Abstract

Surface-relief resonance-domain diffraction gratings with deep and dense grooves provide considerable changes in light propagation direction, wavefront curvature, and nearly 100% Bragg diffraction efficiency usually attributed only to volume optical holograms. In this paper, we present design, computer simulation, fabrication, and experimental results of binary resonance-domain diffraction gratings in the visible spectral region. Performance of imperfectly fabricated diffraction groove profiles was optimized by controlling the DC and the depth of the grooves. Indeed, more than 97% absolute Bragg diffraction efficiency was measured at the 635 nm wavelength with binary gratings having periods of 520 nm and groove depths of about 1000 nm, fabricated by direct electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

M. Oliva, T. Harzendorf, D. Michaelis, U. D. Zeitner, and A. Tünnermann, “Multilevel blazed gratings in resonance domain: an alternative to the classical fabrication approach,” Opt. Express 19, 14735–14745 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Barlev, M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, D. Mahalu, and M. Nathan, “Fabrication and testing of highly efficient resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690D (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

M. Okano, H. Kikuta, Y. Hirai, K. Yamamoto, and T. Yotsuya, “Optimization of diffraction grating profiles in fabrication by electron-beam lithography,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5137–5142 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, and L. Eisen, “Bragg properties of efficient surface relief gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Commun. 235, 261–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

M. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J. Rodier, and E. Cambril, “Wide field-angle behaviour of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Let. 25, 1690–1692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

1995 (1)

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barlev, O.

O. Barlev, M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, D. Mahalu, and M. Nathan, “Fabrication and testing of highly efficient resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beaucoudrey, N.

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Pergamon, 1993).

Cambril, E.

M. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J. Rodier, and E. Cambril, “Wide field-angle behaviour of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Let. 25, 1690–1692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Miller, N. Beaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, and E. Cambril, “Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5717–5727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

Chandezon, J.

Chavel, P.

Clausnitzer, T.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

Destouches, N.

Eisen, L.

M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, and L. Eisen, “Bragg properties of efficient surface relief gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Commun. 235, 261–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

Friesem, A. A.

O. Barlev, M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, D. Mahalu, and M. Nathan, “Fabrication and testing of highly efficient resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690D (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub and A. A. Friesem, “Analytic design and solutions for resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub and A. A. Friesem, “Effective grating theory for the resonance domain surface relief diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1115–1126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, and L. Eisen, “Bragg properties of efficient surface relief gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Commun. 235, 261–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuchs, H.-J.

Gaylord, T. K.

Glytsis, E. N.

Golub, M. A.

O. Barlev, M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, D. Mahalu, and M. Nathan, “Fabrication and testing of highly efficient resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690D (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub and A. A. Friesem, “Analytic design and solutions for resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 687–695 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub and A. A. Friesem, “Effective grating theory for the resonance domain surface relief diffraction gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22, 1115–1126 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, and L. Eisen, “Bragg properties of efficient surface relief gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Commun. 235, 261–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Soifer and M. A. Golub, Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms (CRC, 1994).

Granet, G.

Hamamoto, T.

Harzendorf, T.

Hirai, Y.

Jupe, M.

Kampfe, T.

Kathman, A. D.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Kikuta, H.

Kley, E. B.

Kley, E.-B.

Kress, B.

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics: An Introduction to Planar Diffractive Optics and Related Technology (Wiley, 2000).

Kuittinen, M.

K. Ventola, J. Tervo, S. Siitonen, H. Tuovinen, and M. Kuittinen, “High efficiency half-wave retardation in diffracted light by coupled waves,” Opt. Express 20, 4681–4689 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 2000), Vol. XL, pp. 343–388.

Lalanne, P.

M. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J. Rodier, and E. Cambril, “Wide field-angle behaviour of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Let. 25, 1690–1692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

M. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J. Rodier, and E. Cambril, “Wide field-angle behaviour of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Let. 25, 1690–1692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

Limpert, J.

Loewen, E. G.

E. Popov and E. G. Loewen, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Dekker, 1997).

Lu, P.

Ma, J.

Magnusson, R.

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mahalu, D.

O. Barlev, M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, D. Mahalu, and M. Nathan, “Fabrication and testing of highly efficient resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meyrueis, P.

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics: An Introduction to Planar Diffractive Optics and Related Technology (Wiley, 2000).

Michaelis, D.

Miller, J. M.

Moharam, M. G.

M. G. Moharam and T. K. Gaylord, “Diffraction analysis of dielectric surface-relief gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1385–1392 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. M.

Nathan, M.

O. Barlev, M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, D. Mahalu, and M. Nathan, “Fabrication and testing of highly efficient resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690D (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, D. C.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Okano, M.

Oliva, M.

Parriau, O.

Parriaux, O.

Peng, S.

Plumey, J.-P.

Pommier, J. C.

Popov, E.

E. Popov and E. G. Loewen, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Dekker, 1997).

Prather, D. W.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Reynaud, S.

Ristau, D.

Rodier, J.

M. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J. Rodier, and E. Cambril, “Wide field-angle behaviour of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Let. 25, 1690–1692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shiono, T.

Siitonen, S.

Soifer, V. A.

V. A. Soifer and M. A. Golub, Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms (CRC, 1994).

Suleski, T. J.

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test (SPIE, 2004).

Takahara, K.

Tervo, J.

Tishchenko, A. V.

Tunnermann, A.

Tünnermann, A.

Tuovinen, H.

Turunen, J.

J. M. Miller, N. Beaucoudrey, P. Chavel, J. Turunen, and E. Cambril, “Design and fabrication of binary slanted surface-relief gratings for a planar optical interconnection,” Appl. Opt. 36, 5717–5727 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 2000), Vol. XL, pp. 343–388.

Ventola, K.

Wang, B.

Wang, S.

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Pergamon, 1993).

Wu, S. D.

Wu, Y. M.

Wyrowski, F.

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 2000), Vol. XL, pp. 343–388.

Yamamoto, K.

Yotsuya, T.

Zeitner, U. D.

Zellmer, H.

Zhou, C.

Zoellner, K.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. G. Moharam, T. K. Gaylord, and R. Magnusson, “Criteria for Bragg regime diffraction by phase gratings,” Opt. Commun. 32, 14–18 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, and L. Eisen, “Bragg properties of efficient surface relief gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Commun. 235, 261–267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Let. (1)

M. L. Lee, P. Lalanne, J. Rodier, and E. Cambril, “Wide field-angle behaviour of blazed-binary gratings in the resonance domain,” Opt. Let. 25, 1690–1692 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Barlev, M. A. Golub, A. A. Friesem, D. Mahalu, and M. Nathan, “Fabrication and testing of highly efficient resonance domain diffractive optical elements,” Proc. SPIE 8169, 81690D (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

J. Turunen, M. Kuittinen, and F. Wyrowski, “Diffractive optics: electromagnetic approach,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier Science, 2000), Vol. XL, pp. 343–388.

E. Popov and E. G. Loewen, Diffraction Gratings and Applications (Dekker, 1997).

D. C. O’Shea, T. J. Suleski, A. D. Kathman, and D. W. Prather, Diffractive Optics: Design, Fabrication, and Test (SPIE, 2004).

B. Kress and P. Meyrueis, Digital Diffractive Optics: An Introduction to Planar Diffractive Optics and Related Technology (Wiley, 2000).

V. A. Soifer and M. A. Golub, Laser Beam Mode Selection by Computer Generated Holograms (CRC, 1994).

R. J. Collier, Optical Holography (Academic, 1971).

RSoft Design Group Inc., “DiffractMODTM software code,” www.rsoftdesign.com .

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Pergamon, 1993).

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