Abstract

Several biomedical applications, such as detection of dysplasia, require selective interrogation of superficial tissue structures less than a few hundred micrometers thick. Techniques and methods have been developed to limit the penetration depth of light in tissue, including the design of systems such as fiber-optic probes that have overlapping illumination and collection areas on the tissue surface. For such geometries, the diffusion approximation to the light-transport equation typically does not apply, and as a result there is no general model to extract tissue optical properties from reflectance measurements. In the current study, we employ Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to develop simple and compact analytical models for the light reflectance from these overlapping geometries. These models incorporate the size of the illumination and collection areas, the collection angle, the polarization of the incident light, and the optical properties of the sample. Moreover, these MC simulations use the Whittle–Matérn model to describe scattering from spatially continuous refractive index media such as tissue, which is more general than models based on the conventionally used Henyey–Greenstein model. We validated these models on tissue-simulating phantoms. The models developed herein will facilitate the extraction of optical properties and aid in the design of optical systems employing overlapping illumination and collection areas, including fiber-optic probes for in vivo tissue diagnosis.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2012

A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 047005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2009

S. C. Kanick, H. J. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model of the photon path length for a single fiber reflectance spectroscopy device,” Opt. Express 17, 860–871 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoglu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Kanick, H. J. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model description of photon path length for differential path length spectroscopy: combined effect of scattering and absorption,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064042 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, H. Yang, A. Agrawal, N. S. Wang, and T. J. Pfefer, “Measurement of internal tissue optical properties at ultraviolet and visible wavelengths: development and implementation of a fiber optic-based system,” Opt. Express 16, 8685–8703 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

2004

A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer–Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Finlay and T. H. Foster, “Effect of pigment packaging on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of samples containing red blood cells,” Opt. Lett. 29, 965–967 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Amelink and H. J. Sterenborg, “Measurement of the local optical properties of turbid media by differential path-length spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 3048–3054 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. L. van Veen, W. Verkruysse, and H. J. Sterenborg, “Diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy from 500 to 1060 nm by correction for inhomogeneously distributed absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 27, 246–248 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

Y. Tsuchiya, “Photon path distribution and optical responses of turbid media: theoretical analysis based on the microscopic Beer–Lambert law,” Phys. Med. Biol. 46, 2067–2084 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. Sankaran, K. Schonenberger, J. T. Walsh, and D. J. Maitland, “Polarization discrimination of coherently propagating light in turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4252–4261 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolov, R. Drezek, K. Gossage, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Reflectance spectroscopy with polarized light: is it sensitive to cellular and nuclear morphology,” Opt. Express 5, 302–317 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

1993

A’Amar, O.

Aaron, J.

Agrawal, A.

Ahmad, M.

Alali, S.

Amelink, A.

Arifler, D.

Backman, V.

A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 047005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Rogers, I. R. Capoglu, and V. Backman, “Nonscalar elastic light scattering from continuous random media in the Born approximation,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1891–1893 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bender, J. E.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bianchi, L. K.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bigio, I. J.

Brand, R. E.

C. Fang, D. Brokl, R. E. Brand, and Y. Liu, “Depth-selective fiber-optic probe for characterization of superficial tissue at a constant physical depth,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 838–849 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brokl, D.

Capoglu, I. R.

Chang, S. K.

Dasari, R. R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DelaCruz, M.

A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 047005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R.

Drezek, R. A.

A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C.

Fantini, S.

A. Sassaroli and S. Fantini, “Comment on the modified Beer–Lambert law for scattering media,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, N255–N257 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feld, M. S.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Finlay, J. C.

Foster, T. H.

Gendron-Fitzpatrick, A.

M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A.

L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gillenwater, A. M.

Goldberg, M. J.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A.

A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. J.

A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 047005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gossage, K.

Gurjar, R.

V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hasabou, N.

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
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A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
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Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
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Kromin, A. K.

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
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A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
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S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
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L. Nieman, A. Myakov, J. Aaron, and K. Sokolov, “Optical sectioning using a fiber probe with an angled illumination-collection geometry: evaluation in engineered tissue phantoms,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1308–1319 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26, 119–129 (2000).
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A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
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A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
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A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 047005 (2012).
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A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
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V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 047005 (2012).
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A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
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A. M. Wang, J. E. Bender, J. Pfefer, U. Utzinger, and R. A. Drezek, “Depth-sensitive reflectance measurements using obliquely oriented fiber probes,” J. Biomed. Opt. 10, 44017 (2005).
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H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
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A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
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M. P. Siegel, Y. L. Kim, H. K. Roy, R. K. Wali, and V. Backman, “Assessment of blood supply in superficial tissue by polarization-gated elastic light-scattering spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 45, 335–342 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Reif, O. A’Amar, and I. J. Bigio, “Analytical model of light reflectance for extraction of the optical properties in small volumes of turbid media,” Appl. Opt. 46, 7317–7328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Turzhitsky, A. J. Gomes, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, A. Kromine, J. D. Rogers, M. Jameel, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Measuring mucosal blood supply in vivo with a polarization-gating probe,” Appl. Opt. 47, 6046–6057 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biomed. Opt. Express

Clin. Cancer Res.

A. J. Gomes, H. K. Roy, V. Turzhitsky, Y. Kim, J. D. Rogers, S. Ruderman, V. Stoyneva, M. J. Goldberg, L. K. Bianchi, E. Yen, A. Kromine, M. Jameel, and V. Backman, “Rectal mucosal microvascular blood supply increase is associated with colonic neoplasia,” Clin. Cancer Res. 15, 3110–3117 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gastroenterology

H. K. Roy, A. Gomes, V. Turzhitsky, M. J. Goldberg, J. Rogers, S. Ruderman, K. L. Young, A. Kromine, R. E. Brand, M. Jameel, P. Vakil, N. Hasabou, and V. Backman, “Spectroscopic microvascular blood detection from the endoscopically normal colonic mucosa: biomarker for neoplasia risk,” Gastroenterology 135, 1069–1078 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

A. Radosevich, J. Rogers, V. Turzhitsky, N. Mutyal, J. Yi, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “Polarized enhanced backscattering spectroscopy for characterization of biological tissues at subdiffusion length-scales,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 18, 1313–1325 (2011).
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V. Backman, R. Gurjar, K. Badizadegan, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, L. T. Perelman, and M. S. Feld, “Polarized light scattering spectroscopy for quantitative measurement of epithelial cellular structures in situ,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 5, 1019–1026 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Kim, L. Yang, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, M. J. Goldberg, A. K. Kromin, C. Kun, and V. Backman, “Simultaneous measurement of angular and spectral properties of light scattering for characterization of tissue microarchitecture and its alteration in early precancer,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 9, 243–256 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt

A. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue refractive index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt 17, 059801 (2012).
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J. Biomed. Opt.

A. J. Gomes, S. Ruderman, M. DelaCruz, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “In vivo measurement of the shape of the tissue-refractive-index correlation function and its application to detection of colorectal field carcinogenesis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17, 047005 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Myakov, L. Nieman, L. Wicky, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, and K. Sokolov, “Fiber optic probe for polarized reflectance spectroscopy in vivo: design and performance,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7, 388–397 (2002).
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L. T. Nieman, C. W. Kan, A. Gillenwater, M. K. Markey, and K. Sokolov, “Probing local tissue changes in the oral cavity for early detection of cancer using oblique polarized reflectance spectroscopy: a pilot clinical trial,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 024011 (2008).
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S. C. Kanick, H. J. Sterenborg, and A. Amelink, “Empirical model description of photon path length for differential path length spectroscopy: combined effect of scattering and absorption,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 064042 (2008).
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M. C. Skala, G. M. Palmer, C. Zhu, Q. Liu, K. M. Vrotsos, C. L. Marshek-Stone, A. Gendron-Fitzpatrick, and N. Ramanujam, “Investigation of fiber-optic probe designs for optical spectroscopic diagnosis of epithelial pre-cancers,” Lasers Surg. Med. 34, 25–38 (2004).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Polarization-gated probe used for tissue-simulating phantom measurements. (a) Schematic of the fiber tip end of the polarization-gating probe. (b) Ray tracing of the illumination and collection beams through the probe. The main geometrical parameters of the probe are R and θc.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated MC path length versus the path length returned by the MC-derived model (Mod) for the (a) co-polarized signal, (b) cross-polarized signal, (c) total signal, and (d) delta signal. The line of unity is shown for comparison purposes.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Spectral curves for μs (a) and μa (b) that were determined from the Intralipid/dye phantom using reflectance and transmittance measurements from an integrating sphere coupled with the inverse adding—doubling method.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Mean average path length from the MC-derived model plotted versus the mean average path length calculated using experimental measurements with the polarization-gated spectroscopy probe for (a) co-polarized signal, (b) cross-polarized signal, (c) total signal, and (d) delta signal. The line of unity is shown for comparison purposes.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Comparison of cross-polarized scattered intensities from an Intralipid phantom with those predicted by the MC-derived model for the scattered intensity.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Results using polarized illumination and the total reflectance signal mirror can be applied to the case of unpolarized illumination and detection. (a) Comparison of average path lengths and reflectance intensities from MC simulations using polarized illumination and (co-polarized+cross-polarized) detection (LΣMC) with simulations using unpolarized illumination and detection (LUnpolMC). The line of unity is shown for comparison purposes. (b) Comparison of the reflectance intensity for polarized illumination and (co-polarized+cross-polarized) detection (IΣMC) with the total reflectance intensity in the case of unpolarized illumination (IUnpolMC).

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Fitting Coefficients for Path Length Models

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Table 2. Functional Forms for Scattered Reflectance

Equations (15)

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F(θ,ϕ)=π4k4Φn(2ksinθ2)[(1cos2θ)Io+(cos2θ1)(Qocos2ϕ+Uosin2ϕ)],
Φn(κ)=Nlc3π3/2Γ(m)(1+κ2lc2)m,
I=Isexp(μaL¯),
L¯=1μa0μaLμadμa
Is=c2μs(0.245m+1.067),Is=c1μs(0.45m0.033),
Is=cf1(m,θc)(Rμs)f2(m,θc),Is=cf1(m,θc)(Rμs)f2(m,θc),
L=i=1TPCLiWiexp(μaLi)i=1TPCWiexp(μaLi),
ln(LΣR)=a1+a2Rμa+a3ln(Rμs),
L¯Σ=[2(a2Rμa1)(Rμs)a3exp(a1+a2Rμa)][2(Rμs)a3exp(a1)]a22μa.
ln(LR)=b1+b2Rμa+b3ln(Rμs).
L=Rc1+c2Rμa+c3exp(Rμs).
L¯=[2(c2Rμa(c1+c3exp(Rμs))log(c1+c2Rμa+c3exp(Rμs)))][2((c1+c3exp(Rμs))log(c1+c3exp(Rμs)))]c22μa.
LΔR=(d1+d2Rμa+d3Rμs)1,
L¯Δ=ln(d1+d2Rμa+d3Rμs)ln(d1+d3Rμs)d2μa.
L¯(μa,μs)=ln(Is(μs)I(μa,μs))μa.

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