis, L. Dhar, A. Hill, W. Wilson, and M. Ayres, eds., Holographic Data Storage: From Theory to Practical Systems (Wiley, 2010).
  2. L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Facke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2, 403–405 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T.-H. Chao, “High density, high bandwidth multilevel holographic memory,” U.S. patent 7,787,165 (31August2010).
  4. C. Y. Chen and T. D. Chiueh, “Iterative receiver for mobile MIMO-OFDM systems using ICI-aware list-update MIMO detection,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–5.
  5. K. M. Chugg, X. Chen, and M. A. Neifeld, “Two-dimensional equalization in coherent and incoherent page-oriented optical memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 549–562 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Lehmann, “Joint binary image deconvolution and blur identification in the context of two-dimensional storage channels,” Signal Process. 91, 2426–2431 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Keskinoz and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Discrete magnitude-squared channel modeling, equalization, and detection for volume holographic storage channels,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1368–1378 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Nabavi and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Iterative decision feedback equalizer detector for holographic data storage systems,” Proc. SPIE 6282, 62820T (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Fu, and T.-D. Chiueh, “Low-complexity pixel detection for images with misalignment and inter-pixel interference in holographic data storage,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6784–6795 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Chen, K. Chugg, and M. Neifeld, “Near-optimal parallel distributed data detection for page-oriented optical memories,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 866–879 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Neifeld and B. King, “Two-dimensional data detection and error control,” in Coding and Signal Processing for Magnetic Recording Systems, B. Vasic and E. M. Kurtas, eds. (CRC, 2004), Chap. 25.
  13. T.-D. Chiueh, P.-Y. Tsai, and I.-W. Lai, Baseband Receiver Design for Wireless MIMO-OFDM Communications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).

2011

F. Lehmann, “Joint binary image deconvolution and blur identification in the context of two-dimensional storage channels,” Signal Process. 91, 2426–2431 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

S. Nabavi and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Iterative decision feedback equalizer detector for holographic data storage systems,” Proc. SPIE 6282, 62820T (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

1999

1998

X. Chen, K. Chugg, and M. Neifeld, “Near-optimal parallel distributed data detection for page-oriented optical memories,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 866–879 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belzer, B.

Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chao, T.-H.

T.-H. Chao, “High density, high bandwidth multilevel holographic memory,” U.S. patent 7,787,165 (31August2010).

Chen, C. Y.

C. Y. Chen and T. D. Chiueh, “Iterative receiver for mobile MIMO-OFDM systems using ICI-aware list-update MIMO detection,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–5.

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, X.

K. M. Chugg, X. Chen, and M. A. Neifeld, “Two-dimensional equalization in coherent and incoherent page-oriented optical memory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16, 549–562 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, K. Chugg, and M. Neifeld, “Near-optimal parallel distributed data detection for page-oriented optical memories,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 866–879 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, T.

Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chiueh, T. D.

C. Y. Chen and T. D. Chiueh, “Iterative receiver for mobile MIMO-OFDM systems using ICI-aware list-update MIMO detection,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–5.

Chiueh, T.-D.

Chugg, K.

X. Chen, K. Chugg, and M. Neifeld, “Near-optimal parallel distributed data detection for page-oriented optical memories,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 866–879 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chugg, K. M.

Curtis, K.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Facke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2, 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dhar, L.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Facke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2, 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Facke, T.

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Facke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2, 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, C.-C.

Keskinoz, M.

King, B.

M. Neifeld and B. King, “Two-dimensional data detection and error control,” in Coding and Signal Processing for Magnetic Recording Systems, B. Vasic and E. M. Kurtas, eds. (CRC, 2004), Chap. 25.

Kumar, B. V. K. V.

S. Nabavi and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Iterative decision feedback equalizer detector for holographic data storage systems,” Proc. SPIE 6282, 62820T (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Keskinoz and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Discrete magnitude-squared channel modeling, equalization, and detection for volume holographic storage channels,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1368–1378 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, I.-W.

T.-D. Chiueh, P.-Y. Tsai, and I.-W. Lai, Baseband Receiver Design for Wireless MIMO-OFDM Communications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Lehmann, F.

F. Lehmann, “Joint binary image deconvolution and blur identification in the context of two-dimensional storage channels,” Signal Process. 91, 2426–2431 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nabavi, S.

S. Nabavi and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Iterative decision feedback equalizer detector for holographic data storage systems,” Proc. SPIE 6282, 62820T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neifeld, M.

X. Chen, K. Chugg, and M. Neifeld, “Near-optimal parallel distributed data detection for page-oriented optical memories,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 866–879 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Neifeld and B. King, “Two-dimensional data detection and error control,” in Coding and Signal Processing for Magnetic Recording Systems, B. Vasic and E. M. Kurtas, eds. (CRC, 2004), Chap. 25.

Neifeld, M. A.

Njeim, P.

Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, K.

Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, P.-Y.

T.-D. Chiueh, P.-Y. Tsai, and I.-W. Lai, Baseband Receiver Design for Wireless MIMO-OFDM Communications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).

Appl. Opt.

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun.

Y. Chen, P. Njeim, T. Cheng, B. Belzer, and K. Sivakumar, “Iterative soft decision feedback zig-zag equalizer for 2D intersymbol interference channels,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 28, 167–180 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

X. Chen, K. Chugg, and M. Neifeld, “Near-optimal parallel distributed data detection for page-oriented optical memories,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 4, 866–879 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Photonics

L. Dhar, K. Curtis, and T. Facke, “Holographic data storage: coming of age,” Nat. Photonics 2, 403–405 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

S. Nabavi and B. V. K. V. Kumar, “Iterative decision feedback equalizer detector for holographic data storage systems,” Proc. SPIE 6282, 62820T (2007).
[CrossRef]

Signal Process.

F. Lehmann, “Joint binary image deconvolution and blur identification in the context of two-dimensional storage channels,” Signal Process. 91, 2426–2431 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other

K. Curtis, L. Dhar, A. Hill, W. Wilson, and M. Ayres, eds., Holographic Data Storage: From Theory to Practical Systems (Wiley, 2010).

T.-H. Chao, “High density, high bandwidth multilevel holographic memory,” U.S. patent 7,787,165 (31August2010).

C. Y. Chen and T. D. Chiueh, “Iterative receiver for mobile MIMO-OFDM systems using ICI-aware list-update MIMO detection,” in Proceedings of 2010 IEEE International Conference on Communications (IEEE, 2010), pp. 1–5.

M. Neifeld and B. King, “Two-dimensional data detection and error control,” in Coding and Signal Processing for Magnetic Recording Systems, B. Vasic and E. M. Kurtas, eds. (CRC, 2004), Chap. 25.

T.-D. Chiueh, P.-Y. Tsai, and I.-W. Lai, Baseband Receiver Design for Wireless MIMO-OFDM Communications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 2012).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pixels interfere with each other in a 2-D fashion. Left, recorded image; right, retrieved image.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Block diagram of the incoherent intensity channel model.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Block diagram of the TRIDL. MUX, multiplexer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pointer-based delay buffer.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Flow chart of the finite state machine for the IDL detector.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Block diagram of one updating circuit in the soft-information unit.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experiment setting consisting of a PC and an FPGA where the communication is achieved via USB ports.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Layout view of the IDL detector IC in the 90 nm CMOS process.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

FPGA simulation results compared with floating-point and fixed-point C/C++ BER curves. wA=0.6 (top) and wA=0.75 (bottom).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Differences between detected images in the first three iterations and the recorded image.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Pseudocode of the IDL Detection

Tables Icon

Table 2. States of the FSM Controller in the IDL Detector

Tables Icon

Table 3. Summary of the Hardware Implementation by FPGA

Tables Icon

Table 4. Summary of the IDL Chip for 3 Bit Gray-Scale HDS Systems

Tables Icon

Table 5. Hardware Resources and Throughput Affected by Different z List Sizes in 3 Bit Gray-Scale HDS Systems

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

y(i,j)=m=KKn=KKhIPI(m,n)x(im,jn)+w(i,j)=hx(i,j)Desired Signal+gTz(i,j)IPI+w(i,j)AWGN,
hIPI(m,n)=Δ/2Δ/2Δ/2Δ/2f(rh+mΔ,rv+nΔ)drhdrv,
f(rh,rv)=sinc2(ωArhΔ)sinc2(ωArvΔ),
J(x,z)=yhxgTz2N0+Λ(x)+Λ(z),
J(x^MAP,z^MAP)=maxx,z{J(x,z)}=maxz{maxx[yhxgTz2N0+Λ(x)]+Λ(z)}.
λ(bx(m))=log{P(bx(m))=1P(bx(m))=0}.
λ(bx(m))=maxxχm(1),z{J(x,z)}maxxχm(0),z{J(x,z)},
gTzj=gTzbase+gTΔzj,
Throughput(l)=Nb×foplNcycle,
Ncycle=TBASE+(TBASE+TCSTU)Lz.

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