Abstract

A custom IR spot scanning experiment was constructed to project subpixel spots on a mercury cadmium telluride focal plane array (FPA). The hardware consists of an FPA in a liquid nitrogen cooled Dewar, high precision motorized stages, a custom aspheric lens, and a 1.55 and 3.39 μm laser source. By controlling the position and intensity of the spot, characterizations of cross talk, saturation, blooming, and (indirectly) the minority carrier lifetime were performed. In addition, a Monte–Carlo-based charge diffusion model was developed to validate experimental data and make predictions. Results show very good agreement between the model and experimental data. Parameters such as wavelength, reverse bias, and operating temperature were found to have little effect on pixel crosstalk in the absorber layer of the detector. Saturation characterizations show that these FPAs, which do not have antiblooming circuitry, exhibit an increase in cross talk due to blooming at 39% beyond the flux required for analog saturation.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. D. Bray, L. Schumann, and T. Lomheim, “Front-side illuminated CMOS spectral pixel response and modulation transfer function characterization: impact of pixel layout details and pixel depletion volume,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050Q (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Bray, K. Gaab, B. Lambert, and T. Lomheim, “Improvements to spectral spot-scanning technique for accurate and efficient data acquisition,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050L (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2005).
  5. P. Capper and J. Garland, Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Growth, Properties, and Applications (Wiley, 2011).
  6. S. Sze and K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

2009

J. D. Bray, L. Schumann, and T. Lomheim, “Front-side illuminated CMOS spectral pixel response and modulation transfer function characterization: impact of pixel layout details and pixel depletion volume,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bray, K. Gaab, B. Lambert, and T. Lomheim, “Improvements to spectral spot-scanning technique for accurate and efficient data acquisition,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050L (2009).
[CrossRef]

1985

J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Anagnostopoulos, C.

J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bray, J.

J. Bray, K. Gaab, B. Lambert, and T. Lomheim, “Improvements to spectral spot-scanning technique for accurate and efficient data acquisition,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bray, J. D.

J. D. Bray, L. Schumann, and T. Lomheim, “Front-side illuminated CMOS spectral pixel response and modulation transfer function characterization: impact of pixel layout details and pixel depletion volume,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burkey, B.

J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Capper, P.

P. Capper and J. Garland, Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Growth, Properties, and Applications (Wiley, 2011).

Chang, W.

J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gaab, K.

J. Bray, K. Gaab, B. Lambert, and T. Lomheim, “Improvements to spectral spot-scanning technique for accurate and efficient data acquisition,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garland, J.

P. Capper and J. Garland, Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Growth, Properties, and Applications (Wiley, 2011).

Goodman, J.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2005).

Lambert, B.

J. Bray, K. Gaab, B. Lambert, and T. Lomheim, “Improvements to spectral spot-scanning technique for accurate and efficient data acquisition,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavine, J.

J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Lomheim, T.

J. D. Bray, L. Schumann, and T. Lomheim, “Front-side illuminated CMOS spectral pixel response and modulation transfer function characterization: impact of pixel layout details and pixel depletion volume,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bray, K. Gaab, B. Lambert, and T. Lomheim, “Improvements to spectral spot-scanning technique for accurate and efficient data acquisition,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, E.

J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ng, K.

S. Sze and K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

Schumann, L.

J. D. Bray, L. Schumann, and T. Lomheim, “Front-side illuminated CMOS spectral pixel response and modulation transfer function characterization: impact of pixel layout details and pixel depletion volume,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sze, S.

S. Sze and K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices

J. Lavine, W. Chang, C. Anagnostopoulos, B. Burkey, and E. Nelson, “Monte Carlo simulation of the photoelectron crosstalk in silicon imaging devices,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 32, 2087–2091 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. D. Bray, L. Schumann, and T. Lomheim, “Front-side illuminated CMOS spectral pixel response and modulation transfer function characterization: impact of pixel layout details and pixel depletion volume,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050Q (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bray, K. Gaab, B. Lambert, and T. Lomheim, “Improvements to spectral spot-scanning technique for accurate and efficient data acquisition,” Proc. SPIE 7405, 74050L (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts, 2005).

P. Capper and J. Garland, Mercury Cadmium Telluride, Growth, Properties, and Applications (Wiley, 2011).

S. Sze and K. Ng, Physics of Semiconductor Devices (Wiley, 2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Diagram of spot scanning experiment.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spot size in comparison to pixel size (white box) at the two wavelengths of (a) 1.55 μm and (b) 3.39 μm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Illustration of a single pixel and the charge diffusion simulation approach. (a) Carrier generation, (b) carrier diffusion (random walk), (c) reflection at the cap or buffer layer, and (d) collection.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

PSF and MTF curves under normal operating parameters for 32 pixels. (a) PSFs, (b) MTFs, (c) mean PSF curves for four groupings of 8 pixels coming from localized regions of the FPA with ±1 standard deviation widths shown (plots are cropped to show curves near 10% of the maximum value), and (d) mean MTF curves for the same four groupings.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

PSF and MTF curves as reverse bias is varied. (a) Mean PSF curve at four biases, (b) mean MTF curve at four biases, (c) data (solid curves) and model (dashed curves) PSF curves zoomed in at 10% of the maximum value, and (d) MTF curves.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

PSF and MTF curves as operating temperature is varied. (a) Mean PSF curve at four temperatures, (b) mean MTF curve at four temperatures, (c) data (solid curves) and model (dashed curves) PSF curves zoomed in around 10% of the maximum value, and (d) MTF curves.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Response versus power curves for a 3×3 grouping of pixels with illumination incident on only the center pixel.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Frames obtained from data and simulation with illumination incident on a single pixel. (a) Data at 10× the saturation level of the illuminated pixel (11×11 pixels shown), (b) data at 100× saturation (21×21 pixels shown), (c) data at 1000× saturation (31×31 pixels shown), (d) simulation at 10× saturation (11×11 pixels shown), (e) simulation at 100× saturation (21×21 pixels shown), and (f) simulation at 1000× saturation (31×31 pixels shown).

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

PSFmeasured=PSFoptics*PSFdetector,
MTFmeasured=MTFoptics·MTFdetector.
Eg=0.295+1.87x0.28x2+0.35x4+T(614x+3x2)·104,
αg=65+1.88T+(869410.31T)x,
β=1+0.083T+(210.13T)x,
α=αgexp(β(EEg)),
v=(3kTme)12,
τ=μ·meq,
WD=(12εs(Vbi+V)q·a)13,

Metrics