Abstract

Detailed polarized spectral properties of a 0.685 at. % Nd3+:Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal grown by the Czochralski method have been investigated, including the absorption cross section, the emission cross section, and the fluorescence lifetime. The anisotropy of the spectral properties in different polarized directions was discussed thoroughly. The absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+ are found to be inhomogeneously broadened due to its internal disordered lattice. Additionally, the CW laser operation at 1.06 μm was also demonstrated for the first time. The maximum output power of 905 mW was achieved, with corresponding optical conversion efficiency of 10.8% and slope efficiency of 12.8%.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. T. Basiev, N. A. Es’kov, A. Ya. Karasik, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and M. Helbig, “Disordered garnets Ca3(Nb,Ga)5O12:Nd3+-prospective crystals for powerful ultrashort-pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 17, 201–203 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Subpicosecond pulse generation from a Nd:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 103–105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1872–1874 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, Z. S. Hu, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Solid State Chem. 177, 3183–3186 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).
  10. C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. Burshtein, Y. Shimony, I. Levy, A. M. Lejus, J. M. Benitez, and F. Mougel, “Refractive-index studies in Ca2Ga2SiO7 and SrLaGa3O7 melilite-type compounds,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1941–1944 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, “Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134, 415–422 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. F. Hanson, D. Dick, H. R. Verdun, and M. Kokta, “Optical properties and lasing of Nd:SrGdGa3O7,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1668–1673 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996), pp. 231–238.
  23. Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. Kopf, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, and K. J. Weingarten, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:glass lasers with an antiresonant Fabry–Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1169–1171 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 1981), pp 12–27.

2012 (1)

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1872–1874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).

2004 (2)

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, Z. S. Hu, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Solid State Chem. 177, 3183–3186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, “Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134, 415–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

D. Kopf, F. X. Kärtner, U. Keller, and K. J. Weingarten, “Diode-pumped mode-locked Nd:glass lasers with an antiresonant Fabry–Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1169–1171 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (2)

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Hanson, D. Dick, H. R. Verdun, and M. Kokta, “Optical properties and lasing of Nd:SrGdGa3O7,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1668–1673 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Basiev, T. T.

Belletti, A.

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Belokoneva, E. L.

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Benitez, J. M.

Bettinelli, M.

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bon, M.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boughton, R. I.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burshtein, Z.

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Carozzo, V.

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cavalli, E.

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. T.

P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).

Chen, X.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, “Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134, 415–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Descroix, E.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dick, D.

Ershova, G. I.

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Es’kov, N. A.

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gao, W. L.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, N.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Golab, S.

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, F.

Helbig, M.

Hu, Z. S.

P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).

Y. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, Z. S. Hu, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Solid State Chem. 177, 3183–3186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jia, G. H.

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, M. H.

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1872–1874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 1981), pp 12–27.

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996), pp. 231–238.

Karasik, A. Ya.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Kokta, M.

Kopf, D.

Krausz, F.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lejus, A. M.

Levy, I.

Li, J. F.

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z. B.

P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).

Y. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, Z. S. Hu, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Solid State Chem. 177, 3183–3186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, X. A.

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

Luo, Z.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, “Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134, 415–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ma, P.

P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).

Manaa, H.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mill, B. V.

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mironov, D. I.

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mougel, F.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Osiko, V. V.

Pan, Z. B.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pisarski, W.

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prokoshin, P. V.

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Qian, L. J.

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Razumova, I. K.

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rivoire, J. Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shimony, Y.

Sobol, A. A.

Spielmann, C.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. Q.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. D.

Tang, D. Y.

Tao, X. T.

Terentiev, A. V.

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tkachuk, A. M.

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toncelli, A.

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tonelli, M.

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C. Y.

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ushakov, S. N.

Verdun, H. R.

Wang, G. F.

P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).

Y. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, Z. S. Hu, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Solid State Chem. 177, 3183–3186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. Y.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Subpicosecond pulse generation from a Nd:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1872–1874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Z. Y.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

Wintner, E.

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B. C.

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xie, G. Q.

Xu, M.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

You, Z. Y.

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H. H.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Subpicosecond pulse generation from a Nd:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1872–1874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yumashev, K. V.

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zannoni, E.

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, and J. Y. Wang, “Subpicosecond pulse generation from a Nd:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Lett. 34, 103–105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33, 1872–1874 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, Z. S. Hu, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Solid State Chem. 177, 3183–3186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. Y.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. G.

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, “Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134, 415–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. J.

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

Z. B. Pan, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, M. Xu, Y. Y. Zhang, S. Q. Sun, J. Y. Wang, Q. Wang, Z. Y. Wei, and Z. G. Zhang, “Growth and characterization of Nd-doped disordered Ca3Gd2(BO3)4 crystal,” Appl. Phys. B 106, 197–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Cavalli, E. Zannoni, A. Belletti, V. Carozzo, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, and M. Bettinelli, “Spectroscopic analysis and laser parameters of Nd3+ in Ca3Sc2Ge3O12 garnet crystals,” Appl. Phys. B 68, 677–681 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Spielmann, F. Krausz, T. Brabec, E. Wintner, and A. Schmidt, “Femtosecond passive mode locking of a solid-state laser by a dispersively balanced nonlinear interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2470–2472 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Terentiev, P. V. Prokoshin, K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, and W. Pisarski, “Passive mode locking of a Nd3+:SrLaGa3O7 laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2442–2444 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

B. V. Mill, A. M. Tkachuk, E. L. Belokoneva, G. I. Ershova, D. I. Mironov, and I. K. Razumova, “Spectroscopic studies of Ln2Ca3B4O12-Nd3+ (Ln=Y, La, Gd) crystals,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 291–294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Y. Zhang, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, W. L. Gao, M. Xu, S. Q. Sun, M. H. Jiang, and R. I. Boughton, “Synthesis, growth, and characterization of Nd-doped SrGdGa3O7 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Brenier, C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, Z. J. Zhu, and J. F. Li, “Diode-pumped laser operation of Yb3+-doped Y2Ca3B4O12 crystal,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 013102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic energy levels in the trivalent lanthanide aquo ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424–4442 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

C. Y. Tu, Y. Wang, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, and B. C. Wu, “Growth and spectroscopic characteristics of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Yb3+ laser crystal,” J. Cryst. Growth 265, 154–158 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (2)

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, C. Y. Tu, Z. Y. You, J. F. Li, Z. J. Zhu, G. H. Jia, X. A. Lu, and B. C. Wu, “Optical spectroscopy of Ca3Gd2(BO3)4:Nd3+ laser crystal,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 1141–1148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

Y. Zhang, Z. B. Lin, Z. S. Hu, and G. F. Wang, “Growth and spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Sr3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” J. Solid State Chem. 177, 3183–3186 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Innovations (1)

P. Ma, J. T. Chen, Z. S. Hu, Z. B. Lin, and G. F. Wang, “Structure of Ba3Y2(BO3)4 crystal,” Mater. Res. Innovations 9, 63–64 (2005).

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Luo, X. Chen, and T. Zhao, “Judd-Ofelt parameter analysis of rare earth anisotropic crystals by three perpendicular unpolarized absorption measurements,” Opt. Commun. 134, 415–422 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. (2)

W. F. Krupke, “Optical absorption and fluorescence intensities in several rare-earth-doped Y2O3 and LaF3 single crystals,” Phys. Rev. 145, 325–337 (1966).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgA11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

A. A. Kaminskii, Crystalline Lasers: Physical Processes and Operating Schemes (CRC Press, 1996), pp. 231–238.

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals (Springer-Verlag, 1981), pp 12–27.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental laser setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Polarization absorption spectrum of Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 .

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Polarization absorption cross section of Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 over the range of 720–910 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Fluorescence decay curve of Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 .

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Fluorescence spectra of Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 : (a) room temperature polarized emission cross sections and (b) 77.2 K unpolarized emission cross section.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Average output power versus incident pump power. Inset: Spectrum of Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 .

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Effective Segregation Coefficients in Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 : Nd 3 + Crystal

Tables Icon

Table 2. Experimental Transition-Line Intensity Parameters and Oscillator Strengths of the Polarization Absorption Spectrum of Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4

Tables Icon

Table 3. Judd–Ofelt Intensity Parameters of Nd 3 + in Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4

Tables Icon

Table 4. Comparison of Judd–Ofelt Parameters for Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 with Other Nd-Doped Crystals

Tables Icon

Table 5. Luminescence Parameters of Nd 3 + : Sr 3 Y 2 ( BO 3 ) 4 for the Radiative F 4 3 / 2 I 4 J Transition

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k eff = c 1 c 2 ,
A Total ( J ) = q J A ( J J ) 3 .
σ e ( λ ) = λ 5 A ( J J ) I ( λ ) 8 π c n 2 λ I ( λ ) d λ ,

Metrics