Abstract

In this article, we introduce a simple fabrication method for SiO2-based thin diffractive optical elements (DOEs) that uses the conventional processes widely used in the semiconductor industry. Photolithography and an inductively coupled plasma etching technique are easy and cost-effective methods for fabricating subnanometer-scale and thin DOEs with a refractive index of 1.45, based on SiO2. After fabricating DOEs, we confirmed the shape of the output light emitted from the laser diode light source and applied to a light-emitting diode (LED) module. The results represent a new approach to mass-produce DOEs and realize a high-brightness LED module.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Aagedal, F. Wyrowski, and M. Schmid, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, 1997), pp. 165–188.
  2. W. Däschner, P. Long, R. Stein, C. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Cost-effective mass fabrication of multilevel diffractive optical elements by use of a single optical exposure with a gray-scale mask on high-energy beam-sensitive glass,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4675–4680 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Morgan, C. M. Waits, J. Krizmanic, and Reza Ghodssi, “Development of a deep silicon phase Fresnel lens using Gray-scale lithography and deep reactive ion etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 113–120 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2008

W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2004

B. Morgan, C. M. Waits, J. Krizmanic, and Reza Ghodssi, “Development of a deep silicon phase Fresnel lens using Gray-scale lithography and deep reactive ion etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 113–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1994

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aagedal, H.

H. Aagedal, F. Wyrowski, and M. Schmid, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, 1997), pp. 165–188.

Adams, A.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. P.

W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brittain, S. T.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Claudet, A. A.

W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Däschner, W.

David, C.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gale, M. T.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ghodssi, Reza

B. Morgan, C. M. Waits, J. Krizmanic, and Reza Ghodssi, “Development of a deep silicon phase Fresnel lens using Gray-scale lithography and deep reactive ion etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 113–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gijs, M. A. M.

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. D.

W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gobrecht, J.

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackman, R. J.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kopitkovas, G.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krizmanic, J.

B. Morgan, C. M. Waits, J. Krizmanic, and Reza Ghodssi, “Development of a deep silicon phase Fresnel lens using Gray-scale lithography and deep reactive ion etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 113–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

Lippert, T.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Long, P.

Morgan, B.

B. Morgan, C. M. Waits, J. Krizmanic, and Reza Ghodssi, “Development of a deep silicon phase Fresnel lens using Gray-scale lithography and deep reactive ion etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 113–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parashar, V. K.

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, J.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfeffer, M.

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M. G.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, M.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sayah, A.

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, M.

H. Aagedal, F. Wyrowski, and M. Schmid, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, 1997), pp. 165–188.

Schoch, F.

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schutz, H.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stein, R.

Sweatt, W. C.

W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vasile, M.

W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Waits, C. M.

B. Morgan, C. M. Waits, J. Krizmanic, and Reza Ghodssi, “Development of a deep silicon phase Fresnel lens using Gray-scale lithography and deep reactive ion etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 113–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wokaun, A.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

Wyrowski, F.

H. Aagedal, F. Wyrowski, and M. Schmid, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, 1997), pp. 165–188.

Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag.

W. C. Sweatt, D. D. Gill, D. P. Adams, M. Vasile, and A. A. Claudet, “Diamond milling of micro-optics,” Aerosp. Electron. Syst. Mag. 23, 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

B. Morgan, C. M. Waits, J. Krizmanic, and Reza Ghodssi, “Development of a deep silicon phase Fresnel lens using Gray-scale lithography and deep reactive ion etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 13, 113–120 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng.

G. Kopitkovas, T. Lippert, C. David, A. Wokaun, and J. Gobrecht, “Fabrication of micro-optical elements in quartz by laser induced backside wet etching,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 438–444 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. K. Parashar, A. Sayah, M. Pfeffer, F. Schoch, J. Gobrecht, and M. A. M. Gijs, “Nano-replication of diffractive optical elements in sol–gel derived glasses,” Microelectron. Eng. 67–68, 710–719 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

M. T. Gale, M. Rossi, J. Pedersen, and H. Schutz, “Fabrication of continuous-relief micro-optical elements by direct laser writing in photoresists,” Opt. Eng. 33, 3556–3566 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

R. J. Jackman, S. T. Brittain, A. Adams, M. G. Prentiss, and G. M. Whitesides, “Design and fabrication of topologically complex, three-dimensional microstructures,” Science 280, 2089–2091 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

H. Aagedal, F. Wyrowski, and M. Schmid, Diffractive Optics for Industrial and Commercial Applications (Akademie Verlag, 1997), pp. 165–188.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Discrete-type optical device with SiO2-based thin diffractive optical elements (DOEs): (a) conceptual diagram and (b) cross-sectional view.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Top-view designs of (a) simulated focal Fresnel lens, line-shaped DOEs, and (c) square-shaped DOEs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fabrication details of DOEs by conventional semiconductor method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Photograph and images of wafer-scale DOEs fabricated on 6 in glass substrate: (a) photograph of final sample. SEM images of patterned SiO2 used as diffractive layer: (b) focal Fresnel lens, (c) line-shaped DOEs, and (d) square-shaped DOEs.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Schematic views (insets) and resultant images of discrete-type optical devices consisting of focal Fresnel lens with (a) line-shaped DOEs and (b) square-shaped DOEs, excited using blue and green LD modules, respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Schematic views of LED module combined with only focal Fresnel lens (a) and with focal Fresnel lens and line-shaped DOE (b), and resultant images of output light.

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