Abstract

We have used molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) based delta-doping technology to demonstrate nearly 100% internal quantum efficiency (QE) on silicon electron-multiplied charge-coupled devices (EMCCDs) for single photon counting detection applications. We used atomic layer deposition (ALD) for antireflection (AR) coatings and achieved atomic-scale control over the interfaces and thin film materials parameters. By combining the precision control of MBE and ALD, we have demonstrated more than 50% external QE in the far and near ultraviolet in megapixel arrays. We have demonstrated that other important device performance parameters such as dark current are unchanged after these processes. In this paper, we briefly review ultraviolet detection, report on these results, and briefly discuss the techniques and processes employed.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (1)

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

R. M. Field, J. Larry, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

2009 (3)

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, “Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 μm technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847–1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, S. T. Elliott, S. E. Holland, and S. Nikzad, “Enhanced QE of high purity silicon imagers by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 254101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Hynecek, “Impactron—A new solid state image intensifier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2238–2241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, and R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baggett, S.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Baggett, S. M.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Barlow, T.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, T. A.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bayram, C.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A. L.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Besse, P. A.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847–1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blacksberg, J.

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, S. T. Elliott, S. E. Holland, and S. Nikzad, “Enhanced QE of high purity silicon imagers by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 254101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

Blazejewski, E. R.

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, N.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Borders, T.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Browring, S.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Burt, D.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bushouse, H.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Campbell, J. C.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Canfield, L. R.

L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, and R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carrano, J. C.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Catlett, N.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Charbon, E.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847–1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohn, J.

R. M. Field, J. Larry, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Collins, C. J.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Collins, N. R.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Conrow, T.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, T. J.

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deen, M. J.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, “Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 μm technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delo, G.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Desor, R.

L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, and R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deustua, S.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Dickie, M. R.

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

Dupuis, R. D.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Eiting, C. J.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elliott, S. T.

J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, S. T. Elliott, S. E. Holland, and S. Nikzad, “Enhanced QE of high purity silicon imagers by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 254101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fain, B.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, “Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 μm technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faramarzpour, N.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, “Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 μm technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fattahi, M.

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, P. D.

Field, R. M.

R. M. Field, J. Larry, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Foltz, R. D.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Forster, K.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, P. G.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Giedraitis, P.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gilliland, R.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Greer, F.

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

Grunthaner, F. J.

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Grunthaner, P. J.

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hamden, E.

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

Hamden, E. T.

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

Hazelwood, M.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heyes, P.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hilbert, B.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Hill, R. J.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Hoenk, M. E.

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, S. T. Elliott, S. E. Holland, and S. Nikzad, “Enhanced QE of high purity silicon imagers by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 254101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

Holland, S. E.

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, S. T. Elliott, S. E. Holland, and S. Nikzad, “Enhanced QE of high purity silicon imagers by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 254101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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J. Hynecek, “Impactron—A new solid state image intensifier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2238–2241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

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J. R. Janesick, Photon Transfer : DN [lambda] (SPIE, 2007).

Jerram, P.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. J.

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalirai, J.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Kan, E.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Kimble, R. A.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Kim-Quijano, J.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Korde, R.

L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, and R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
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S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Lambert, D. J. H.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larry, J.

R. M. Field, J. Larry, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Long, K. S.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Mackay, C. D.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

MacKenty, J.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

MacKenty, J. W.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Madore, B. F.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malumuth, E.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Martel, A.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Martin, C.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

Martin, D. C.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McCandliss, S. R.

McClintock, R.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

McLean, R.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Monacos, S. P.

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

Moody, I.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morais, M.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morrissey, P.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morrissey, P. F.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
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D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niclass, C.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847–1854 (2005).
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Nikzad, S.

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, S. T. Elliott, S. E. Holland, and S. Nikzad, “Enhanced QE of high purity silicon imagers by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 254101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

Paninski, L.

R. M. Field, J. Larry, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pau, J. L.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pool, P.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Raison, F.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rich, R. M.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Riess, A.

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

Rochas, A.

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847–1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberry, R.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Ruiz, R. P.

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sabbi, E.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Schiminovich, D.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

Schmidtke, H.

L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, and R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seibert, M.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, K. L.

R. M. Field, J. Larry, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shirani, S.

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, “Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 μm technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Small, T.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soules, D. M.

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spencer, S.

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Terhune, R. W.

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, H. F.

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, H-F.

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tubbs, R. N.

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ulmer, M. P.

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vest, R. E.

L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, and R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Waczynski, A.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Wang, S.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Welsh, B. Y.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wen, Y.

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

Wheatley, J. M.

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wizenread, R.

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wyder, T.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C. K.

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Nikzad, T. J. Cunningham, M. E. Hoenk, R. P. Ruiz, D. M. Soules, and S. E. Holland, “Direct detection of 0.1–20 keV electrons with delta doped, fully depleted, high purity silicon p-i-n diode arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 182114–182116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Carrano, D. J. H. Lambert, C. J. Eiting, C. J. Collins, T. Li, S. Wang, B. Yang, A. L. Beck, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “GaN avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 924–926 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Field, J. Larry, J. Cohn, L. Paninski, and K. L. Shepard, “A low-noise, single-photon avalanche diode in standard 0.13 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor process,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 211111 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, F. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, M. Fattahi, and H. F. Tseng, “Growth of a delta-doped silicon layer by molecular-beam epitaxy on a charge-coupled device for reflection-limited ultraviolet quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1084–1086 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, S. T. Elliott, S. E. Holland, and S. Nikzad, “Enhanced QE of high purity silicon imagers by ultralow temperature surface modification using Sb-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 254101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

C. Niclass, A. Rochas, P. A. Besse, and E. Charbon, “Design and characterization of a CMOS 3-D image sensor based on single photon avalanche diodes,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 40, 1847–1854 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (2)

N. Faramarzpour, M. J. Deen, S. Shirani, and Q. Fang, “Fully integrated single photon avalanche diode detector in standard CMOS 0.18 μm technology,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 55, 760–767 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hynecek, “Impactron—A new solid state image intensifier,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 48, 2238–2241 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

L. R. Canfield, R. E. Vest, R. Korde, H. Schmidtke, and R. Desor, “Absolute silicon photodiodes for 160 nm to 254 nm photons,” Metrologia 35, 329–334 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

D. C. Martin, M. Seibert, J. D. Neill, D. Schiminovich, K. Forster, R. M. Rich, B. Y. Welsh, B. F. Madore, J. M. Wheatley, P. Morrissey, and T. A. Barlow, “A turbulent wake as a tracer of 30,000 years of Mira’s mass loss history,” Nature 448, 780–783 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Nanotechnology (1)

F. Greer, E. Hamden, B. C. Jacquot, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, S. P. Monacos, M. R. Dickie, D. Schiminovich, and S. Nikzad, manuscript in preparation for Nature Nanotechnology.

Proc. SPIE (9)

M. E. Hoenk, T. J. Jones, M. R. Dickie, F. Greer, T. J. Cunningham, E. R. Blazejewski, and S. Nikzad, “Delta-doped back-illuminated CMOS imaging arrays: progress and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7419, 74190T (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, T. J. Jones, J. Blacksberg, M. E. Hoenk, and S. Nikzad, “Characterization and absolute QE measurements of delta-doped N-channel and P-channel CCDs,” Proc. SPIE 7742, 774201 (2010).

S. M. Baggett, J. W. MacKenty, R. A. Kimble, T. Borders, B. Hilbert, S. Deustua, V. Kozhurina-Platais, K. S. Long, A. Riess, R. Gilliland, R. J. Hill, and J. Kalirai, “WFC3 detectors: on-orbit performance,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 773138 (2010).

N. R. Collins, N. Boehm, G. Delo, R. D. Foltz, R. J. Hill, E. Kan, R. A. Kimble, E. Malumuth, R. Rosenberry, A. Waczynski, Y. Wen, S. Baggett, H. Bushouse, S. Deustua, J. Kim-Quijano, J. MacKenty, A. Martel, and E. Sabbi, “Wide field camera 3 CCD quantum efficiency hysteresis: characterization and mitigation,” Proc. SPIE 7439, 74390 (2009).

P. Jerram, P. Pool, R. Bell, D. Burt, S. Browring, S. Spencer, M. Hazelwood, I. Moody, N. Catlett, and P. Heyes, “The LLCCD: low light imaging without the need for an intensifier,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 178–186 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mackay, R. N. Tubbs, R. Bell, D. Burt, P. Jerram, and I. Moody, “Sub-electron read noise at MHz pixel rates,” Proc. SPIE 4306, 289–298 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nikzad, M. E. Hoenk, P. J. Grunthaner, R. W. Terhune, F. J. Grunthaner, R. Wizenread, M. Fattahi, and H-F. Tseng, “Delta-doped CCDs: high QE with long-term stability at UV and visible wavelengths,” Proc. SPIE 2198, 907–915 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. McClintock, J. L. Pau, C. Bayram, B. Fain, P. Giedraitis, M. Razeghi, and M. P. Ulmer, “III-nitride avalanche photodiodes,” Proc. SPIE 7222, 72220U (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, T. Barlow, T. Conrow, K. Forster, P. G. Friedman, R. McLean, M. Morais, , P. F. Morrissey, F. Raison, D. Schiminovich, T. Small, T. Wyder, and C. K. Xu, “The Galaxy Evolution Explorer,” Proc. SPIE 4854, 336–350 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. C. Jacquot, S. P. Monacos, M. E. Hoenk, F. Greer, T. J. Jones, and S. Nikzad, “A system and methodologies for absolute quantum efficiency measurements from the vacuum ultraviolet through the near infrared,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 82, 043102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

E. T. Hamden, F. Greer, M. E. Hoenk, J. Blacksberg, M. R. Dickie, S. Nikzad, C. Martin, and D. Schiminovich, “UV anti-reflection coatings for use in silicon detector design,” Appl. Opt.50, 4180–4188 (2011).

J. R. Janesick, Photon Transfer : DN [lambda] (SPIE, 2007).

e2v_technologies, e2V Low-Light Technical Note 4: Dark Signal and Clock-Induced Charge in L3VisionTM CCD Sensors (2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

QE of a 512×1024 delta-doped EMCCD. The CCD is an e2v L3CCD that was thinned and delta doped at JPL. The solid line is the theoretical reflection limit of the silicon surface. Data is corrected for the multiple electron-hole pair production using two different approximations. Either correction gives a reasonable agreement with transmittance (1-reflection) of silicon. [12] A conservative estimate in the uncertainty of the measurements is 10%.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Far UV and UV response of a delta-doped electron-multiplied L3CCD. The response of the coated region shows significant enhancement in efficiency over the uncoated region in the region targeted by the aluminum oxide AR coating. The uncoated region QE is in good agreement with the silicon transmittance data within the uncertainties of measurements. [12,16] The QY method used to determine the true QE, (i.e., fraction of photons detected) was direct measurement at each wavelength in our laboratory using the photon transfer technique [15,21].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Response of the AR-coated, delta-doped arrays in the entire 100–300 nm region. Each region was coated by one simple coating. Further enhancements can be achieved by adding additional complexity in the coatings. In the third band, the response of AR-coated, delta-doped EMCCD (16 nm Al2O3) is plotted on the same plot as the conventional CCDs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dark current measurements for a partially AR-coated, delta-doped electron-multiplied L3CCD. The coated and uncoated data are derived from measurements of different regions of the same device, with the uncoated region defined by a contact shadow mask during the AR coating deposition process. Both sets of data follow the dark current model developed by e2V as a function of temperature for their devices [25].

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