Abstract

In this work, we study the possibility of chip-to-chip interconnections via out-of-plane grating couplers or vertical grating couplers (VGCs) fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. Mathematical and experimental results for the efficiency of coupling light between two such grating couplers have been presented. The VGCs are placed vertically against each other in order to study the effect of spatial misalignments on the light coupling efficiency. Waveguides and VGCs are designed according to standard SOI fabrication processes. A two-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is used for the simulations. Measurements are performed on different combinations of 4 samples on the chip. Light coupling efficiency of 8dB is achieved and tolerances to misalignments in 3 spatial dimensions are provided.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2008 (1)

X. Chen and C. Li, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, D. Pascal, S. Lardenois, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, F. Grillot, S. Laval, J. Fédéli, and L. El Melhaoui, “Light injection in SOI microwaveguides using high-efficiency grating couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 3810–3815 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

P. Dong and A. G. Kirk, “Compact double-grating coupler between vertically stacked silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 44, 7540–7547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, D. Richardson, A. Donval, R. Oron, and M. Oron, “Method of improving light coupling efficiency between optical fibers and silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1881–1883 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, S. Member, and P. Dumon, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248 nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. V. Mulé, R. Villalaz, T. K. Gaylord, and J. D. Meindl, “Quasi-free-space optical coupling between diffraction grating couplers fabricated on independent substrates,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5468–5475 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

1991 (1)

Aalto, T.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Aramburu, C.

Ayre, M.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Galarza, K. De Mesel, R. Baets, A. Martínez, C. Aramburu, and M. López-Amo, “Compact spot-size converters with fiber-matched antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4841–4846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bernabé, S.

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campenhout, J. V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cascio, D. M. R. L.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Cassan, E.

Chen, X.

X. Chen and C. Li, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choudhury, A. N. M. M.

A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, D. Richardson, A. Donval, R. Oron, and M. Oron, “Method of improving light coupling efficiency between optical fibers and silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1881–1883 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

Delbeke, D.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Deptuck, D.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Dong, P.

Donval, A.

A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, D. Richardson, A. Donval, R. Oron, and M. Oron, “Method of improving light coupling efficiency between optical fibers and silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1881–1883 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

G. Roelkens, S. Member, and P. Dumon, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248 nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

El Melhaoui, L.

Fedeli, J. M.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Fédéli, J.

Fournier, M.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Fulbert, L.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Galarza, M.

Gale, D.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Gaylord, T. K.

Grillot, F.

Harduin, J.

Kapon, E.

Khanna, A.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Kirk, A. G.

Kopp, C.

Kumar, P.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Laere, F. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lardenois, S.

Laval, S.

Li, C.

X. Chen and C. Li, “Fabrication-tolerant waveguide chirped grating coupler for coupling to a perfectly vertical optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20, 1914–1916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

López-Amo, M.

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Martínez, A.

Meindl, J. D.

Member, S.

G. Roelkens, S. Member, and P. Dumon, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248 nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mulé, A. V.

O’Brien, P.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Oron, M.

A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, D. Richardson, A. Donval, R. Oron, and M. Oron, “Method of improving light coupling efficiency between optical fibers and silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1881–1883 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oron, R.

A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, D. Richardson, A. Donval, R. Oron, and M. Oron, “Method of improving light coupling efficiency between optical fibers and silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1881–1883 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

Pozo, J.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Richardson, D.

A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, D. Richardson, A. Donval, R. Oron, and M. Oron, “Method of improving light coupling efficiency between optical fibers and silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1881–1883 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, S. Member, and P. Dumon, “Efficient silicon-on-insulator fiber coupler fabricated using 248 nm-deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 2613–2615 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shahar, A.

Stanczyk, T. R.

A. N. M. M. Choudhury, T. R. Stanczyk, D. Richardson, A. Donval, R. Oron, and M. Oron, “Method of improving light coupling efficiency between optical fibers and silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1881–1883 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thourout, D. V.

D. Taillaert, F. V. Laere, M. Ayre, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourout, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Grating couplers for coupling between optical fibers and nanophotonic waveguides” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, 6071–6077 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thurston, R. N.

Tian, H.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Tillack, B.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Villalaz, R.

Vivien, L.

Volpert, M.

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. V. Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, and D. V. Thourhout, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Zhang, X.

J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

Zimmermann, L.

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J. Pozo, P. Kumar, D. M. R. L. Cascio, A. Khanna, P. Dumon, D. Delbeke, R. Baets, M. Fournier, J. M. Fedeli, L. Fulbert, L. Zimmermann, B. Tillack, H. Tian, T. Aalto, P. O’Brien, D. Deptuck, J. Xu, X. Zhang, and D. Gale, “ESSenTIAL: EPIXfab services specifically targeting (SME) industrial takeup of advanced silicon photonics,” 2012 14th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks (ICTON), Coventry (UK), July 2012, pp. 1–3.

http://www.epixfab.eu/ .

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Single-mode optical fiber coupling to the input VGC using a Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research proprietary technology based on polymer supporting cubes.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic of (a) the setup for the characterization of the chip and schematic of (b) the setup for the characterization of the chip-to-chip loss using the same multimode output fiber. New contributions come from VGC to VGC losses and propagation losses in the output chip (dashed area).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Obtained results for 2D-FDTD simulation of field coupling between VGCs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photography of the actual measurement setup, where one of the chips is fixed and the other is moved using a high precision XYZ stage. It is similar to the schematic shown in Fig. 2(b) but using SMFs coupled to polymer cubes at both ends.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Variation of coupling efficiency with respect to lateral displacement for the different measured samples.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured and simulated variation of coupling efficiency with respect to longitudinal displacement.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured and simulated variation of coupling efficiency with respect to vertical displacement.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured system spectral response using an amplified spontaneous emission source and an optical spectrum analyzer.

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