Abstract

We propose a two-dimensional scanning laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) that does not require any moving mechanisms in its probe. In the proposed LDV, the measurement position can be scanned in two dimensions on a cross-sectional plane perpendicular to the direction of flow. The combination of the change in wavelength and change in port of the fiber array input to the probe is utilized for the scan. The experimental results using a sensor probe setup indicate that the measurement position can be scanned in two dimensions using the proposed method. The scanning range was estimated to be 39.7 mm in the axial direction over the wavelength range of 1536–1554 nm and 26.1 mm in the transverse direction for the use of 22 ports of the fiber array.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Maru and T. Hata, “Nonmechanical axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter with directional discrimination,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4783–4787 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

K. Maru and T. Hata, “Nonmechanical axial scanning laser Doppler velocimeter with directional discrimination,” Appl. Opt. 51, 4783–4787 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Maru, “Non-mechanical dual-axis scanning laser Doppler velocimeter,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2648–2652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

2009 (2)

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2001 (1)

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. Hachiga, N. Furuichi, J. Mimatsu, K. Hishida, and M. Kumada, “Development of a multi-point LDV by using semiconductor laser with FFT-based multi-channel signal processing,” Exp. Fluids 24, 70–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harvey and C. L. Vernold, “Description of diffraction grating behavior in direction cosine space,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8158–8160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1981 (1)

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

Akiguchi, S.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, H.-E.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer, 2003), Section 7.2.

Andoh, T.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, S.

Y. Kai, Y. Takita, Y. Aoki, A. Sugama, S. Aoki, and H. Onaka, “4×4 high-speed switching subsystem with VOA (<10  μs) using PLZT beam-deflector for optical burst switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFJ7.

Aoki, Y.

Y. Kai, Y. Takita, Y. Aoki, A. Sugama, S. Aoki, and H. Onaka, “4×4 high-speed switching subsystem with VOA (<10  μs) using PLZT beam-deflector for optical burst switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFJ7.

Bonora, S.

Borys, M.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer, 2003), Section 7.2.

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Calabretta, N.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Craig, J.

Damaschke, N.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer, 2003), Section 7.2.

de Vries, T.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Dorren, H. J. S.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Durst, F.

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, N.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

Furuichi, N.

T. Hachiga, N. Furuichi, J. Mimatsu, K. Hishida, and M. Kumada, “Development of a multi-point LDV by using semiconductor laser with FFT-based multi-channel signal processing,” Exp. Fluids 24, 70–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Giglia, A.

Grant, G. R.

Hachiga, T.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Hachiga, N. Furuichi, J. Mimatsu, K. Hishida, and M. Kumada, “Development of a multi-point LDV by using semiconductor laser with FFT-based multi-channel signal processing,” Exp. Fluids 24, 70–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Han, H.

K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in Proceedings of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2010) (IEEE, 2010), paper 8E1-1.

Hanagud, S.

Harvey, J. E.

Hata, T.

Hishida, K.

T. Hachiga, N. Furuichi, J. Mimatsu, K. Hishida, and M. Kumada, “Development of a multi-point LDV by using semiconductor laser with FFT-based multi-channel signal processing,” Exp. Fluids 24, 70–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ikeuchi, R.

Ishida, H.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, H.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kai, Y.

Y. Kai, Y. Takita, Y. Aoki, A. Sugama, S. Aoki, and H. Onaka, “4×4 high-speed switching subsystem with VOA (<10  μs) using PLZT beam-deflector for optical burst switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFJ7.

Kano, F.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, Y.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, D.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Komerath, N. M.

Kondo, Y.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kudzuma, D.

K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in Proceedings of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2010) (IEEE, 2010), paper 8E1-1.

Kumada, M.

T. Hachiga, N. Furuichi, J. Mimatsu, K. Hishida, and M. Kumada, “Development of a multi-point LDV by using semiconductor laser with FFT-based multi-channel signal processing,” Exp. Fluids 24, 70–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuraishi, Y.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, B.

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. B.

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mahne, N.

Maru, K.

Mimatsu, J.

T. Hachiga, N. Furuichi, J. Mimatsu, K. Hishida, and M. Kumada, “Development of a multi-point LDV by using semiconductor laser with FFT-based multi-channel signal processing,” Exp. Fluids 24, 70–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence (1981), pp. 380–389.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Nakatani, N.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence (1981), pp. 380–389.

Nannarone, S.

Nashimoto, K.

K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in Proceedings of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2010) (IEEE, 2010), paper 8E1-1.

Nishikawa, T.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence (1981), pp. 380–389.

Ohbayashi, K.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Onaka, H.

Y. Kai, Y. Takita, Y. Aoki, A. Sugama, S. Aoki, and H. Onaka, “4×4 high-speed switching subsystem with VOA (<10  μs) using PLZT beam-deflector for optical burst switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFJ7.

Oohashi, H.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Orloff, K. L.

Pascolini, M.

Poletto, L.

Rothberg, S. J.

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shirakawa, H.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, E.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Smit, M. K.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Soganci, I. M.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Sriram, P.

Sugama, A.

Y. Kai, Y. Takita, Y. Aoki, A. Sugama, S. Aoki, and H. Onaka, “4×4 high-speed switching subsystem with VOA (<10  μs) using PLZT beam-deflector for optical burst switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFJ7.

Takita, Y.

Y. Kai, Y. Takita, Y. Aoki, A. Sugama, S. Aoki, and H. Onaka, “4×4 high-speed switching subsystem with VOA (<10  μs) using PLZT beam-deflector for optical burst switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFJ7.

Tanemura, T.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Tearney, G. J.

Tieu, A. K.

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tirabassi, M.

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tropea, C.

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer, 2003), Section 7.2.

Ueyama, K.

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vernold, C. L.

Williams, K. A.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

Yamada, T.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence (1981), pp. 380–389.

Yoneda, Y.

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence (1981), pp. 380–389.

Yoshimura, R.

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, W. Y. D.

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Exp. Fluids (1)

T. Hachiga, N. Furuichi, J. Mimatsu, K. Hishida, and M. Kumada, “Development of a multi-point LDV by using semiconductor laser with FFT-based multi-channel signal processing,” Exp. Fluids 24, 70–76 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Fujiwara, R. Yoshimura, K. Kato, H. Ishii, F. Kano, Y. Kawaguchi, Y. Kondo, K. Ohbayashi, and H. Oohashi, “140 nm quasi-continuous fast sweep using SSG-DBR lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1015–1017 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

K. Maru, “Non-mechanical dual-axis scanning laser Doppler velocimeter,” IEEE Sens. J. 12, 2648–2652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Ishida, H. Shirakawa, T. Andoh, S. Akiguchi, D. Kobayashi, K. Ueyama, Y. Kuraishi, and T. Hachiga, “Three-dimensional imaging techniques for microvessels using multipoint laser Doppler velocimeter,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 054701 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (2)

E. B. Li, A. K. Tieu, and W. Y. D. Yuen, “Measurements of velocity distributions in the deformation zone in cold rolling by a scanning LDV,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 35, 41–49 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Tirabassi and S. J. Rothberg, “Scanning LDV using wedge prisms,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 47, 454–460 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

F. Durst, B. Lehmann, and C. Tropea, “Laser-Doppler system for rapid scanning of flow fields,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1676–1681 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

N. Nakatani, T. Nishikawa, Y. Yoneda, Y. Nakano, and T. Yamada, “Space-correlation measurement of attaching jets by the new scanning laser Doppler velocimeter using a diffraction grating,” in Proceedings of 7th Symposium on Turbulence (1981), pp. 380–389.

H.-E. Albrecht, M. Borys, N. Damaschke, and C. Tropea, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques (Springer, 2003), Section 7.2.

Y. Kai, Y. Takita, Y. Aoki, A. Sugama, S. Aoki, and H. Onaka, “4×4 high-speed switching subsystem with VOA (<10  μs) using PLZT beam-deflector for optical burst switching,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OFJ7.

I. M. Soganci, T. Tanemura, K. A. Williams, N. Calabretta, T. de Vries, E. Smalbrugge, M. K. Smit, H. J. S. Dorren, and Y. Nakano, “High-speed 1×6 optical switch monolithically integrated on InP,” in Proceedings of 35th European Conference on Optical Communication 2009 (ECOC ’09) (IEEE, 2009), paper 1.2.1.

K. Nashimoto, D. Kudzuma, and H. Han, “High-speed switching and filtering using PLZT waveguide devices,” in Proceedings of 15th OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC 2010) (IEEE, 2010), paper 8E1-1.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Concept of nonmechanical two-dimensional scanning LDV: (a) entire system and (b) transmitting optics in probe.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layout of the transmitting optics: (a) ξζ-plane and (b) yz-plane.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured spectra of beat signals for ports 6, 12, 18, and 24 of the fiber array. The wavelength was 1545 nm and the rotational speed of the target was 3.0s1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured values of F/ω as function of port number at λ=1545nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measurement positions in the transverse direction estimated from measured values of F/ω as function of port number at λ=1545nm. Theoretical values are also plotted.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Relative measurement positions in the axial direction as function of wavelength for (a) port 3, (b) port 12, and (c) port 24. Theoretical values are also plotted.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Two-dimensional measurement positions for wavelengths of 1536, 1539, 1542, 1545, 1548, 1551, and 1554 nm and ports 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 of the fiber array. The intersections of the dotted lines indicate theoretical values.

Equations (7)

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(ynϕn)=(1L201)(10f211)(1L001)(10f111)(1L101)(dn0)=dn(1L0f11+L2(L0f11f21f11f21)L0f11f21f11f21).
yn=dnf2f1.
ϕ(λ)=sin1(λΛcosφn),
Lζ(λ)Lζ(λ0)=lz(λ0)sin(θ(λ0))[1tan(θ(λ0)+ϕ(λ)ϕ(λ0))1tan(θ(λ0))],
lz(λ)=lz(λ0)sin(θ(λ0))sin(θ(λ0)+ϕ(λ)ϕ(λ0)).
F=2vξsin(γn(λ))λ,
Fω=2rsin(γn(λ))λ.

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