Abstract

Intralipid 20% was recently suggested as a diffusive reference standard for tissue simulating phantoms. In this work, we extend previously obtained results to other fat emulsions, specifically Intralipid 10%, Intralipid 30%, Lipovenoes 10%, Lipovenoes 10% PhosphoLipid Reduced, Lipovenoes 20%, Lipofundin S 10%, and Lipofundin S 20%. Of particular importance for practical applications, our measurements carried out at a wavelength of 751 nm show the following features. First, these products show high stability and small batch-to-batch variations in their diffusive optical properties, similar to Intralipid 20%. Second, the absorption coefficient of Intralipid, Lipovenoes, and Lipofundin S are very similar and their measured values are within the experimental errors; moreover the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 20%, Lipovenoes 20%, and Lipofundin S 20% are similar and their measured values are within 5%. Third, the reduced scattering coefficient of Intralipid 10% and Intralipid 30% can be scaled from that of Intralipid 20% with an error of 9% and 2%, respectively. A similar scaling property is valid for Lipovenoes and Lipofundin S. We have verified that this scaling property depends on the composition of the fat emulsions: If the ingredients exactly scale with the concentration then the reduced scattering coefficient almost exactly scale as well.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Gallegos, P. Partal, and J. M. Franco, “Droplet size distribution and stability of commercial injectable emulsions,” Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 66, 162–166 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Effect of dependent scattering on the optical properties of Intralipid tissue phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2265–2278 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2011

P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, N21-N28 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Effect of dependent scattering on the optical properties of Intralipid tissue phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2265–2278 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

C. Gallegos, P. Partal, and J. M. Franco, “Droplet size distribution and stability of commercial injectable emulsions,” Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 66, 162–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

1992

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

Bouchard, J. P.

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Del Bianco, S.

Di Ninni, P.

P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, N21-N28 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Effect of dependent scattering on the optical properties of Intralipid tissue phantoms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 2265–2278 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Flock, S. T.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, M.

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foschum, F.

Franco, J. M.

C. Gallegos, P. Partal, and J. M. Franco, “Droplet size distribution and stability of commercial injectable emulsions,” Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 66, 162–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gallegos, C.

C. Gallegos, P. Partal, and J. M. Franco, “Droplet size distribution and stability of commercial injectable emulsions,” Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 66, 162–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jedidi, R.

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kienle, A.

Martelli, F.

Mermut, O.

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Michels, R.

Moes, C. J. M.

Noiseux, I.

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Partal, P.

C. Gallegos, P. Partal, and J. M. Franco, “Droplet size distribution and stability of commercial injectable emulsions,” Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 66, 162–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pogue, B. W.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prahl, S. A.

Star, W. M.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. J. van Staveren, C. J. M. Moes, J. van Marle, S. A. Prahl, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Light scattering in Intralipid-10% in the wavelength range of 400–1100 nm,” Appl. Opt. 30, 4507–4514 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van Marle, J.

van Staveren, H. J.

Veilleux, I.

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zaccanti, G.

Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm.

C. Gallegos, P. Partal, and J. M. Franco, “Droplet size distribution and stability of commercial injectable emulsions,” Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 66, 162–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Biomed. Opt. Express

J. Biomed. Opt.

B. W. Pogue and M. S. Patterson, “Review of tissue simulating phantoms for optical spectroscopy, imaging and dosimetry,” J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 041102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

S. T. Flock, S. L. Jacques, B. C. Wilson, W. M. Star, and M. J. C. van Gemert, “Optical properties of Intralipid: a phantom medium for light propagation studies,” Lasers Surg. Med. 12, 510–519 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Express.

J. P. Bouchard, I. Veilleux, R. Jedidi, I. Noiseux, M. Fortin, and O. Mermut, “Reference optical phantoms for diffuse optical spectroscopy. Part 1-Error analysis of a time resolved transmittance characterization method,” Opt. Express. 18, 11495–11507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol.

P. Di Ninni, F. Martelli, and G. Zaccanti, “Intralipid: towards a diffusive reference standard for optical tissue phantoms,” Phys. Med. Biol. 56, N21-N28 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Measurements of the intrinsic reduced scattering coefficient ε s (a) and of the absorption coefficient μ a (b) of Table 2 with their error bars plotted versus the different types of fat emulsion.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Normalized extinction spectra for the following fat emulsions: Intralipid 10% (10DI5781), Intralipid 20% (10ED4217), Intralipid 30% (10DH5473), Lipovenoes 10% PLR (16EH0068), Lipovenoes 10% (16DE0189), Lipovenoes 20% (16EB0121), Lipofundin S 10% (112068083), and Lipofundin S 20% (111258082).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Main Ingredients in Grams of the Investigated Fat Emulsions in 1000 ml of Emulsion

Tables Icon

Table 2. Results for the Optical Properties at λ = 751 nm a

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

μ e ( ρ ) = ε e ρ ,
μ a ( ρ ) = ε a ρ + ε a H 2 O ( 1 ρ ) ,
μ s ( ρ ) = ε s ρ ,
μ eff 2 ( ρ ) = ( 3 ε s ε a H 2 O ) ρ + 3 ε s ( ε a ε a H 2 O ) ρ 2 ,
ε s = I 3 ε a H 2 O ,
ε a = S 3 ε s + ε a H 2 O = ε a H 2 O ( 1 + S I ) .
ϕ ( r ) = 3 μ s 4 π r exp ( μ eff r ) ,
μ s ( ρ ) = ε s 1 ρ + ε s 2 ρ 2 .

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