Abstract

Linear polarization of the clear daytime sky has often been measured as a spectrally integrated or quasi-monochromatic variable, but seldom as a spectral one. So we use a hyperspectral imaging system to measure skylight polarization at high spectral and angular resolutions for clear and hazy skies at our coastal site. The resulting polarization maps and spectra exhibit both commonalities and differences that seem unexplained by an existing polarized radiative transfer model. Comparing the measured polarization spectra with those predicted by aerosol single scattering suggests some basic verisimilitude tests for improving such models.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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  6. D. Brewster, “On the polarization of the atmosphere,” Philos. Mag. 31, 444–454 (1847).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. R. L. Lee, “Digital imaging of clear-sky polarization,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1465–1476 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385–1399 (2001).
  14. B. Suhai and G. Horváth, “How well does the Rayleigh model describe the E-vector distribution of skylight in clear and cloudy conditions? a full-sky polarimetric study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1669–1676 (2004).
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  17. N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Dual-field imaging polarimeter using liquid crystal variable retarders,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5470–5478 (2006).
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    [CrossRef]
  21. D. J. Gambling and B. Billard, “A study of the polarization of skylight,” Aust. J. Phys. 20, 675–681 (1967).
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  22. K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), pp. 284–286, 291, 300, 305–307, 418, 421–422. Coulson’s visible-wavelength PL measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, have a fairly coarse spectral resolution of 100 nm.
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    [CrossRef]
  24. I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Boesche, P. Stammes, T. Ruhtz, R. Preusker, and J. Fischer, “Effect of aerosol microphysical properties on polarization of skylight: sensitivity study and measurements,” Appl. Opt. 45, 8790–8805 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. L. Coulson, “Effects of the El Chichon volcanic cloud in the stratosphere on the polarization of light from the sky,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1036–1050 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Bellver, “Study of luminance and polarimetry of the sky at Seville (Spain) from May 1982 to September 1984,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1477–1481 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  28. N. J. Pust, A. R. Dahlberg, M. J. Thomas, and J. A. Shaw, “Comparison of full-sky polarization and radiance observations to radiative transfer simulations which employ AERONET products,” Opt. Express 19, 18602–18613 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 349–354.
  30. K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 554.
  31. C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–382. Here the authors show how linearly polarized light that illuminates particles that are large compared with the wavelength can be scattered as weakly circularly polarized light (i.e., circular polarization caused by multiple scattering).
  32. Pika II hyperspectral imaging system from Resonon, Inc., Bozeman, Montana, USA ( http://www.resonon.com ). The system consists of a digital camera that has an internal diffraction grating and is coupled to a rotation stage controlled by a precision stepper motor and laptop computer. In this pushbroom system, the laptop acquires 640 different skylight spectra at each rotation stage position (i.e., for each line of the resulting hyperspectral datacube).
  33. K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 254.
  34. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), p. 50.
  35. PR-650 spectroradiometer from Photo Research, Inc., Chatsworth, California, USA.
  36. K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 582.
  37. R. Gerharz, “Self polarization in refractive systems,” Optik 43, 471–485 (1975).
  38. K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 556. Coulson’s term for self-polarization is “parasitic polarization”.
  39. R. S. Loe and M. J. Duggin, “Hyperspectral imaging polarimeter design and calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 195–205 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  40. By design, some nonimaging spectroradiometers depolarize light between the lens and the instrument’s diffraction grating. For example, see PR-650 SpectraScan SpectraColorimeter Operating Manual, Software Version 1.10 (Photo Research, 1996), Section 3, p. 4.
  41. G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 133–140.
  42. Similar techniques are used in R. J. Kubesh, “Computer display of chromaticity coordinates with the rainbow as an example,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 919–923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  43. Sun photometer data on τaer,λ for total aerosol extinction are acquired and archived by AERONET at http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov . τaer,λ data in Table 2 are from the stations closest to USNA: Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland.
  44. Throughout this paper, we concentrate on the shapes of PLλ spectra rather than on identifying specific spectral features. However, the Pika II system does consistently detect such features, including the narrow PLλ local maxima near 761 nm caused by molecular oxygen absorption.
  45. Data from ϕrel∼270° (Fig. 4) are compared with that from ϕrel=90° (Fig. 1) because both Ψ and compass azimuth ϕ are nearly equal in the two scenes. Having equivalent ϕ at a given h0 reduces the PLλ effects of spatial changes in land and water spectral reflectances near our site.
  46. C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010). MYSTIC is an acronym formed from “Monte Carlo code for the phYSically correct Tracing of photons In Cloudy atmospheres”.
    [CrossRef]
  47. Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  48. N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Comparison of skylight polarization measurements and MODTRAN-P calculations,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5, 053529 (2011). MODTRAN is an acronym for “MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission”.
    [CrossRef]
  49. J. F. de Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371–391 (1987).
  50. K. F. Evans and G. L. Stephens, “A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 413–423 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  51. J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  52. B. Mayer, “libRadtran: library for radiative transfer,” http://www.libradtran.org .
  53. M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998). OPAC is an acronym for “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds”.
    [CrossRef]
  54. PLλ for h=10° is included to allay any concerns that simulations for h=5° at any ϕrel might be corrupted by numerical instabilities arising from polRadTran’s assumption of a plane-parallel atmosphere. In fact, the model’s PLλ spectra change slowly and systematically for h>5°.
  55. J. V. Dave, “Extensive datasets of the diffuse radiation in realistic atmospheric models with aerosols and common absorbing gases,” Sol. Energy 21, 361–369 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  56. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  57. C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–379. Single-scattering calculations confirm that for small aerosols and typical mixtures of clean maritime aerosol species, the spectral dispersion of spherical scatterers’ size parameters affects PLλ more than does dispersion of their collective n, k.
  58. N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Wavelength dependence of the degree of polarization in cloud-free skies: simulations of real environments,” Opt. Express 20, 15559–15568 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  59. J. S. Tyo, D. L. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, and J. A. Shaw, “Review of passive imaging polarimetry for remote sensing applications,” Appl. Opt. 45, 5453–5469 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

N. J. Pust, A. R. Dahlberg, M. J. Thomas, and J. A. Shaw, “Comparison of full-sky polarization and radiance observations to radiative transfer simulations which employ AERONET products,” Opt. Express 19, 18602–18613 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Pust and J. A. Shaw, “Comparison of skylight polarization measurements and MODTRAN-P calculations,” J. Appl. Remote Sens. 5, 053529 (2011). MODTRAN is an acronym for “MODerate resolution atmospheric TRANsmission”.
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010). MYSTIC is an acronym formed from “Monte Carlo code for the phYSically correct Tracing of photons In Cloudy atmospheres”.
[CrossRef]

A. Le Floch, G. Ropars, J. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “The polarization sense in human vision,” Vis. Res. 50, 2048–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (1)

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2002 (1)

R. S. Loe and M. J. Duggin, “Hyperspectral imaging polarimeter design and calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 195–205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385–1399 (2001).

1999 (1)

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998). OPAC is an acronym for “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds”.
[CrossRef]

R. L. Lee, “Digital imaging of clear-sky polarization,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1465–1476 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

Similar techniques are used in R. J. Kubesh, “Computer display of chromaticity coordinates with the rainbow as an example,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 919–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

K. F. Evans and G. L. Stephens, “A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 413–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. Bellver, “Luminance and polarization of the sky light at Seville (Spain) measured in white light,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 595–599 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

J. F. de Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371–391 (1987).

C. Bellver, “Study of luminance and polarimetry of the sky at Seville (Spain) from May 1982 to September 1984,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1477–1481 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1981 (1)

R. Walraven, “Polarization imagery,” Opt. Eng. 20, 14–18 (1981).

1978 (1)

J. V. Dave, “Extensive datasets of the diffuse radiation in realistic atmospheric models with aerosols and common absorbing gases,” Sol. Energy 21, 361–369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Gerharz, “Self polarization in refractive systems,” Optik 43, 471–485 (1975).

1967 (1)

D. J. Gambling and B. Billard, “A study of the polarization of skylight,” Aust. J. Phys. 20, 675–681 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

1948 (1)

1847 (1)

D. Brewster, “On the polarization of the atmosphere,” Philos. Mag. 31, 444–454 (1847).

1814 (1)

D. Brewster, “On the polarisation of light by oblique transmission through all bodies, whether crystallized or uncrystallized,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 104, 219–230 (1814).
[CrossRef]

Aben, I.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bellver, C.

C. Bellver, “Luminance and polarization of the sky light at Seville (Spain) measured in white light,” Atmos. Environ. 22, 595–599 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Bellver, “Study of luminance and polarimetry of the sky at Seville (Spain) from May 1982 to September 1984,” Atmos. Environ. 21, 1477–1481 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berry, M. V.

M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Billard, B.

D. J. Gambling and B. Billard, “A study of the polarization of skylight,” Aust. J. Phys. 20, 675–681 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blumthaler, M.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010). MYSTIC is an acronym formed from “Monte Carlo code for the phYSically correct Tracing of photons In Cloudy atmospheres”.
[CrossRef]

Boesche, E.

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–379. Single-scattering calculations confirm that for small aerosols and typical mixtures of clean maritime aerosol species, the spectral dispersion of spherical scatterers’ size parameters affects PLλ more than does dispersion of their collective n, k.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 349–354.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–382. Here the authors show how linearly polarized light that illuminates particles that are large compared with the wavelength can be scattered as weakly circularly polarized light (i.e., circular polarization caused by multiple scattering).

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), p. 345.

Bosma, P. B.

J. F. de Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371–391 (1987).

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brewster, D.

D. Brewster, “On the polarization of the atmosphere,” Philos. Mag. 31, 444–454 (1847).

D. Brewster, “On the polarisation of light by oblique transmission through all bodies, whether crystallized or uncrystallized,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 104, 219–230 (1814).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buras, R.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010). MYSTIC is an acronym formed from “Monte Carlo code for the phYSically correct Tracing of photons In Cloudy atmospheres”.
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chenault, D. B.

Clothiaux, E. E.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), p. 345.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 349–354.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–382. Here the authors show how linearly polarized light that illuminates particles that are large compared with the wavelength can be scattered as weakly circularly polarized light (i.e., circular polarization caused by multiple scattering).

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–379. Single-scattering calculations confirm that for small aerosols and typical mixtures of clean maritime aerosol species, the spectral dispersion of spherical scatterers’ size parameters affects PLλ more than does dispersion of their collective n, k.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coulson, K. L.

K. L. Coulson, “Effects of the El Chichon volcanic cloud in the stratosphere on the polarization of light from the sky,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1036–1050 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 554.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), pp. 284–286, 291, 300, 305–307, 418, 421–422. Coulson’s visible-wavelength PL measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, have a fairly coarse spectral resolution of 100 nm.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 556. Coulson’s term for self-polarization is “parasitic polarization”.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), pp. 533–546, 551–567.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 582.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 254.

Cronin, T. W.

Dahlberg, A. R.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, “Extensive datasets of the diffuse radiation in realistic atmospheric models with aerosols and common absorbing gases,” Sol. Energy 21, 361–369 (1978).
[CrossRef]

de Haan, J. F.

J. F. de Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371–391 (1987).

Dennis, M. R.

M. V. Berry, M. R. Dennis, and R. L. Lee, “Polarization singularities in the clear sky,” New J. Phys. 6, 162 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J. L.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duggin, M. J.

R. S. Loe and M. J. Duggin, “Hyperspectral imaging polarimeter design and calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 195–205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. A. North and M. J. Duggin, “Stokes vector imaging of the polarized sky-dome,” Appl. Opt. 36, 723–730 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Emde, C.

C. Emde, R. Buras, B. Mayer, and M. Blumthaler, “The impact of aerosols on polarized sky radiance: model development, validation, and applications,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 383–396 (2010). MYSTIC is an acronym formed from “Monte Carlo code for the phYSically correct Tracing of photons In Cloudy atmospheres”.
[CrossRef]

Enoch, J.

A. Le Floch, G. Ropars, J. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “The polarization sense in human vision,” Vis. Res. 50, 2048–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, K. F.

K. F. Evans and G. L. Stephens, “A new polarized atmospheric radiative transfer model,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 46, 413–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J.

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gál, J.

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385–1399 (2001).

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gambling, D. J.

D. J. Gambling and B. Billard, “A study of the polarization of skylight,” Aust. J. Phys. 20, 675–681 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Gao, S.

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gehrels, T.

Gerharz, R.

R. Gerharz, “Self polarization in refractive systems,” Optik 43, 471–485 (1975).

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, D. L.

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greiner, B.

Hegg, D. A.

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Helderman, F.

I. Aben, F. Helderman, D. M. Stam, and P. Stammes, “Spectral fine-structure in the polarisation of skylight,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 591–594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herman, M.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hess, M.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998). OPAC is an acronym for “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds”.
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, P. V.

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Horváth, G.

B. Suhai and G. Horváth, “How well does the Rayleigh model describe the E-vector distribution of skylight in clear and cloudy conditions? a full-sky polarimetric study,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 1669–1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385–1399 (2001).

Hovenier, J. W.

J. F. de Haan, P. B. Bosma, and J. W. Hovenier, “The adding method for multiple scattering calculations of polarized light,” Astron. Astrophys. 183, 371–391 (1987).

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirchstetter, T. W.

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 79, 831–844 (1998). OPAC is an acronym for “Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds”.
[CrossRef]

Können, G.

G. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 11–12.

Kubesh, R. J.

Similar techniques are used in R. J. Kubesh, “Computer display of chromaticity coordinates with the rainbow as an example,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 919–923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lafrance, B.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lakshminarayanan, V.

A. Le Floch, G. Ropars, J. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “The polarization sense in human vision,” Vis. Res. 50, 2048–2054 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Le Floch, G. Ropars, J. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “The polarization sense in human vision,” Vis. Res. 50, 2048–2054 (2010).
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J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
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Loe, R. S.

R. S. Loe and M. J. Duggin, “Hyperspectral imaging polarimeter design and calibration,” Proc. SPIE 4481, 195–205 (2002).
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Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385–1399 (2001).

Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Novakov, T.

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Pust, N. J.

Pye, D.

D. Pye, Polarised Light in Science and Nature (Institute of Physics, 2001), pp. 117–118.

Redemann, J.

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
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Richartz, M.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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A. Le Floch, G. Ropars, J. Enoch, and V. Lakshminarayanan, “The polarization sense in human vision,” Vis. Res. 50, 2048–2054 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Santer, R.

J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
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Schmid, B.

Aerosol concentrations and composition in the USNA region are analyzed in B. I. Magi, P. V. Hobbs, T. W. Kirchstetter, T. Novakov, D. A. Hegg, S. Gao, J. Redemann, and B. Schmid, “Aerosol properties and chemical apportionment of aerosol optical depth at locations off the U. S. east coast in July and August 2001,” J. Atmos. Sci. 62, 919–933 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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Suhai, B.

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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J. Lenoble, M. Herman, J. L. Deuzé, B. Lafrance, R. Santer, and D. Tanré, “A successive order of scattering code for solving the vector equation of transfer in the earth’s atmosphere with aerosols,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 107, 479–507 (2007).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 110, 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 133–140.

Am. J. Phys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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J. Gál, G. Horváth, V. B. Meyer-Rochow, and R. Wehner, “Polarization patterns of the summer sky and its neutral points measured by full-sky imaging polarimetry in Finnish Lapland north of the Arctic Circle,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 457, 1385–1399 (2001).

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Other (23)

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), p. 345.

G. Können, Polarized Light in Nature (Cambridge, 1985), pp. 11–12.

D. Pye, Polarised Light in Science and Nature (Institute of Physics, 2001), pp. 117–118.

H. Neuberger, Introduction to Physical Meteorology(Pennsylvania State University, 1957), pp. 196–199.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), pp. 533–546, 551–567.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 556. Coulson’s term for self-polarization is “parasitic polarization”.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 349–354.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 554.

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–382. Here the authors show how linearly polarized light that illuminates particles that are large compared with the wavelength can be scattered as weakly circularly polarized light (i.e., circular polarization caused by multiple scattering).

Pika II hyperspectral imaging system from Resonon, Inc., Bozeman, Montana, USA ( http://www.resonon.com ). The system consists of a digital camera that has an internal diffraction grating and is coupled to a rotation stage controlled by a precision stepper motor and laptop computer. In this pushbroom system, the laptop acquires 640 different skylight spectra at each rotation stage position (i.e., for each line of the resulting hyperspectral datacube).

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 254.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983), p. 50.

PR-650 spectroradiometer from Photo Research, Inc., Chatsworth, California, USA.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), p. 582.

By design, some nonimaging spectroradiometers depolarize light between the lens and the instrument’s diffraction grating. For example, see PR-650 SpectraScan SpectraColorimeter Operating Manual, Software Version 1.10 (Photo Research, 1996), Section 3, p. 4.

G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science: Concepts and Methods, Quantitative Data and Formulae, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1982), pp. 133–140.

Sun photometer data on τaer,λ for total aerosol extinction are acquired and archived by AERONET at http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov . τaer,λ data in Table 2 are from the stations closest to USNA: Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, and the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, Maryland.

Throughout this paper, we concentrate on the shapes of PLλ spectra rather than on identifying specific spectral features. However, the Pika II system does consistently detect such features, including the narrow PLλ local maxima near 761 nm caused by molecular oxygen absorption.

Data from ϕrel∼270° (Fig. 4) are compared with that from ϕrel=90° (Fig. 1) because both Ψ and compass azimuth ϕ are nearly equal in the two scenes. Having equivalent ϕ at a given h0 reduces the PLλ effects of spatial changes in land and water spectral reflectances near our site.

PLλ for h=10° is included to allay any concerns that simulations for h=5° at any ϕrel might be corrupted by numerical instabilities arising from polRadTran’s assumption of a plane-parallel atmosphere. In fact, the model’s PLλ spectra change slowly and systematically for h>5°.

B. Mayer, “libRadtran: library for radiative transfer,” http://www.libradtran.org .

C. F. Bohren and E. E. Clothiaux, Fundamentals of Atmospheric Radiation (Wiley-VCH, 2006), pp. 378–379. Single-scattering calculations confirm that for small aerosols and typical mixtures of clean maritime aerosol species, the spectral dispersion of spherical scatterers’ size parameters affects PLλ more than does dispersion of their collective n, k.

K. L. Coulson, Polarization and Intensity of Light in the Atmosphere (A. Deepak, 1988), pp. 284–286, 291, 300, 305–307, 418, 421–422. Coulson’s visible-wavelength PL measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, have a fairly coarse spectral resolution of 100 nm.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Linear polarization measured at visible wavelengths λ=400700nm in a clear, haze-free sky at the United States Naval Academy (USNA) in Annapolis, Maryland, on the afternoon of 20 September 2010. Hyperspectral data are shown as either (a) a false-color map of spectral polarization PLλ or (b) a binned gray-scale map of spectrally integrated degree of polarization PL. Unrefracted sun elevation h0=30.8° and azimuth relative to the sun ϕrel90° at each map’s center.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Maps of (a) PLλ and (b) PL as in Fig. 1, but for h0=32.9°, ϕrel180° at USNA on 20 September 2010.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mean PLλ spectra for view-elevation angles h=5° and 10° calculated from hyperspectral data for Figs. 1 and 2 (haze-free sky of 20 September 2010). Averages are for an area of angular size Δh=2°, Δϕrel=4° that is centered on the indicated ϕrel and h. Each spectrum is also labeled with its corresponding single-scattering angle Ψ; note that ordinate scales differ for the two values of ϕrel.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Maps of (a) PLλ and (b) PL as in Fig. 1, but for h0=32.9°, ϕrel270° at USNA on the hazy morning of 13 September 2011.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Maps of (a) PLλ and (b) PL as in Fig. 4, but for h0=29.1°, ϕrel180° at USNA on 13 September 2011.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Mean PLλ spectra as in Fig. 3, but calculated from hyperspectral data for Figs. 4 and 5 (hazy sky of 13 September 2011) and having a single ordinate scale.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

False-color maps of PLλ at (a) h0=33.3°, ϕrel90° and (b) h0=39.6°, ϕrel180° at USNA on the clear, apparently haze-free afternoon of 13 April 2012.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Aerosol normal optical depths τaer,λ measured at AERONET sun photometer sites near USNA at the times closest to those of Figs. 17.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Spectral polarization PLλ for h0=30°, h=5° and 10° at ϕrel=180° as calculated by the polRadTran model for atmospheres either without aerosols or with τaer,λ approximating that measured at USNA on 13 September 2011 (hazy sky). The Lambertian surface reflectance=0.2 at all wavelengths.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Comparison of polRadTran simulated PLλ spectra for Fig. 9’s ϕrel=180° aerosol case (representative of our site’s aerosols) and corresponding measured PLλ spectra from Fig. 6. Spectra for h=5° are marked with open or solid squares, whereas h=10° spectra are marked with open or solid circles.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Same as Fig. 9, but for ϕrel=90° in polRadTran.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Comparison of polRadTran simulated PLλ spectra for Fig. 11’s ϕrel=90° aerosol case (representative of our site’s aerosols) and corresponding measured PLλ spectra from Fig. 6, where ϕrel=270°. Spectra for h=5° are marked with open or solid squares, whereas h=10° spectra are marked with open or solid circles.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Spectral polarization PLλ at indicated Ψ for single scattering by a haze-M polydispersion with droplet radii 0.1μm. Complex refractive indices n and k for these aerosols either (a) are spectrally constant at n=1.5, k=0.01 or (b) have the weak spectral dependence of a three-species aerosol mixture typical of our region. Note that ordinate scales differ for the two Ψ.

Tables (2)

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Table 1. Calibration Summary Statistics for Pika II Imaging Spectrometer

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Table 2. Meteorological Conditions and Aerosol Normal Optical Depths

Equations (2)

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PL=(Q2+U2)1/2/I
Iλ=0.5×[Lλ(0°)+Lλ(45°)+Lλ(90°)+Lλ(135°)],Qλ=Lλ(0°)Lλ(90°),Uλ=Lλ(45°)Lλ(135°),

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