Abstract

The effects of polarization, sea water salinity, and temperature on top of atmosphere radiances and water leaving radiances (WLRs) are discussed using radiative transfer simulations for MEdium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) channels from 412 to 900 nm. A coupled system of an aerosol-free atmosphere and an ocean bulk containing chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (case 1 waters) was simulated. A simple, but realistic, bio-optical model was set up to relate chlorophyll concentration and wavelength to scattering matrices and absorption coefficients for chlorophyll and colored CDOM. The model of the optical properties of the sea water accounts for the salinity, temperature, and wavelength dependence of the relative refractive index, as well as the absorption and the bulk scattering coefficient. The results show that the relative difference of WLRs at zenith for a salinity of 5 practical salinity units (PSUs) and 35 PSU can reach values of 16% in the 412 nm channel, decreasing to 4% in the 900 nm channel. For the more realistic case of 25 PSU compared to 35 PSU, the effect is reduced to 5% for the 412 nm channel and decreasing to 2% for the 900 nm channel. The effect on radiance caused by changing sea water temperature is dominated by changes of sea water absorption and shows strong spectral features. For WLRs, a change of 10°C can cause relative changes of above 3%. The effects of neglecting polarization in the radiative transfer depends strongly on direction and wavelength, and can reach values of ±8% for the 412 nm channel. The effect is discussed for MERIS channels, viewing geometry, and chlorophyll content.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Ann. Rev. Marine Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).
  3. F. Janssen, C. Schrum, and J. O. Backhaus, “A climatological data set of temperature and salinity for the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,” Ocean Dyn. 51, 5–245 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack, “Fresh water and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 49, 1769–1785 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. G. McPhee, T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, “Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: is perennial sea ice disappearing?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1729–1732 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. M. A. Schaap and G. Maudire, “SeaDataNet—Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: unified access to distributed data sets,” in Geophysical Research Abstracts (EGU, 2009).
  7. SeaDataNet Regional Product Prototype, “Diva 4d analysis of sali.19752005, salinity masked using relative error threshhold 0.3,” http://gher-diva.phys.ulg.ac.be/web-vis/clim.html .
  8. D. Roemmich and J. Gilson, “The 2004–2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity, and steric height in the global ocean from the Argo program,” Prog. Oceanogr. 82, 81–100 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J.-R. Donguy and G. Meyers, “Seasonal variations of sea-surface salinity and temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 43, 117–138 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).
  11. Water leaving radiances (WLRs) is defined as the upward directed radiance just above the ocean surface, but without contributions from surface reflection.
  12. D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).
  13. In the MODIS ATBD [14] for case two waters, the salinity is also assumed to be constant. However, the authors discuss that a drop in salinity, caused by melting waters in northern parts of the globe, may have caused deviations of the retrieval and in situ measurements.
  14. L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).
  15. A. Hollstein, and J. Fischer, “Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 536–548 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Fell, and J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681–1702(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).
  19. R. Röttgers, R. Doerfer, D. McKee, and W. Schönfeld, “Pure water spectral absorbtion, scattering, and real part of refractive index model,” Algorithm Technical Basis Document (2010).
  20. R. M. Pope, and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Lu, “Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2006).
  22. L. Wang, “Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2008).
  23. D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Missouri Kansas City, 1981).
  24. D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1714–1719 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, “Isotope effects in liquid water by infrared spectroscopy. III. H2O and D2O spectra from 6000 to 0  cm−1,” J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Röttgers, Technical note, unpublished data (2010).
  27. M. Smoluchowski, “Molecular kinetic theory of opalescence of gases in their critical region and of some allied phenomenon,” Ann. Phys. 330, 205–226 (1908).
  28. A. Einstein, “Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes,” Ann. Phys. 14, 368–391 (1910).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  30. Lord Rayleigh, “On the scattering of light by a cloud of similar small particles of any shape and oriented at random” Phil. Mag. 35, 373 (1918).
    [CrossRef]
  31. S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Courier Dover, 1960).
  32. X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from density fluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 1671–1678 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1–24.
  34. M. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 577–585 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere- ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  37. These are closely coupled by the Kramers–Kronig relations; an application to water ice can be found in [38].
  38. S. G. Warren, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1206–1225 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  39. T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, La Jolla, California, 1972).
  40. K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  41. E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  42. H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. Gogoi, A. K. Buragohain, A. Choudhury, and G. A. Ahmed, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering by tropical fresh water diatoms,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1566–1578 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  45. J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  47. A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  48. A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  49. Assuming an evanescent wave E⃗(x⃗)=E⃗0ei(ω*t+k⃗x⃗) that propagates through the particle, where x⃗ is the position vector and k⃗=ωc(nr+i·ni) is the complex wave vector that depends on the speed of light c, its angular frequency ω, and the complex refractive index n=nr+i·ni of the particle. The intensity of the field inside the particle is then given by the scalar product E⃗E⃗* and Eq. (4) can be obtained by comparing the result with Beer’s law: E⃗E⃗*=E02e−2nixω/c+i(2nrxω/c−2tω)≔E02e−achlxei(2nrxω/c−2tω).
  50. C. B. Markwardt, “Non-linear least squares fitting in IDL with MPFIT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII, D. Bohlender, P. Dowler, and D. Durand, eds., Vol. 411 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2008), pp. 251–254.
  51. T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  52. Salinity, temperature, and chlorophyll concentration are always used for the ocean body.
  53. R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, 3rd. ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, 1972).
  54. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  55. R. Bennartz and J. Fischer, “A modified k-distribution approach applied to narrow band water vapour and oxygen absorption estimates in the near infrared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 539–553 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  56. A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  57. G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  58. H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  59. G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Errors induced when polarization is neglected in radiance calculations for an atmosphere-ocean,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 2–22 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  60. P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  61. B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, and J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  62. The mean absolute polarization error has been calculated using 〈p〉=1/(4π)∫02πdφ∫0μdϕ|1−I(φ,μ)/I⃗(φ,μ)|sin(μ).

2012

A. Hollstein, and J. Fischer, “Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 536–548 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

D. Roemmich and J. Gilson, “The 2004–2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity, and steric height in the global ocean from the Argo program,” Prog. Oceanogr. 82, 81–100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Ann. Rev. Marine Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, “Isotope effects in liquid water by infrared spectroscopy. III. H2O and D2O spectra from 6000 to 0  cm−1,” J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and L. Hu, “Estimating scattering of pure water from density fluctuation of the refractive index,” Opt. Express 17, 1671–1678 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Gogoi, A. K. Buragohain, A. Choudhury, and G. A. Ahmed, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering by tropical fresh water diatoms,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1566–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2003

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack, “Fresh water and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 49, 1769–1785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Fell, and J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Bennartz and J. Fischer, “A modified k-distribution approach applied to narrow band water vapour and oxygen absorption estimates in the near infrared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 539–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681–1702(1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Janssen, C. Schrum, and J. O. Backhaus, “A climatological data set of temperature and salinity for the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,” Ocean Dyn. 51, 5–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, and J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

M. G. McPhee, T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, “Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: is perennial sea ice disappearing?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1729–1732 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

J.-R. Donguy and G. Meyers, “Seasonal variations of sea-surface salinity and temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 43, 117–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Errors induced when polarization is neglected in radiance calculations for an atmosphere-ocean,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 2–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere- ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

1985

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

1983

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1977

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

1974

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969

M. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 577–585 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1918

Lord Rayleigh, “On the scattering of light by a cloud of similar small particles of any shape and oriented at random” Phil. Mag. 35, 373 (1918).
[CrossRef]

1910

A. Einstein, “Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes,” Ann. Phys. 14, 368–391 (1910).
[CrossRef]

1908

M. Smoluchowski, “Molecular kinetic theory of opalescence of gases in their critical region and of some allied phenomenon,” Ann. Phys. 330, 205–226 (1908).

Adams, C. N.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Errors induced when polarization is neglected in radiance calculations for an atmosphere-ocean,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 2–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere- ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, G. A.

A. Gogoi, A. K. Buragohain, A. Choudhury, and G. A. Ahmed, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering by tropical fresh water diatoms,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1566–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, D.

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Antonov, J. I.

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Backhaus, J. O.

F. Janssen, C. Schrum, and J. O. Backhaus, “A climatological data set of temperature and salinity for the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,” Ocean Dyn. 51, 5–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, O. K.

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bennartz, R.

R. Bennartz and J. Fischer, “A modified k-distribution approach applied to narrow band water vapour and oxygen absorption estimates in the near infrared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 539–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berruti, B.

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

Bezy, J. L.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681–1702(1999).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bodhaine, B. A.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, and J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borde, F.

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bourg, L.

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Boyer, T. P.

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Bricaud, A.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brockmann, C.

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Brown, J. W.

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruzzi, S.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681–1702(1999).
[CrossRef]

Buragohain, A. K.

A. Gogoi, A. K. Buragohain, A. Choudhury, and G. A. Ahmed, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering by tropical fresh water diatoms,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1566–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cannizzaro, J. P.

L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).

Carder, F.

L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).

Carmack, E. C.

R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack, “Fresh water and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 49, 1769–1785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chami, M.

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Courier Dover, 1960).

Chapados, C.

J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, “Isotope effects in liquid water by infrared spectroscopy. III. H2O and D2O spectra from 6000 to 0  cm−1,” J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charlton, F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R.

L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).

Choudhury, A.

A. Gogoi, A. K. Buragohain, A. Choudhury, and G. A. Ahmed, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering by tropical fresh water diatoms,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1566–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, J. F.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, A. G.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dilligeard, E.

Doerfer, R.

R. Röttgers, R. Doerfer, D. McKee, and W. Schönfeld, “Pure water spectral absorbtion, scattering, and real part of refractive index model,” Algorithm Technical Basis Document (2010).

Doerffer, R.

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Donguy, J.-R.

J.-R. Donguy and G. Meyers, “Seasonal variations of sea-surface salinity and temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 43, 117–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, E. G.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, and J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Einstein, A.

A. Einstein, “Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes,” Ann. Phys. 14, 368–391 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Evans, R. H.

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fell, F.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Fell, and J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, 3rd. ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, 1972).

Fischer, J.

A. Hollstein, and J. Fischer, “Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 536–548 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Fell, and J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Bennartz and J. Fischer, “A modified k-distribution approach applied to narrow band water vapour and oxygen absorption estimates in the near infrared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 539–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Frerick, J.

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

Fry, E. S.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, H. E.

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Garing, J. S.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, 3rd. ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, 1972).

Gentili, B.

Gilson, J.

D. Roemmich and J. Gilson, “The 2004–2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity, and steric height in the global ocean from the Argo program,” Prog. Oceanogr. 82, 81–100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gogoi, A.

A. Gogoi, A. K. Buragohain, A. Choudhury, and G. A. Ahmed, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering by tropical fresh water diatoms,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1566–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, J. E.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hawes, S. K.

L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).

He, M.-X.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hitzfelder, S. J.

Hollstein, A.

A. Hollstein, and J. Fischer, “Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 536–548 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoogenboom, H. J.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hovenier, J. W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

Hu, Y.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, F.

F. Janssen, C. Schrum, and J. O. Backhaus, “A climatological data set of temperature and salinity for the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,” Ocean Dyn. 51, 5–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. R.

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Josset, D. B.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kattawar, G. W.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Errors induced when polarization is neglected in radiance calculations for an atmosphere-ocean,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 2–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere- ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, L.

L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).

Klein, U.

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Z.

L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).

Liu, Z.-S.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Locarnini, R. A.

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, “Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2006).

Lucker, P. L.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, R. W.

R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack, “Fresh water and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 49, 1769–1785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markwardt, C. B.

C. B. Markwardt, “Non-linear least squares fitting in IDL with MPFIT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII, D. Bohlender, P. Dowler, and D. Durand, eds., Vol. 411 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2008), pp. 251–254.

Martinson, D. G.

M. G. McPhee, T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, “Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: is perennial sea ice disappearing?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1729–1732 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maudire, G.

D. M. A. Schaap and G. Maudire, “SeaDataNet—Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: unified access to distributed data sets,” in Geophysical Research Abstracts (EGU, 2009).

Mavrocordatos, C.

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

Max, J.-J.

J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, “Isotope effects in liquid water by infrared spectroscopy. III. H2O and D2O spectra from 6000 to 0  cm−1,” J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McClain, C. R.

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Ann. Rev. Marine Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, 3rd. ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, 1972).

McKee, D.

R. Röttgers, R. Doerfer, D. McKee, and W. Schönfeld, “Pure water spectral absorbtion, scattering, and real part of refractive index model,” Algorithm Technical Basis Document (2010).

McLaughlin, F. A.

R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack, “Fresh water and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 49, 1769–1785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McPhee, M. G.

M. G. McPhee, T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, “Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: is perennial sea ice disappearing?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1729–1732 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, G.

J.-R. Donguy and G. Meyers, “Seasonal variations of sea-surface salinity and temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 43, 117–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mishonov, A. V.

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G.

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Morel, A.

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1–24.

Morison, J. H.

M. G. McPhee, T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, “Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: is perennial sea ice disappearing?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1729–1732 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, T.

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nieke, J.

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, La Jolla, California, 1972).

Plass, G. N.

Pope, R. M.

Predoi-Cross, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preusker, R.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prieur, L.

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Rast, M.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681–1702(1999).
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh, Lord

Lord Rayleigh, “On the scattering of light by a cloud of similar small particles of any shape and oriented at random” Phil. Mag. 35, 373 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roemmich, D.

D. Roemmich and J. Gilson, “The 2004–2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity, and steric height in the global ocean from the Argo program,” Prog. Oceanogr. 82, 81–100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Röttgers, R.

R. Röttgers, Technical note, unpublished data (2010).

R. Röttgers, R. Doerfer, D. McKee, and W. Schönfeld, “Pure water spectral absorbtion, scattering, and real part of refractive index model,” Algorithm Technical Basis Document (2010).

Sancer, M.

M. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 577–585 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Santer, R.

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Schaap, D. M. A.

D. M. A. Schaap and G. Maudire, “SeaDataNet—Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: unified access to distributed data sets,” in Geophysical Research Abstracts (EGU, 2009).

Schönfeld, W.

R. Röttgers, R. Doerfer, D. McKee, and W. Schönfeld, “Pure water spectral absorbtion, scattering, and real part of refractive index model,” Algorithm Technical Basis Document (2010).

Schreurs, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schrum, C.

F. Janssen, C. Schrum, and J. O. Backhaus, “A climatological data set of temperature and salinity for the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,” Ocean Dyn. 51, 5–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Segelstein, D. J.

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Missouri Kansas City, 1981).

Seidov, D.

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Selby, J. E. A.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, 3rd. ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, 1972).

Simeckov, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Slusser, J. R.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, and J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smoluchowski, M.

M. Smoluchowski, “Molecular kinetic theory of opalescence of gases in their critical region and of some allied phenomenon,” Ann. Phys. 330, 205–226 (1908).

Stanton, T. P.

M. G. McPhee, T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, “Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: is perennial sea ice disappearing?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1729–1732 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stroede, J.

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

Trepte, C. R.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, 3rd. ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, 1972).

Voss, K. J.

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Wang, “Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2008).

Warren, S. G.

Weng, S.

Wieliczka, D. M.

Wood, N. B.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, and J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wouts, R.

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zagolski, F.

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

Zhai, P.-W.

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zweng, M. M.

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Ann. Phys.

M. Smoluchowski, “Molecular kinetic theory of opalescence of gases in their critical region and of some allied phenomenon,” Ann. Phys. 330, 205–226 (1908).

A. Einstein, “Theorie der Opaleszenz von homogenen Flüssigkeiten und Flüssigkeitsgemischen in der Nähe des kritischen Zustandes,” Ann. Phys. 14, 368–391 (1910).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Marine Sci.

C. R. McClain, “A decade of satellite ocean color observations,” Ann. Rev. Marine Sci. 1, 19–42 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, and M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pope, and E. S. Fry, “Absorption spectrum (380–700 nm) of pure water. II. Integrating cavity measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8710–8723 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Warren, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1206–1225 (1984).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Voss and E. S. Fry, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for ocean water,” Appl. Opt. 23, 4427–4439 (1984).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, D. Antoine, and B. Gentili, “Bidirectional reflectance of oceanic waters: accounting for Raman emission and varying particle scattering phase function,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6289–6306 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, and L. D. Travis, “Contribution of water-leaving radiances to multiangle, multispectral polarimetric observations over the open ocean: bio-optical model results for case 1 waters,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5542–5567 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Chami, R. Santer, and E. Dilligeard, “Radiative transfer model for the computation of radiance and polarization in an ocean-atmosphere system: polarization properties of suspended matter for remote sensing,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2398–2416 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Kattawar, G. N. Plass, and S. J. Hitzfelder, “Multiple scattered radiation emerging from rayleigh and continental haze layers. 1: radiance, polarization, and neutral points,” Appl. Opt. 15, 632–647 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, J. W. Brown, and R. H. Evans, “Exact Rayleigh scattering calculations for use with the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” Appl. Opt. 27, 862–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. Part A

A. Morel and A. Bricaud, “Theoretical results concerning light absorption in a discrete medium, and application to specific absorption of phytoplankton,” Deep-Sea Res. Part A 28, 1375–1393 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Deep-Sea Res. Part I

R. W. Macdonald, F. A. McLaughlin, and E. C. Carmack, “Fresh water and its sources during the SHEBA drift in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 49, 1769–1785 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-R. Donguy and G. Meyers, “Seasonal variations of sea-surface salinity and temperature in the tropical Indian Ocean,” Deep-Sea Res. Part I 43, 117–138 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett.

M. G. McPhee, T. P. Stanton, J. H. Morison, and D. G. Martinson, “Freshening of the upper ocean in the Arctic: is perennial sea ice disappearing?” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1729–1732 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

M. Sancer, “Shadow-corrected electromagnetic scattering from a randomly rough surface,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 17, 577–585 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Remote Sens.

M. Rast, J. L. Bezy, and S. Bruzzi, “The ESA medium resolution imaging spectrometer MERIS a review of the instrument and its mission,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 20, 1681–1702(1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

B. A. Bodhaine, N. B. Wood, E. G. Dutton, and J. R. Slusser, “On Rayleigh optical depth calculations,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 16, 1854–1861 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, “Isotope effects in liquid water by infrared spectroscopy. III. H2O and D2O spectra from 6000 to 0  cm−1,” J. Chem. Phys. 131, 184505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

T. Zhang, F. Fell, Z.-S. Liu, R. Preusker, J. Fischer, and M.-X. He, “Evaluating the performance of artificial neural network techniques for pigment retrieval from ocean color in Case I waters,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 3286 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Simeckov, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Bennartz and J. Fischer, “A modified k-distribution approach applied to narrow band water vapour and oxygen absorption estimates in the near infrared,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 66, 539–553 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Gogoi, A. K. Buragohain, A. Choudhury, and G. A. Ahmed, “Laboratory measurements of light scattering by tropical fresh water diatoms,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 1566–1578 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P.-W. Zhai, Y. Hu, J. Chowdhary, C. R. Trepte, P. L. Lucker, and D. B. Josset, “A vector radiative transfer model for coupled atmosphere and ocean systems with a rough interface,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 1025–1040 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Nakajima and M. Tanaka, “Effect of wind-generated waves on the transfer of solar radiation in the atmosphere-ocean system,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 29, 521–537 (1983).
[CrossRef]

A. Hollstein, and J. Fischer, “Radiative transfer solutions for coupled atmosphere ocean systems using the matrix operator technique,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 113, 536–548 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Fell, and J. Fischer, “Numerical simulation of the light field in the atmosphere-ocean system using the matrix-operator method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 69, 351–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr.

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Stokes vector calculations of the submarine light field in an atmosphere- ocean with scattering according to a Rayleigh phase matrix: effect of interface refractive index on radiance and polarization,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 34, 1453–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel and L. Prieur, “Analysis of variations in ocean color,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 22, 709–722 (1977).
[CrossRef]

A. Bricaud, A. Morel, and L. Prieur, “Optical efficiency factors of some phytoplankters,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 28, 816–832 (1983).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry and K. J. Voss, “Measurement of the Mueller matrix for phytoplankton,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 30, 1322–1326 (1985).
[CrossRef]

H. Volten, J. F. de Haan, J. W. Hovenier, R. Schreurs, W. Vassen, A. G. Dekker, H. J. Hoogenboom, F. Charlton, and R. Wouts, “Laboratory measurements of angular distributions of light scattered by phytoplankton and silt,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 43, 1180–1197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ocean Dyn.

F. Janssen, C. Schrum, and J. O. Backhaus, “A climatological data set of temperature and salinity for the Baltic Sea and the North Sea,” Ocean Dyn. 51, 5–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phil. Mag.

Lord Rayleigh, “On the scattering of light by a cloud of similar small particles of any shape and oriented at random” Phil. Mag. 35, 373 (1918).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

U. Klein, B. Berruti, F. Borde, J. Frerick, J. Nieke, J. Stroede, and C. Mavrocordatos, “Sentinel-3 payload overview,” Proc. SPIE 7474, 747405 (2009).

G. W. Kattawar and C. N. Adams, “Errors induced when polarization is neglected in radiance calculations for an atmosphere-ocean,” Proc. SPIE 1749, 2–22 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Oceanogr.

D. Roemmich and J. Gilson, “The 2004–2008 mean and annual cycle of temperature, salinity, and steric height in the global ocean from the Argo program,” Prog. Oceanogr. 82, 81–100 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev.

J. E. Hansen and L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Röttgers, Technical note, unpublished data (2010).

Z. Lu, “Optical absorption of pure water in the blue and ultraviolet,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2006).

L. Wang, “Measuring optical absorption coefficient of pure water in UV using the integrating cavity absorption meter,” Ph.D. dissertation (Texas A&M University, 2008).

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” Ph.D. dissertation (Department of Physics, University of Missouri Kansas City, 1981).

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Courier Dover, 1960).

A. Morel, “Optical properties of pure water and pure sea water,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov and E. S. Nielsen, eds. (Academic, 1974), pp. 1–24.

These are closely coupled by the Kramers–Kronig relations; an application to water ice can be found in [38].

J. I. Antonov, D. Seidov, T. P. Boyer, R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas 2009, Volume 2: Salinity, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 69 (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

D. M. A. Schaap and G. Maudire, “SeaDataNet—Pan-European infrastructure for marine and ocean data management: unified access to distributed data sets,” in Geophysical Research Abstracts (EGU, 2009).

SeaDataNet Regional Product Prototype, “Diva 4d analysis of sali.19752005, salinity masked using relative error threshhold 0.3,” http://gher-diva.phys.ulg.ac.be/web-vis/clim.html .

R. Röttgers, R. Doerfer, D. McKee, and W. Schönfeld, “Pure water spectral absorbtion, scattering, and real part of refractive index model,” Algorithm Technical Basis Document (2010).

R. A. Locarnini, A. V. Mishonov, J. I. Antonov, T. P. Boyer, H. E. Garcia, O. K. Baranova, M. M. Zweng, and D. R. Johnson, World Ocean Atlas, Volume 1: Temperature, S. Leviticus, ed., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 68 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 2010).

Water leaving radiances (WLRs) is defined as the upward directed radiance just above the ocean surface, but without contributions from surface reflection.

D. Antoine, L. Bourg, C. Brockmann, R. Doerffer, J. Fischer, G. Moore, R. Santer, and F. Zagolski, Reference Model for MERIS Level 2 Processing Third MERIS reprocessing: Ocean Branch (ESA, ARGANS, ACRI, 2011).

In the MODIS ATBD [14] for case two waters, the salinity is also assumed to be constant. However, the authors discuss that a drop in salinity, caused by melting waters in northern parts of the globe, may have caused deviations of the retrieval and in situ measurements.

L. Kendall, F. Carder, R. Chen, Z. Lee, S. K. Hawes, and J. P. Cannizzaro, MODIS Ocean Science Team Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (College of Marine Science University of South Florida, 2003).

Salinity, temperature, and chlorophyll concentration are always used for the ocean body.

R. A. McClatchey, R. W. Fenn, J. E. A. Selby, F. E. Volz, and J. S. Garing, Optical Properties of the Atmosphere, 3rd. ed. (Air Force Cambridge Research Labs, 1972).

Assuming an evanescent wave E⃗(x⃗)=E⃗0ei(ω*t+k⃗x⃗) that propagates through the particle, where x⃗ is the position vector and k⃗=ωc(nr+i·ni) is the complex wave vector that depends on the speed of light c, its angular frequency ω, and the complex refractive index n=nr+i·ni of the particle. The intensity of the field inside the particle is then given by the scalar product E⃗E⃗* and Eq. (4) can be obtained by comparing the result with Beer’s law: E⃗E⃗*=E02e−2nixω/c+i(2nrxω/c−2tω)≔E02e−achlxei(2nrxω/c−2tω).

C. B. Markwardt, “Non-linear least squares fitting in IDL with MPFIT,” in Astronomical Data Analysis Software and Systems XVIII, D. Bohlender, P. Dowler, and D. Durand, eds., Vol. 411 of ASP Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2008), pp. 251–254.

T. J. Petzold, “Volume scattering functions for selected ocean waters” (Scripps Institution of Oceanography Visibility Laboratory, La Jolla, California, 1972).

The mean absolute polarization error has been calculated using 〈p〉=1/(4π)∫02πdφ∫0μdϕ|1−I(φ,μ)/I⃗(φ,μ)|sin(μ).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (18)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorption coefficient of sea water (top panel) for a salinity of 35 PSUs and temperature of 35°C. The bottom panel shows the difference of the absorption coefficient for decreased salinity (35 versus 10 PSUs, dashed black curve) and lower temperature (35°C versus 33°C, dashed gray curve). The differences have been scaled such that the scaled absorption difference varies between ±1/m.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Salinity and temperature absorption coefficients ψS and ψT. Negative values are indicated using dashed curves. The experimental error for both coefficients is shown using dotted curves.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Relative values βdf/βcf of the bulk scattering contributions due to density and concentration fluctuations. The middle line of each group is for a temperature of 15°C and varying salinity. The gray shaded range is bounded by temperatures of 0°C and 30°C.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Refractive index n of sea water (black curve, left scale) and its relative variation with a change in salinity (gray dashed curve, right scale) and temperature (gray dotted curve, right scale). The salinity change was chosen such that the relative change of the refractive index is comparable to a temperature change of 20°C. The gray vertical rectangles show the position and width of the MERIS channels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Absorption spectra of pure sea water (black curves), chlorophyll (gray curves), and CDOM (dashed gray curves). Different chlorophyll concentrations are shown with different gray tones.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Spectral variation of chlorophyll single scattering albedo ω0 for various chlorophyll concentrations. Dashed curves show data from Bricaud’s dataset, and solid curves show results of the bio-optical model.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Phase functions versus scattering angle: Petzold’s (black curve) and from the bio-optical model with log normal (gray dashed curve) and Junge size distribution (gray curve).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Directional salinity (black curves show S25, thin dashed black curves show S5) and temperature (gray curves) effects for TOA radiance in the 412 nm channel. The effects were defined in Eqs. (6) and (7). The surface wind speed is 7m/s, the solar position is 25.9°, and the chlorophyll concentrations is 0.1μg/l.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Same as in Fig. 8, but for the WLR.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

TOA (top panel) and WLR (bottom panel) radiance (I, black curves) in the principle plane for a case with a salinity of 5 PSU, temperature of 15°C, wind speed of 7m/s, chlorophyll concentration of 0.1μg/l, and sun in zenith (solid curves) and at 25.9° (dashed curves). The gray curves and right scale show the temperature and salinity effect (S5). The viewing zenith angle μ is measured from zenith and negative values indicate an azimuth angle of 180°.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Salinity (squares) and temperature (circles) effect in the principle plane for TOA (solid curves) and WLR (dashed curves). The viewing zenith angle μ is measured from zenith and negative values indicate an azimuth angle of 180°. Shown are results for a case with a wind speed of 7m/s, solar angle of 25.9°, and chlorophyll concentration ranging from 0.1μg/l to 5μg/l. To show the variability of s5, the scale was split between 0.03 and 0.07.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Zenith WLRs for MERIS channels from 412.5 to 900 nm. The chlorophyll concentration ranges from zero (pure sea water, black curve) to 50μg/l (light gray curve). The surface wind speed is 7m/s and the solar position is 25.9°.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Zenith salinity and temperature effect for WLR, chlorophyll concentrations from zero to 5.0μg/l, and MERIS channels from 412.5 to 900 nm.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Difference of TOA degree of polarization in the 412.5 nm MERIS channel with respect to a salinity of 35 PSU, a chlorophyll concentration of 0.1μg/l, a wind speed of 7m/s, and a solar zenith angle of 25.9°. The black curves show the differences for a decreased salinity of 5 PSU and the gray curves for an increased chlorophyll concentration of 1μg/l.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Directional TOA radiance in the 412 nm channel (top panel) and polarization error (bottom panel) as defined in Eq. (8). The sun is at 12.8°, the wind speed is 10m/s, and the chlorophyll concentration is 1μg/l.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Same as Fig. 15, but for the WLR.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Mean TOA polarization error [62] (gray straight lines) for MERIS channels from 412.5 to 900 nm, for solar angles from 0° to 50.32°, wind speed of 7m/s, and chlorophyll concentration of 0.1μg/l. The gray dashed curves show the maximum polarization error with respect to zenith and azimuth angle. The dotted curves show the relative variation of the mean polarization error with respect to a chlorophyll change, which was calculated according to 1p(c=1μg/l)/p(c=0.1μg/l).

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

Zenith WLR salinity effect s5 and s25, temperature effect, polarization error, and wind speed effect for MERIS channels from 412.5 to 900 nm. All effects are shown for chlorophyll concentrations of 0.1μg/l and 1μg/l. The solar zenith angle is 25.8° and the wind speed 7m/s.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameter Grid of the Sensitivity Study

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

aw(T,S,λ)aw(T0,S0,λ)+ΨT(λ)(TT0)+ΨS(λ)(SS0).
βsw(λ,T,S)=βdf(λ,T,S)+βcf(λ,T,S).
βsw(λ,S,T,θ)=βsw(λ,S,T)Pδ(θ).
ni(λ)=achl(λ)λ4π.
aCDOM(λ)=aCDOM(440nm)eS(λ440nm);S0.0111nm.
sΔ=1I(S=Δ)/I(S=35PSU)
t=1I(T=10°C)/I(T=20°C),
p=1I/I⃗,
w=1I(W=10m/s)/I(W=2m/s).

Metrics