Abstract

We describe a technique for measuring the surface profile of a radio telescope with a fast paraboloidal primary. The technique uses a sensor, at the center of curvature of the primary, consisting of a millimeter-wave source and an array of receivers to measure the field in the caustic. The sensor is mounted on the telescope enclosure and it moves with the telescope, so the measurements can be used for continuous, slow, closed-loop control of the surface. Sensor decenter and despace errors, due to wind buffeting and thermal deformation of the sensor support, do not compromise the surface measurements because they result in profile errors that are mainly translation, which has no effect on astronomical observations, or tilt and defocus, which can be measured using astronomical sources. If the position of the sensor is known to 20 μm rms, the surface can be measured to 1μmrms at λ=3mm.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. J. E. Radford, R. Giovanelli, T. A. Sebring, and J. Zmuidzinas, “CCAT,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 417, 113–123(2009).
  2. G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).
  3. D. P. Woody, S. Padin, and T. Sebring, “CFRP truss for the CCAT 25 m diameter submillimeter-wave telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7733, 77332B (2010).
  4. J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, and S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).
  5. J. M. Payne, “An optical distance measuring instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 304–306 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. W. Findlay and J. M. Payne, “An instrument for measuring deformations in large structures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 221–226 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Nikolic, R. E. Hills, and J. S. Richer, “Measurement of antenna surfaces from in- and out-of-focus beam maps using astronomical sources,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 679–683 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Nikolic, R. M. Prestage, D. S. Balser, C. J. Chandler, and R. E. Hills, “Out-of-focus holography at the Green Bank Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 685–693 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, and C. R. Masson, “Surface figure measurements of radio telescopes with a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1227–1241 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).
  11. D. P. Woody, E. Serabyn, and A. Shinkel, “Measurement, modeling, and adjustment of the 10.4 m diameter Leighton telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3357, 474–485 (1998).
  12. E. Serabyn and J. K. Wallace, “Submillimeter pupil-plane wavefront sensing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7741, 77410U (2010).
  13. E. Serabyn, “Fundamental limits to wavefront sensing in the submillimeter,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62750Z (2006).
  14. V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, and J. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3352, 436–445 (1998).
  15. J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 24, 295–303 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. R. H. Dicke, “The measurement of thermal radiation at microwave frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 268–275 (1946).
  19. J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy (McGraw-Hill, 1966).
  20. P. J. B. Clarricoats and A. D. Oliver, Corrugated Horns for Microwave Antennas (Peter Peregrinus, 1984).
  21. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), pp. 483–484.

2010 (2)

D. P. Woody, S. Padin, and T. Sebring, “CFRP truss for the CCAT 25 m diameter submillimeter-wave telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7733, 77332B (2010).

E. Serabyn and J. K. Wallace, “Submillimeter pupil-plane wavefront sensing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7741, 77410U (2010).

2009 (1)

S. J. E. Radford, R. Giovanelli, T. A. Sebring, and J. Zmuidzinas, “CCAT,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 417, 113–123(2009).

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

B. Nikolic, R. E. Hills, and J. S. Richer, “Measurement of antenna surfaces from in- and out-of-focus beam maps using astronomical sources,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 679–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Nikolic, R. M. Prestage, D. S. Balser, C. J. Chandler, and R. E. Hills, “Out-of-focus holography at the Green Bank Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

E. Serabyn, “Fundamental limits to wavefront sensing in the submillimeter,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62750Z (2006).

1998 (2)

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, and J. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3352, 436–445 (1998).

D. P. Woody, E. Serabyn, and A. Shinkel, “Measurement, modeling, and adjustment of the 10.4 m diameter Leighton telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3357, 474–485 (1998).

1991 (1)

1977 (1)

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539–545 (1977).

1976 (1)

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 24, 295–303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. W. Findlay and J. M. Payne, “An instrument for measuring deformations in large structures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 221–226 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

J. M. Payne, “An optical distance measuring instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 304–306 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

R. H. Dicke, “The measurement of thermal radiation at microwave frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 268–275 (1946).

Ade, P. A. R.

Aird, K. A.

Anderson, A. P.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 24, 295–303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Balser, D. S.

B. Nikolic, R. M. Prestage, D. S. Balser, C. J. Chandler, and R. E. Hills, “Out-of-focus holography at the Green Bank Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, J. C.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 24, 295–303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Benson, B. A.

Blain, A. W.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Bleem, L. E.

Bradford, C. M.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Brown, R. L.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Campbell, D. B.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Carlstrom, J. E.

Chandler, C. J.

B. Nikolic, R. M. Prestage, D. S. Balser, C. J. Chandler, and R. E. Hills, “Out-of-focus holography at the Green Bank Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. L.

Clarricoats, P. J. B.

P. J. B. Clarricoats and A. D. Oliver, Corrugated Horns for Microwave Antennas (Peter Peregrinus, 1984).

Cortes-Medellin, G.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Crawford, T. M.

Crites, A. T.

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, “The measurement of thermal radiation at microwave frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 268–275 (1946).

Dobbs, M. A.

Dowell, C. D.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Faber, S. M.

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, and S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

Findlay, J. W.

J. W. Findlay and J. M. Payne, “An instrument for measuring deformations in large structures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 221–226 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J. R.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, and J. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3352, 436–445 (1998).

Giovanelli, R.

S. J. E. Radford, R. Giovanelli, T. A. Sebring, and J. Zmuidzinas, “CCAT,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 417, 113–123(2009).

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Goldsmith, P.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Golwala, S. R.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Halverson, N. W.

Harvey, P. M.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Heimsath, S.

Henderson, C.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Herter, T. L.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Hills, R. E.

Holzapfel, W. L.

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), pp. 483–484.

Joy, M.

Keisler, R.

Krabbendam, V. L.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, and J. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3352, 436–445 (1998).

Kraus, J. D.

J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy (McGraw-Hill, 1966).

Langer, W. D.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Lawrie, C.

Lee, A. T.

Leitch, E. M.

Leong, J.

Lloyd, J. P.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Lu, W.

Lueker, M.

Malacara, D.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

Masson, C. R.

Mast, T. S.

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, and S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

McInnes, P. A.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 24, 295–303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, J. J.

Meyer, S. S.

Mohr, J. J.

Montroy, T. E.

Nelson, J. E.

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, and S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

Nikola, T.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Nikolic, B.

B. Nikolic, R. E. Hills, and J. S. Richer, “Measurement of antenna surfaces from in- and out-of-focus beam maps using astronomical sources,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 679–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Nikolic, R. M. Prestage, D. S. Balser, C. J. Chandler, and R. E. Hills, “Out-of-focus holography at the Green Bank Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, A. D.

P. J. B. Clarricoats and A. D. Oliver, Corrugated Horns for Microwave Antennas (Peter Peregrinus, 1984).

Padin, S.

Payne, J. M.

J. W. Findlay and J. M. Payne, “An instrument for measuring deformations in large structures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 221–226 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Payne, “An optical distance measuring instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 304–306 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, T. G.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, and C. R. Masson, “Surface figure measurements of radio telescopes with a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1227–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Plagge, T.

Prestage, R. M.

B. Nikolic, R. M. Prestage, D. S. Balser, C. J. Chandler, and R. E. Hills, “Out-of-focus holography at the Green Bank Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pryke, C.

Radford, S. J.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Radford, S. J. E.

S. J. E. Radford, R. Giovanelli, T. A. Sebring, and J. Zmuidzinas, “CCAT,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 417, 113–123(2009).

Ray, F. B.

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, and J. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3352, 436–445 (1998).

Readhead, A. C. S.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Richer, J. S.

B. Nikolic, R. E. Hills, and J. S. Richer, “Measurement of antenna surfaces from in- and out-of-focus beam maps using astronomical sources,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 679–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruhl, J. E.

Ryle, M.

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539–545 (1977).

Schaffer, K. K.

Scott, P. F.

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539–545 (1977).

Sebring, T.

D. P. Woody, S. Padin, and T. Sebring, “CFRP truss for the CCAT 25 m diameter submillimeter-wave telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7733, 77332B (2010).

Sebring, T. A.

S. J. E. Radford, R. Giovanelli, T. A. Sebring, and J. Zmuidzinas, “CCAT,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 417, 113–123(2009).

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, and J. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3352, 436–445 (1998).

Serabyn, E.

E. Serabyn and J. K. Wallace, “Submillimeter pupil-plane wavefront sensing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7741, 77410U (2010).

E. Serabyn, “Fundamental limits to wavefront sensing in the submillimeter,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62750Z (2006).

D. P. Woody, E. Serabyn, and A. Shinkel, “Measurement, modeling, and adjustment of the 10.4 m diameter Leighton telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3357, 474–485 (1998).

E. Serabyn, T. G. Phillips, and C. R. Masson, “Surface figure measurements of radio telescopes with a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1227–1241 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shinkel, A.

D. P. Woody, E. Serabyn, and A. Shinkel, “Measurement, modeling, and adjustment of the 10.4 m diameter Leighton telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3357, 474–485 (1998).

Shirokoff, E.

Spieler, H. G.

Stacey, G. L.

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Staniszewski, Z.

Stark, A. A.

Vieira, J. D.

Wallace, J. K.

E. Serabyn and J. K. Wallace, “Submillimeter pupil-plane wavefront sensing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7741, 77410U (2010).

Whittaker, A. J. T.

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 24, 295–303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Woody, D. P.

D. P. Woody, S. Padin, and T. Sebring, “CFRP truss for the CCAT 25 m diameter submillimeter-wave telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7733, 77332B (2010).

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

D. P. Woody, E. Serabyn, and A. Shinkel, “Measurement, modeling, and adjustment of the 10.4 m diameter Leighton telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3357, 474–485 (1998).

Zmuidzinas, J.

S. J. E. Radford, R. Giovanelli, T. A. Sebring, and J. Zmuidzinas, “CCAT,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 417, 113–123(2009).

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Astron. Astrophys. (2)

B. Nikolic, R. E. Hills, and J. S. Richer, “Measurement of antenna surfaces from in- and out-of-focus beam maps using astronomical sources,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 679–683 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Nikolic, R. M. Prestage, D. S. Balser, C. J. Chandler, and R. E. Hills, “Out-of-focus holography at the Green Bank Telescope,” Astron. Astrophys. 465, 685–693 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. (1)

S. J. E. Radford, R. Giovanelli, T. A. Sebring, and J. Zmuidzinas, “CCAT,” Astron. Soc. Pac. Conf. Ser. 417, 113–123(2009).

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

J. C. Bennett, A. P. Anderson, P. A. McInnes, and A. J. T. Whittaker, “Microwave holographic metrology of large reflector antennas,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 24, 295–303 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

J. W. Findlay and J. M. Payne, “An instrument for measuring deformations in large structures,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 23, 221–226 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

P. F. Scott and M. Ryle, “A rapid method for measuring the figure of a radio telescope reflector,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 178, 539–545 (1977).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (6)

D. P. Woody, E. Serabyn, and A. Shinkel, “Measurement, modeling, and adjustment of the 10.4 m diameter Leighton telescopes,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3357, 474–485 (1998).

E. Serabyn and J. K. Wallace, “Submillimeter pupil-plane wavefront sensing,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7741, 77410U (2010).

E. Serabyn, “Fundamental limits to wavefront sensing in the submillimeter,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62750Z (2006).

V. L. Krabbendam, T. A. Sebring, F. B. Ray, and J. R. Fowler, “Development and performance of Hobby Eberly Telescope 11 meter segmented mirror,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 3352, 436–445 (1998).

G. L. Stacey, S. R. Golwala, C. M. Bradford, C. D. Dowell, G. Cortes-Medellin, T. Nikola, J. Zmuidzinas, T. L. Herter, S. J. Radford, J. P. Lloyd, A. W. Blain, R. L. Brown, D. B. Campbell, R. Giovanelli, P. Goldsmith, P. M. Harvey, C. Henderson, W. D. Langer, T. G. Phillips, A. C. S. Readhead, and D. P. Woody, “Instrumentation for the CCAT telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 6275, 62751G (2006).

D. P. Woody, S. Padin, and T. Sebring, “CFRP truss for the CCAT 25 m diameter submillimeter-wave telescope,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 7733, 77332B (2010).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. M. Payne, “An optical distance measuring instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 44, 304–306 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Dicke, “The measurement of thermal radiation at microwave frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 17, 268–275 (1946).

Other (5)

J. D. Kraus, Radio Astronomy (McGraw-Hill, 1966).

P. J. B. Clarricoats and A. D. Oliver, Corrugated Horns for Microwave Antennas (Peter Peregrinus, 1984).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1998), pp. 483–484.

J. E. Nelson, T. S. Mast, and S. M. Faber, “The design of the Keck Observatory and Telescope,” Keck Observatory Rep. No. 90 (W. M. Keck Observatory, Kamuela, Hawaii, 1985).

D. Malacara, Optical Shop Testing (Wiley, 1992).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

CoC test. PSD is a phase-sensitive detector. × is a mixer.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Field intensity versus radius in the caustic for primary rings 1 (top left) through 3 (top right) through 10 (bottom left) and the entire primary (bottom right, gray scale linear in intensity). Ring 1 is at the center of the primary. Ring 10 is at the edge. Note the change in scale for rings 8 and 9.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Optimum placement for 100 receivers. Receiver positions are in meters.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measurement error versus number of receivers for optimal, but not circularly symmetric, receiver placement. (1  μm surface error=0.004rad phase error at λ=3mm.)

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Optimum circularly symmetric placement for 120 receivers. Receiver positions are in meters.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Actual surface profile (left, gray scale range ±33μm) and measured-actual profile (right, gray scale range ±0.35μm) for a simulated CoC measurement with 120 receivers in the circularly symmetric configuration of Fig. 5.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measurement error versus sensor decenter (solid line), tilt across the sensor diameter (dashed line), and despace (dash-dotted line).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured-actual surface profile for a 15  μm decenter (left, gray scale range ±2.0μm, decenter towards the bottom of the page), a 17.5  μm tilt across the sensor (center, gray scale range ±1.0μm, tilt into the page at top right with tilt axis 60° clockwise from horizontal), and an 80  μm despace (right, gray scale range ±0.75μm). The receiver configuration is circularly symmetric.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Obscuration by the secondary. The dashed lines show the shadow of the secondary for a source at the center of the sensor. Moving the source to the edge of the sensor gives access to the inner part of the primary, but some of the reflected rays are obscured by the secondary. The ticks on the primary show the edges of the segments. The vertex of the 3 m diameter secondary is 9 m from the vertex of the primary and the sensor is 22.7 m from the vertex of the primary.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Surface error corresponding to the change in phase of the field at the primary due to diffraction at the secondary. R is the radius on the primary. The source is at the center of the sensor. The inner region with no points is obscured by the secondary.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SNR(P/n)(A/Dc2)/(kBTrxb),
ϕ=(SNR×bτ)1/2,
σ=λ2πϕ(Dc2π)(kBTrxPτ)1/2.
Eθ=(Pπ)1/21r1exp(ikr1)sinϕEϕ=(Pπ)1/21r1exp(ikr1)cosϕB=×E/iω,
Eij=j[(n^×E)×G+(n^·E)G+iω(n^×B)G]dA,
G(r2)=14πr2exp(ikr2)
Ei=jEijvj,
vj=exp(2ikxj)
Ni=(2Z0kBTrxAτ)1/2N(0,1)exp[iψ(0,2π)],
vj=exp(2ikxj)=Eij1(Ei+Ni),
e=(xjxj)21/2.

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