Abstract

A novel opto-electronic scheme for line-of-sight Near-IR gas absorption measurement based on direct absorption spectroscopy (DAS) is reported. A diode-laser-based, multiwavelength system is designed for future application in nonintrusive, high temporal resolution tomographic imaging of H2O in internal combustion engines. DAS is implemented with semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) to enable wavelength multiplexing and to induce external intensity modulation for phase-sensitive detection. Two overtone water transitions in the Near-IR have been selected for ratiometric temperature compensation to enable concentration measurements, and an additional wavelength is used to account for nonabsorbing attenuation. A wavelength scanning approach was used to evaluate the new modulation technique, and showed excellent absorption line recovery. Fixed-wavelength, time-division-multiplexing operation with SOAs has also been demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time SOAs have been used for modulation and switching in a spectroscopic application. With appropriate diode laser selection this scheme can be also used for other chemical species absorption measurements.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2012 (1)

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, Y. Zhao, L. Ma, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters for scramjet characterization using tunable diode-laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6697–6707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

R. J. Bartula and S. T. Sanders, “Estimation of signal noise induced by multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 47, 035002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, and G. Stewart, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: system characterisation in conventional and new approaches,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR (6940–7440  cm−1) for gas sensing applications at elevated temperature,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 565–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Udvary and T. Berceli, “Linearity and chirp investigations on SOA as an external modulator in SCM systems,” EUMA Special Issue on Microwave Photonics 3, 217–222 (2007).

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

C. Schultz and V. Sick, “Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kranendonk, J. W. Walewski, T. Kim, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile sensor applied for HCCI engine measurements,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1619–1627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, and H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, and G. Eisenstein, “The modulation response of a semiconductor laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 851–860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Papen and G. M. Murphy, “Modal noise in multimode fibers under restricted launch conditions,” J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 817–822 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1993 (1)

1987 (1)

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

Allen, M. G.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Allen, “Diode laser absorption sensors for gas-dynamic and combustion flows,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 9, 545–562 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arroyo, M. P.

Baer, D. S.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. A.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartula, R. J.

R. J. Bartula and S. T. Sanders, “Estimation of signal noise induced by multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 47, 035002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berceli, T.

E. Udvary and T. Berceli, “Linearity and chirp investigations on SOA as an external modulator in SCM systems,” EUMA Special Issue on Microwave Photonics 3, 217–222 (2007).

Birk, M.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carey, S. J.

Carleer, M. R.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chackerian, C.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, X.

Cheadle, E.

E. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, P. Wright, N. Terzija, K. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Measurement strategies for in-cylinder water imaging in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2010), pp. 1368–1375.

Cheadle, E. M.

E. M. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, N. Terzija, P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Fuel spray and vapour imaging in a single-cylinder research engine,” presented at the 6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, Cape Town, South Africa, 26–28 March 2012.

Chen, L.

Cheung, A.

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, and G. Stewart, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: system characterisation in conventional and new approaches,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B. S.

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chris Benner, D.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cocola, L.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Colbourne, S.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, M. J.

M. J. Connelly, Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (Kluwer, 2002).

Coudert, L. H.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Crossley, S. D.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

De Zilwa, S.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dec, J. E.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
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L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duffin, K.

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, and G. Stewart, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: system characterisation in conventional and new approaches,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079–1087 (2008).
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J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, and G. Eisenstein, “The modulation response of a semiconductor laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 851–860 (1999).
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P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Castillo, S.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Stewart, C.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Giddings, R. P.

Goldman, A.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
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Hall, D. L.

Hanson, R. K.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR (6940–7440  cm−1) for gas sensing applications at elevated temperature,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 565–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
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V. Nagali and R. K. Hanson, “Design of a diode-laser sensor to monitor water vapor in high-pressure combustion gases,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9518–9527 (1997).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hindle, F. P.

Hurr, W.

Hwang, W.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jahr, J.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR (6940–7440  cm−1) for gas sensing applications at elevated temperature,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 565–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, T. P.

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, and G. Stewart, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: system characterisation in conventional and new approaches,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kakuho, A.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karagiannopoulos, S.

E. M. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, N. Terzija, P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Fuel spray and vapour imaging in a single-cylinder research engine,” presented at the 6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, Cape Town, South Africa, 26–28 March 2012.

E. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, P. Wright, N. Terzija, K. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Measurement strategies for in-cylinder water imaging in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2010), pp. 1368–1375.

Kawahara, N.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 2903–2910 (2011).
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D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
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Kim, H. S.

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. S.

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T.

L. A. Kranendonk, J. W. Walewski, T. Kim, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile sensor applied for HCCI engine measurements,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1619–1627 (2005).
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Kindle, H. S.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kranendonk, L. A.

L. A. Kranendonk, J. W. Walewski, T. Kim, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile sensor applied for HCCI engine measurements,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1619–1627 (2005).
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Krite Svanberg, E.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O. K.

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
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H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics (SAE International, 2001).

Lewander, M.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, F.

Li, H.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Litt, T.

Litt, T. J.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. T. C.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. T. C. Liu, “Near-infrared diode laser absorption diagnostics for temperature and species in engines,” Ph.D. dissertation (Stanford University, 2004).

Liu, X.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR (6940–7440  cm−1) for gas sensing applications at elevated temperature,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 565–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lundin, P.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ma, L.

Maki, A. G.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, T.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mattison, D. W.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCann, H.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, and H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, N. Terzija, P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Fuel spray and vapour imaging in a single-cylinder research engine,” presented at the 6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, Cape Town, South Africa, 26–28 March 2012.

E. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, P. Wright, N. Terzija, K. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Measurement strategies for in-cylinder water imaging in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2010), pp. 1368–1375.

McGettrick, A. J.

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, and G. Stewart, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: system characterisation in conventional and new approaches,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mecozzi, A.

J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, and G. Eisenstein, “The modulation response of a semiconductor laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 851–860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, T. A.

Mørk, J.

J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, and G. Eisenstein, “The modulation response of a semiconductor laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 851–860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mulhall, P. A.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, G. M.

Murray, S. C.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nagali, V.

Oh, D. K.

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, A.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozanyan, K.

E. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, P. Wright, N. Terzija, K. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Measurement strategies for in-cylinder water imaging in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2010), pp. 1368–1375.

Ozanyan, K. B.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, and H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, N. Terzija, P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Fuel spray and vapour imaging in a single-cylinder research engine,” presented at the 6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, Cape Town, South Africa, 26–28 March 2012.

Papen, G. C.

Pegrum, S.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rieker, G. B.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. R.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

R. J. Bartula and S. T. Sanders, “Estimation of signal noise induced by multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 47, 035002 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kranendonk, J. W. Walewski, T. Kim, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile sensor applied for HCCI engine measurements,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1619–1627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, C.

C. Schultz and V. Sick, “Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sholes, K. R.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sick, V.

C. Schultz and V. Sick, “Tracer-LIF diagnostics: quantitative measurement of fuel concentration, temperature and fuel/air ratio in practical combustion systems,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 31, 75–121 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sjoberg, M.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steeper, R. R.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, G.

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, and G. Stewart, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: system characterisation in conventional and new approaches,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, K.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

P. Lundin, E. Krite Svanberg, M. Lewander, L. Cocola, S. Andersson-Engels, J. Jahr, V. Fellman, K. Svanberg, and S. Svanberg, “Non-invasive gas monitoring in newborn infants using diode laser absorption spectroscopy—a case study,” Proc. SPIE 8229, 822903 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Takatani, S.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, J. M.

Tennyson, J.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Terzija, N.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, P. Wright, N. Terzija, K. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Measurement strategies for in-cylinder water imaging in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2010), pp. 1368–1375.

E. M. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, N. Terzija, P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Fuel spray and vapour imaging in a single-cylinder research engine,” presented at the 6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, Cape Town, South Africa, 26–28 March 2012.

Tolchenov, R. N.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, E.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Torek, P. V.

Toth, R. A.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Turner, P.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Udvary, E.

E. Udvary and T. Berceli, “Linearity and chirp investigations on SOA as an external modulator in SCM systems,” EUMA Special Issue on Microwave Photonics 3, 217–222 (2007).

Urquhart, P.

Vander Auwera, J.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, G.

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Walewski, J. W.

L. A. Kranendonk, J. W. Walewski, T. Kim, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile sensor applied for HCCI engine measurements,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1619–1627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wehe, S. D.

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J. L.

Wooldridge, M. S.

Wright, P.

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, and H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, N. Terzija, P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Fuel spray and vapour imaging in a single-cylinder research engine,” presented at the 6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, Cape Town, South Africa, 26–28 March 2012.

E. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, P. Wright, N. Terzija, K. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Measurement strategies for in-cylinder water imaging in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2010), pp. 1368–1375.

Yang, X. Y.

Yoon, K. H.

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) Combustion Engines for Automotive Industry (Woodhead, 2007).

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics (SAE International, 2001).

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, X.

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR (6940–7440  cm−1) for gas sensing applications at elevated temperature,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 565–577 (2007).
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Appl. Opt. (7)

P. Urquhart, “Transversely coupled fibre Fabry–Perot resonator: theory,” Appl. Opt. 26, 456–463 (1987).
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M. P. Arroyo and R. K. Hanson, “Absorption measurements of water-vapor concentration, temperature and line-shape parameters using a tunable InGaAsP diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 32, 6104–6116 (1993).
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V. Nagali and R. K. Hanson, “Design of a diode-laser sensor to monitor water vapor in high-pressure combustion gases,” Appl. Opt. 36, 9518–9527 (1997).
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P. V. Torek, D. L. Hall, T. A. Miller, and M. S. Wooldridge, “H2O absorption spectroscopy for determination of temperature and H2O mole fraction in high-temperature particle synthesis systems,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2274–2284 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, C. A. Garcia-Stewart, S. J. Carey, F. P. Hindle, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, W. Hurr, T. Litt, S. C. Murray, S. D. Crossley, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Toward in-cylinder absorption tomography in a production engine,” Appl. Opt. 44, 6578–6592 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48, 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Li, X. Yu, H. Gu, Z. Li, Y. Zhao, L. Ma, L. Chen, and X. Chang, “Simultaneous measurements of multiple flow parameters for scramjet characterization using tunable diode-laser sensors,” Appl. Opt. 50, 6697–6707 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Eng. J. (1)

P. Wright, N. Terzija, J. L. Davidson, S. Garcia-Castillo, C. Garcia-Stewart, S. Pegrum, S. Colbourne, P. Turner, S. D. Crossley, T. J. Litt, S. C. Murray, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “High-speed chemical species tomography in a multi-cylinder automotive engine,” Chem. Eng. J. 158, 2–10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

EUMA Special Issue on Microwave Photonics (1)

E. Udvary and T. Berceli, “Linearity and chirp investigations on SOA as an external modulator in SCM systems,” EUMA Special Issue on Microwave Photonics 3, 217–222 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Mørk, A. Mecozzi, and G. Eisenstein, “The modulation response of a semiconductor laser amplifier,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 851–860 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (2)

W. Johnstone, A. J. McGettrick, K. Duffin, A. Cheung, and G. Stewart, “Tunable diode laser spectroscopy for industrial process applications: system characterisation in conventional and new approaches,” IEEE Sens. J. 8, 1079–1087 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, S. J. Carey, and H. McCann, “Design of high-performance photodiode receivers for optical tomography,” IEEE Sens. J. 5, 281–288 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. R. Rothman, D. Jacquemart, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, M. Birk, L. R. Brown, M. R. Carleer, C. Chackerian, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, J.-M. Hartmann, K. W. Jucks, A. G. Maki, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, J. Orphal, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, M. A. H. Smith, J. Tennyson, R. N. Tolchenov, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2004 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 96, 139–204 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, X. Zhou, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Experimental study of H2O spectroscopic parameters in the near-IR (6940–7440  cm−1) for gas sensing applications at elevated temperature,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 103, 565–577 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. C. Kim, B. S. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. S. Kim, K. H. Yoon, O. K. Kwon, and D. K. Oh, “2.5 Gbps direct modulation of reflective semiconductor optical amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network colourless sources,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48, 120209 (2009).
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Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

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Opt. Eng. (1)

R. J. Bartula and S. T. Sanders, “Estimation of signal noise induced by multimode optical fibers,” Opt. Eng. 47, 035002 (2008).
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Opt. Express (1)

Proc. Combust. Inst. (5)

S. T. Sanders, J. A. Baldwin, T. P. Jenkins, D. S. Baer, and R. K. Hanson, “Diode-laser sensor for monitoring multiple combustion parameters in pulse detonation engines,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 28, 587–594 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 33, 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Kranendonk, J. W. Walewski, T. Kim, and S. T. Sanders, “Wavelength-agile sensor applied for HCCI engine measurements,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 30, 1619–1627 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, H. Li, X. Liu, J. T. C. Liu, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, M. G. Allen, S. D. Wehe, P. A. Mulhall, H. S. Kindle, A. Kakuho, K. R. Sholes, T. Matsuura, and S. Takatani, “Rapid measurements of temperature and H2O concentration in IC engines with a spark plug-mounted diode laser sensor,” Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 3041–3049 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

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G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems (Wiley, 2002).

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Regulation (EC) No. 715/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2007 on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information.

H. Zhao, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Controlled Autoignition (CAI) Combustion Engines for Automotive Industry (Woodhead, 2007).

H. Zhao and N. Ladommatos, Engine Combustion Instrumentation and Diagnostics (SAE International, 2001).

E. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, P. Wright, N. Terzija, K. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Measurement strategies for in-cylinder water imaging in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine,” in Proceedings of 6th World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography (2010), pp. 1368–1375.

E. M. Cheadle, S. Karagiannopoulos, N. Terzija, P. Wright, K. B. Ozanyan, and H. McCann, “Fuel spray and vapour imaging in a single-cylinder research engine,” presented at the 6th International Symposium on Process Tomography, Cape Town, South Africa, 26–28 March 2012.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated absorption spectra in the regions around the two chosen laser wavelengths (indicated by green dashed lines) at (a) 1350.42 nm and (b) 1385.12 nm, for 10% mole fraction water vapor and 8 cm path length, at a series of temperatures and pressures.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated peak absorption ratio and fixed-wavelength absorption ratio of the selected lines as a function of temperature and pressure (1350.42 and 1385.12 nm).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Opto-electronic scheme for fixed-wavelength TDM and external modulation with SOAs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for single-channel water absorption measurements by wavelength-scanning a single diode laser. For multi-fixed-wavelength operation using three diode lasers, the components within the area indicated by the dashed lines are replaced by the system shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic of fiber-ring resonator.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simulation of the ring-resonator transmission response with wavelength for 60 cm ring length, 20%–80% coupling ratio into the ring and 0.002 nm FSR.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Example of acquired data (1385 nm).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Acquired data at 1350 nm. The baseline discrepancies between the power reference and partially absorbed signals dictate the method for the recovery of spectra.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Average of the received signal (± STD) for 100 scans.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Measured water absorption spectra in the 1350 nm region (a) with 300 kHz modulation frequency, (b) a narrow part of the spectrum in (a), around the selected peak absorption, and (c) 500 kHz modulation frequency.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Measured water absorption spectra in the 1385 nm region (a) with 300 kHz modulation frequency, (b) a narrow part of the spectrum in (a), around the selected peak absorption, and (c) 500 kHz modulation frequency.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Screen-shot (a) of the TDM modulated signal for 20 kHz switching frequency, (b) demodulated recovered signal and reference wavelength for 25.7% RH and 26°C (switching frequency 2.5 kHz), and (c) same signal under purged humidity conditions.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Measured versus simulated peak absorption data (a) for different H2O concentration and temperature, along with linear fits and (b) the corresponding two-line absorption ratios (A1350.42nm/A1385.12nm) for temperature estimation.

Equations (2)

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Ir(λ)Io(λ)=ek(λ)cl,
FSR=cn*L*cosθ.

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