Abstract

We propose a method to achieve the purpose of hierarchical authentication on the basis of two beams’ interference and the one-way hash function. For this security protection system, only if the “phase key” and the password-controlled “phase lock” of a user are verified simultaneously can one obtain a permission to visit the confidential resources of the system. Moreover, this scheme can not only check the legality of the users but also verify their identity levels so as to grant them corresponding hierarchical access permissions. The authentication process is straightforward; the phase key and the password-controlled phase lock of one user are loading on two spatial light modulators in advance, by which two coherent beams are modulated and then interfere with each other at the output plane leading to an output image. By comparing the output image with all the standard certification images in the database, the system can thus verify the user’s identity. However, the system designing process involves an iterative modified phase retrieval algorithm. For an authorized user, a phase lock is first created based on a “digital fingerprint,” which is the result of a hash function on a preselected user password. The corresponding phase key can then be determined by use of the phase lock and a designated standard certification image. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations both validate the effectiveness of our method.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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2012

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “Optical multiple-image hiding based on interference and grating modulation,” J. Opt. 14, 075401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

P. Kumar, J. Joseph, and K. Singh, “Optical image encryption using a jigsaw transform for silhouette removal in interference-based methods and decryption with a single spatial light modulator,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1805–1811 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487(2011).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, Z. Liu, B. Wang, Y. Zhang, and S. Liu, “Optical stream-cipher-like system for image encryption based on Michelson interferometer,” Opt. Express 19, 2634–2642 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhou, Y. Wang, and L. Gong, “Novel optical image encryption scheme based on fractional Mellin transform,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3234–3242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

W. Q. He, X. Peng, W. Qin, and X. F. Meng, “The keyed optical Hash function based on cascaded phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2328–2332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tashima, M. Takeda, H. Suzuki, T. Obi, M. Yamaguchi, and N. Ohyama, “Known plaintext attack on double random phase encoding using fingerprint as key and a method for avoiding the attack,” Opt. Express 18, 13772–13781(2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Han and Y. H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on two beams’ interference,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1690–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, W. Chen, and Y. Fu, “Color image encryption based on interference and virtual optics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 409–415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2002

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. T. Liu, Q. L. Mi, and B. H. Zhu, “Optical image encryption with multistage and multichannel fractional Fourier-domain filtering,” Opt. Lett. 26, 1242–1244 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mogensen, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Gluckstad, “High capacity optical encryption system using ferro-electric spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. A 3, 10–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

Arcos, S.

Barrera, J. F.

J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260, 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bolognini, N.

J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260, 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, L. Z.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, and Y. R. Wang, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carnicer, A.

Castro, A.

Chen, L. F.

Chen, W.

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, W. Chen, and Y. Fu, “Color image encryption based on interference and virtual optics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 409–415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Z. Y.

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eriksen, R. L.

P. C. Mogensen, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Gluckstad, “High capacity optical encryption system using ferro-electric spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. A 3, 10–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frauel, Y.

Fu, Y.

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, W. Chen, and Y. Fu, “Color image encryption based on interference and virtual optics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 409–415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gluckstad, J.

P. C. Mogensen, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Gluckstad, “High capacity optical encryption system using ferro-electric spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. A 3, 10–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong, L.

N. Zhou, Y. Wang, and L. Gong, “Novel optical image encryption scheme based on fractional Mellin transform,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3234–3242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gopinathan, U.

Han, Y. J.

Y. J. Han and Y. H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on two beams’ interference,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1690–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

He, W. Q.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “Optical multiple-image hiding based on interference and grating modulation,” J. Opt. 14, 075401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, W. Qin, and X. F. Meng, “The keyed optical Hash function based on cascaded phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2328–2332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Henao, R.

J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260, 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Joseph, J.

Juvells, I.

Kumar, P.

Liu, J.

Liu, J. A.

D. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487(2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M. T.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, S. T.

Liu, Z.

Meng, X. F.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “Optical multiple-image hiding based on interference and grating modulation,” J. Opt. 14, 075401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, W. Qin, and X. F. Meng, “The keyed optical Hash function based on cascaded phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2328–2332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, and Y. R. Wang, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Q. L.

Mogensen, P. C.

P. C. Mogensen, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Gluckstad, “High capacity optical encryption system using ferro-electric spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. A 3, 10–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Monaghan, D. S.

Montes-Usategui, M.

Naughton, T. J.

Obi, T.

Ohyama, N.

Peng, X.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “Optical multiple-image hiding based on interference and grating modulation,” J. Opt. 14, 075401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, W. Qin, and X. F. Meng, “The keyed optical Hash function based on cascaded phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2328–2332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, H. Z. Wei, and P. Zhang, “Known-plaintext attack on optical encryption based on double random phase keys,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1044–1046 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qin, W.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, W. Qin, and X. F. Meng, “The keyed optical Hash function based on cascaded phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2328–2332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quan, C.

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, W. Chen, and Y. Fu, “Color image encryption based on interference and virtual optics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 409–415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Refregier, P.

Schneier, B.

B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1996).

Sheridan, J. T.

Singh, K.

Situ, G.

Situ, G. H.

Suzuki, H.

Takeda, M.

Tan, T. N.

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tashima, H.

Tay, C. J.

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, W. Chen, and Y. Fu, “Color image encryption based on interference and virtual optics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 409–415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tebaldi, M.

J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260, 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Torroba, R.

J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260, 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Wang, Y.

N. Zhou, Y. Wang, and L. Gong, “Novel optical image encryption scheme based on fractional Mellin transform,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3234–3242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. R.

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, and Y. R. Wang, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. T.

D. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H. Z.

Weng, D. D.

D. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487(2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, J. H.

D. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xin, Y. H.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yamaguchi, M.

Yang, B.

Yao, S. X.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

Zhang, P.

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Y. H.

Y. J. Han and Y. H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on two beams’ interference,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1690–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. M.

Zhou, N.

N. Zhou, Y. Wang, and L. Gong, “Novel optical image encryption scheme based on fractional Mellin transform,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3234–3242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, B. H.

Zhu, N.

D. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487(2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. Liu, J. H. Xie, and H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on interference of polarized light,” Opt. Express 17, 13418–13424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt.

W. Q. He, X. Peng, and X. F. Meng, “Optical multiple-image hiding based on interference and grating modulation,” J. Opt. 14, 075401 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

X. F. Meng, L. Z. Cai, and Y. R. Wang, “Hierarchical image encryption based on cascaded iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain,” J. Opt. A 9, 1070–1075 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Mogensen, R. L. Eriksen, and J. Gluckstad, “High capacity optical encryption system using ferro-electric spatial light modulators,” J. Opt. A 3, 10–15 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

X. Peng, Z. Y. Cui, and T. N. Tan, “Information encryption with virtual-optics imaging system,” Opt. Commun. 212, 235–245 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Zhou, Y. Wang, and L. Gong, “Novel optical image encryption scheme based on fractional Mellin transform,” Opt. Commun. 284, 3234–3242 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. He, X. Peng, W. Qin, and X. F. Meng, “The keyed optical Hash function based on cascaded phase-truncated Fourier transforms,” Opt. Commun. 283, 2328–2332 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Wang and Y. Zhang, “Double images hiding based on optical interference,” Opt. Commun. 282, 3439–3443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Barrera, R. Henao, M. Tebaldi, R. Torroba, and N. Bolognini, “Multiplexing encrypted data by using polarized light,” Opt. Commun. 260, 109–112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Yuan, S. X. Yao, Y. H. Xin, and M. T. Liu, “Information hiding based on the optical interference principle,” Opt. Commun. 284, 5078–5083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Weng, N. Zhu, Y. T. Wang, J. H. Xie, and J. A. Liu, “Experimental verification of optical image encryption based on interference,” Opt. Commun. 284, 2485–2487(2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Han and Y. H. Zhang, “Optical image encryption based on two beams’ interference,” Opt. Commun. 283, 1690–1692 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Laser Technol.

C. J. Tay, C. Quan, W. Chen, and Y. Fu, “Color image encryption based on interference and virtual optics,” Opt. Laser Technol. 42, 409–415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

B. Schneier, Applied Cryptography: Protocols, Algorithms, and Source Code in C, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1996).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

User authentication process.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Function diagram of hierarchical authentication for various users.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

System designing process (taking group C as the example).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Flow chart of MPRA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a)–(c) Three constructed noiselike phase locks. (d)–(f) Three corresponding output images (named A, B, and C); the CCs between them and the standard certification image (Airplane) are 0.9586, 0.9565, and 0.9573 separately. (g)–(i) Determined distributions of corresponding phase keys.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of the CCs and NMSEs of the output images (A, B, and C) with the iteration times.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Output images of the authentication for various situations (the iteration time is fixed as 500, independence).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. CCs of the Output Images (as Fig. 7) with the Standard Certification Images

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

exp(jψl(x,y))*h(x,y,l)+exp(jψk(x,y))*h(x,y,l)=O(x,y)·exp(jφO(x,y)),
L(x,y)+K(x,y)exp(jφK(x,y))=O(x,y)·exp(jφO(x,y)),
exp(jψk(x,y))=F1{F{O(x,y)·exp(jφO(x,y))L(x,y)}F{h(x,y,l)}},
CC=(O(x,y)O¯(x,y))(O(x,y)O¯(x,y))(O(x,y)O¯(x,y))2(O(x,y)O¯(x,y))2,
NMSE=|O(x,y)O(x,y)|2/|O(x,y)|2.
|K(m)|exp(jφK(m))=Oexp(jφO(m))L,
exp(jψk(m))=Phase{F1{F{|K(m)|exp(jφK(m))}/F{h(x,y,l)}}},
|K(m+1)|exp(jφK(m+1))=exp(jψk(m))*h(x,y,l),
|O(m+1)|exp(jφO(m+1))=|K(m+1)|exp(jφK(m+1))+L,

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