Abstract

We present flight results from the optical pointing control system onboard the Planetary Imaging Concept Testbed Using a Rocket Experiment (PICTURE) sounding rocket. PICTURE (NASA mission number: 36.225 UG) was launched on 8 October 2011, from White Sands Missile Range. It attempted to directly image the exozodiacal dust disk of ϵ Eridani (K2V, 3.22 pc) down to an inner radius of 1.5 AU using a visible nulling coronagraph. The rocket attitude control system (ACS) provided 627 milliarcsecond (mas) RMS body pointing (2 peak-to-valley). The PICTURE fine pointing system (FPS) successfully stabilized the telescope beam to 5.1 mas (0.02λ/D) RMS using an angle tracker camera and fast steering mirror. This level of pointing stability is comparable to that of the Hubble Space Telescope. We present the hardware design of the FPS, a description of the limiting noise sources and a power spectral density analysis of the FPS and rocket ACS in-flight performance.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011

J. Trauger, D. Moody, B. Gordon, J. Krist, and D. Mawet, “A hybrid lyot coronagraph for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanet systems: recent results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510G (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, B. Kern, R. Belikov, S. Shaklan, A. Kuhnert, and A. Give’On, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphy: recent results and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510H (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsuo, M. Fukagawa, T. Kotani, Y. Itoh, M. Tamura, T. Nakagawa, and K. Enya, SCI team, “Direct detection and spectral characterization of outer exoplanets with the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument (SCI),” Adv. Space Res. 47, 1455–1462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

R. G. Lyon, W. R. Oegerle, L. D. Feinberg, M. R. Bolcar, B. H. Dean, G. E. Mosier, and M. Postman, “Coronagraphic wavefront control for the ATLAST 9.2 m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77312S (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Warner, S. Heathcote, G. Schumacher, R. Cantarutti, and E. Parkes, “Upgrading the controller of the fast tip-tilt tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393D (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Vogt, F. Martinache, O. Guyon, T. Yoshikawa, K. Yokochi, V. Garrel, and T. Matsuo, “The Subaru Coronographic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system: implementation and performances of the coronographic low order wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

2008

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

J. T. Stein and C. Neufeld, “A fast steering tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5495, 340–347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Liu, C. Blaurock, and G. E. Mosier, “Pointing control system design and performance evaluation of TPF coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. A. Thompson, S. W. Teare, S. L. Crawford, and R. W. Leach, “Rayleigh laser guide star systems: UnISIS bowtie shutter and CCD39 wavefront camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1143–1149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, and D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughrean, S. Hippler, C. Birk, K. Wagner, and R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM—a tip-tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. M. Close and D. W. McCarthy, “High-resolution imaging with a tip-tilt Cassegrain secondary,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 77–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, D. T. Gavel, and J. M. Brase, “Tip-tilt compensation—resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 407, 428–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

D. Down, “Image-position error associated with a focal plane array,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 9, 700–707 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1969

1964

C. Helstrom, “The detection and resolution of optical signals,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 10, 275–287 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, J.

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. S.

Backovsky, S.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bagnuolo, W. G.

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bairstow, S.

M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Belikov, R.

O. Guyon, B. Kern, R. Belikov, S. Shaklan, A. Kuhnert, and A. Give’On, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphy: recent results and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510H (2011).
[CrossRef]

Berger, D. H.

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bifano, T. G.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

Birk, C.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughrean, S. Hippler, C. Birk, K. Wagner, and R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM—a tip-tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blaurock, C.

K.-C. Liu, C. Blaurock, and G. E. Mosier, “Pointing control system design and performance evaluation of TPF coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bleau, C. A.

R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bolcar, M. R.

R. G. Lyon, W. R. Oegerle, L. D. Feinberg, M. R. Bolcar, B. H. Dean, G. E. Mosier, and M. Postman, “Coronagraphic wavefront control for the ATLAST 9.2 m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77312S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bottema, M.

Bouchez, A. H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brack, G.

R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, and D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brase, J. M.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, D. T. Gavel, and J. M. Brase, “Tip-tilt compensation—resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 407, 428–439 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bronowicki, A.

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. G.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brugarolas, P.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brummelaar, T. A.

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bruno, R.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bryden, G.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

Le Mignant, D.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
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Leach, R. W.

L. A. Thompson, S. W. Teare, S. L. Crawford, and R. W. Leach, “Rayleigh laser guide star systems: UnISIS bowtie shutter and CCD39 wavefront camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1143–1149 (2002).
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Levine, B.

R. Samuele, J. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–7.

Levine, B. M.

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

M. Shao and B. M. Levine, “Dilute aperture visible nulling coronagraphic imager (DaViNCI),” in Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), p. 368.

Lewis, H.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lillie, C.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K.-C.

K.-C. Liu, C. Blaurock, and G. E. Mosier, “Pointing control system design and performance evaluation of TPF coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, R.

M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, R. G.

R. G. Lyon, W. R. Oegerle, L. D. Feinberg, M. R. Bolcar, B. H. Dean, G. E. Mosier, and M. Postman, “Coronagraphic wavefront control for the ATLAST 9.2 m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77312S (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

Macintosh, B.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martin Levine, B.

M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
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Martinache, F.

F. Vogt, F. Martinache, O. Guyon, T. Yoshikawa, K. Yokochi, V. Garrel, and T. Matsuo, “The Subaru Coronographic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system: implementation and performances of the coronographic low order wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773612 (2010).
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Matsuo, T.

T. Matsuo, M. Fukagawa, T. Kotani, Y. Itoh, M. Tamura, T. Nakagawa, and K. Enya, SCI team, “Direct detection and spectral characterization of outer exoplanets with the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument (SCI),” Adv. Space Res. 47, 1455–1462 (2011).
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F. Vogt, F. Martinache, O. Guyon, T. Yoshikawa, K. Yokochi, V. Garrel, and T. Matsuo, “The Subaru Coronographic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system: implementation and performances of the coronographic low order wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, K.

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mawet, D.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Trauger, D. Moody, B. Gordon, J. Krist, and D. Mawet, “A hybrid lyot coronagraph for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanet systems: recent results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510G (2011).
[CrossRef]

Max, C. E.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, D. T. Gavel, and J. M. Brase, “Tip-tilt compensation—resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 407, 428–439 (1993).
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McAlister, H. A.

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
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McCarthy, D. W.

L. M. Close and D. W. McCarthy, “High-resolution imaging with a tip-tilt Cassegrain secondary,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 77–86 (1994).
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McCaughrean, M. J.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughrean, S. Hippler, C. Birk, K. Wagner, and R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM—a tip-tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mendillo, C.

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mendillo, C. B.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

Mennesson, B.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moody, D.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Trauger, D. Moody, B. Gordon, J. Krist, and D. Mawet, “A hybrid lyot coronagraph for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanet systems: recent results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510G (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moos, H. W.

Mosier, G. E.

R. G. Lyon, W. R. Oegerle, L. D. Feinberg, M. R. Bolcar, B. H. Dean, G. E. Mosier, and M. Postman, “Coronagraphic wavefront control for the ATLAST 9.2 m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77312S (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Liu, C. Blaurock, and G. E. Mosier, “Pointing control system design and performance evaluation of TPF coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Motter, G. T.

R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nagase, M.

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, S.

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, T.

T. Matsuo, M. Fukagawa, T. Kotani, Y. Itoh, M. Tamura, T. Nakagawa, and K. Enya, SCI team, “Direct detection and spectral characterization of outer exoplanets with the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument (SCI),” Adv. Space Res. 47, 1455–1462 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neufeld, C.

J. T. Stein and C. Neufeld, “A fast steering tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5495, 340–347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nordsieck, K. H.

J. W. Percival, K. P. Jaehnig, and K. H. Nordsieck, “A low-cost star tracker for sounding rockets and class D satellites,” in Vol. 39 of Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (American Astronomical Society, 2007), p. 976.

O’Connor, D.

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oegerle, W. R.

R. G. Lyon, W. R. Oegerle, L. D. Feinberg, M. R. Bolcar, B. H. Dean, G. E. Mosier, and M. Postman, “Coronagraphic wavefront control for the ATLAST 9.2 m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77312S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ogden, C. E.

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olivier, S. S.

S. S. Olivier, C. E. Max, D. T. Gavel, and J. M. Brase, “Tip-tilt compensation—resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics,” Astrophys. J. 407, 428–439 (1993).
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Oppenheimer, B. R.

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, and D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Orton, G. S.

M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Orzechowski, P.

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, D.

R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, and D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Parkes, E.

M. Warner, S. Heathcote, G. Schumacher, R. Cantarutti, and E. Parkes, “Upgrading the controller of the fast tip-tilt tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393D (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patrick, R.

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pennington, D. M.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Percival, J. W.

J. W. Percival, K. P. Jaehnig, and K. H. Nordsieck, “A low-cost star tracker for sounding rockets and class D satellites,” in Vol. 39 of Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (American Astronomical Society, 2007), p. 976.

Postman, M.

R. G. Lyon, W. R. Oegerle, L. D. Feinberg, M. R. Bolcar, B. H. Dean, G. E. Mosier, and M. Postman, “Coronagraphic wavefront control for the ATLAST 9.2 m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77312S (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rabin, D.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

Rahman, Z.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C.

Rao, S. R.

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

Rehse, R.

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rey, J.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ridgway, S. T.

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, L. C.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rohloff, R.-R.

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughrean, S. Hippler, C. Birk, K. Wagner, and R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM—a tip-tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Samuele, R.

M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

R. Samuele, J. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–7.

Schmidtlin, E.

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
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R. Samuele, J. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–7.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider and O. Guyon, E. Science, Mission, and Technology Team, “The exoplanetary circumstellar disk environments and disk explorer,” presented at the 219th meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Austin, Texas, 8–12 January 2012.

Schumacher, G.

M. Warner, S. Heathcote, G. Schumacher, R. Cantarutti, and E. Parkes, “Upgrading the controller of the fast tip-tilt tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393D (2010).
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M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
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O. Guyon, B. Kern, R. Belikov, S. Shaklan, A. Kuhnert, and A. Give’On, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphy: recent results and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510H (2011).
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R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
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S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
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M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
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M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
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R. Samuele, J. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–7.

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

M. Shao and B. M. Levine, “Dilute aperture visible nulling coronagraphic imager (DaViNCI),” in Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), p. 368.

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
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T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
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G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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J. T. Stein and C. Neufeld, “A fast steering tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5495, 340–347 (2004).
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S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
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P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
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Stuchlik, D.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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Sturmann, J.

T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
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T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
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Suematsu, Y.

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
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T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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Tamura, M.

T. Matsuo, M. Fukagawa, T. Kotani, Y. Itoh, M. Tamura, T. Nakagawa, and K. Enya, SCI team, “Direct detection and spectral characterization of outer exoplanets with the SPICA Coronagraph Instrument (SCI),” Adv. Space Res. 47, 1455–1462 (2011).
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T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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Teare, S. W.

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M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
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T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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Thompson, L. A.

L. A. Thompson, S. W. Teare, S. L. Crawford, and R. W. Leach, “Rayleigh laser guide star systems: UnISIS bowtie shutter and CCD39 wavefront camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1143–1149 (2002).
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Tolls, V.

M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
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G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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J. Trauger, D. Moody, B. Gordon, J. Krist, and D. Mawet, “A hybrid lyot coronagraph for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanet systems: recent results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510G (2011).
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P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
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R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
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T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
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T. A. Brummelaar, H. A. McAlister, S. T. Ridgway, W. G. Bagnuolo, N. H. Turner, L. Sturmann, J. Sturmann, D. H. Berger, C. E. Ogden, R. Cadman, W. I. Hartkopf, C. H. Hopper, and M. A. Shure, “First results from the CHARA array. II. A description of the instrument,” Astrophys. J. 628, 453–465 (2005).
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G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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Vaischt, G.

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
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P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
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P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
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M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
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M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
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Wallace, J. K.

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
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M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
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Warner, M.

M. Warner, S. Heathcote, G. Schumacher, R. Cantarutti, and E. Parkes, “Upgrading the controller of the fast tip-tilt tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393D (2010).
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P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
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M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
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M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
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M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
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F. Vogt, F. Martinache, O. Guyon, T. Yoshikawa, K. Yokochi, V. Garrel, and T. Matsuo, “The Subaru Coronographic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system: implementation and performances of the coronographic low order wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773612 (2010).
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F. Vogt, F. Martinache, O. Guyon, T. Yoshikawa, K. Yokochi, V. Garrel, and T. Matsuo, “The Subaru Coronographic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system: implementation and performances of the coronographic low order wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773612 (2010).
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Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

R. C. DuVarney, C. A. Bleau, G. T. Motter, S. B. Shaklan, A. C. Kuhnert, G. Brack, D. Palmer, M. Troy, T. Kieu, and R. G. Dekany, “EEV CCD39 wavefront sensor cameras for AO and interferometry,” Proc. SPIE 4007, 481–492 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Vogt, F. Martinache, O. Guyon, T. Yoshikawa, K. Yokochi, V. Garrel, and T. Matsuo, “The Subaru Coronographic Extreme AO (SCExAO) system: implementation and performances of the coronographic low order wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 7736, 773612 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Warner, S. Heathcote, G. Schumacher, R. Cantarutti, and E. Parkes, “Upgrading the controller of the fast tip-tilt tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7739, 77393D (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Stein and C. Neufeld, “A fast steering tertiary mirror for the SOAR telescope,” Proc. SPIE 5495, 340–347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K.-C. Liu, C. Blaurock, and G. E. Mosier, “Pointing control system design and performance evaluation of TPF coronagraph,” Proc. SPIE 5497, 437–448 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Dekany, J. K. Wallace, G. Brack, B. R. Oppenheimer, and D. Palmer, “Initial test results from the Palomar 200-in. adaptive optics system,” Proc. SPIE 3126, 269–276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Trauger, D. Moody, B. Gordon, J. Krist, and D. Mawet, “A hybrid lyot coronagraph for the direct imaging and spectroscopy of exoplanet systems: recent results and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510G (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, B. Kern, R. Belikov, S. Shaklan, A. Kuhnert, and A. Give’On, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization (PIAA) coronagraphy: recent results and future prospects,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81510H (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Rao, J. K. Wallace, R. Samuele, S. Chakrabarti, T. Cook, B. Hicks, P. Jung, B. Lane, B. M. Levine, C. Mendillo, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, and J. B. Stewart, “Path length control in a nulling coronagraph with a MEMS deformable mirror and a calibration interferometer,” Proc. SPIE 6888, 68880B (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, B. M. Levine, J. K. Wallace, G. S. Orton, E. Schmidtlin, B. F. Lane, S. Seager, V. Tolls, R. G. Lyon, R. Samuele, D. J. Tenerelli, R. Woodruff, and J. Ge, “A nulling coronagraph for TPF-C,” Proc. SPIE 6265, 626517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Shao, S. Bairstow, B. Martin Levine, G. Vasisht, B. F. Lane, G. Vasudevan, R. Woodruff, R. Samuele, J. Wynn, M. Clampin, R. Lyon, and O. Guyon, “DaViNCI, a diluter aperture visible nulling coronagraphic instrument,” Proc. SPIE 7013, 70132T (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Lyon, W. R. Oegerle, L. D. Feinberg, M. R. Bolcar, B. H. Dean, G. E. Mosier, and M. Postman, “Coronagraphic wavefront control for the ATLAST 9.2 m telescope,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77312S (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Mendillo, B. A. Hicks, T. A. Cook, T. G. Bifano, D. A. Content, B. F. Lane, B. M. Levine, D. Rabin, S. R. Rao, R. Samuele, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, J. K. Wallace, and S. Chakrabarti, “PICTURE: a sounding rocket experiment for direct imaging of an extrasolar planetary environment,” Proc. SPIE, paper 844211 (to be published).

P. Brugarolas, J. Alexander, J. Trauger, D. Moody, R. Egerman, P. Vallone, J. Elias, R. Hejal, V. Camelo, A. Bronowicki, D. O’Connor, R. Patrick, P. Orzechowski, C. Spittler, and C. Lillie, “ACCESS pointing control system,” Proc. SPIE 7731, 77314V (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Bryden, W. Traub, L. C. Roberts, R. Bruno, S. Unwin, S. Backovsky, P. Brugarolas, S. Chakrabarti, P. Chen, L. Hillenbrand, J. Krist, C. Lillie, B. Macintosh, D. Mawet, B. Mennesson, D. Moody, Z. Rahman, J. Rey, K. Stapelfeldt, D. Stuchlik, J. Trauger, and G. Vaischt, “Zodiac ii: debris disk science from a balloon,” Proc. SPIE 8151, 81511E (2011).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

P. L. Wizinowich, D. Le Mignant, A. H. Bouchez, R. D. Campbell, J. C. Y. Chin, A. R. Contos, M. A. van Dam, S. K. Hartman, E. M. Johansson, R. E. Lafon, H. Lewis, P. J. Stomski, D. M. Summers, C. G. Brown, P. M. Danforth, C. E. Max, D. M. Pennington, “The W. M. Keck Observatory laser guide star adaptive optics system: Overview,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 118, 297–309 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Glindemann, M. J. McCaughrean, S. Hippler, C. Birk, K. Wagner, and R.-R. Rohloff, “CHARM—a tip-tilt tertiary system for the Calar Alto 3.5 m telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 109, 688–696 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Close and D. W. McCarthy, “High-resolution imaging with a tip-tilt Cassegrain secondary,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 106, 77–86 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Thompson, S. W. Teare, S. L. Crawford, and R. W. Leach, “Rayleigh laser guide star systems: UnISIS bowtie shutter and CCD39 wavefront camera,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 114, 1143–1149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solar Phys.

T. Shimizu, S. Nagata, S. Tsuneta, T. Tarbell, C. Edwards, R. Shine, C. Hoffmann, E. Thomas, S. Sour, R. Rehse, O. Ito, Y. Kashiwagi, M. Tabata, K. Kodeki, M. Nagase, K. Matsuzaki, K. Kobayashi, K. Ichimoto, and Y. Suematsu, “Image stabilization system for Hinode (Solar-B) solar optical telescope,” Solar Phys. 249, 221–232 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

e2v, www.e2v.com .

Astronomical Research Cameras (ARC), www.astro-cam.com .

Physik Instrumente (PI), www.physikinstrumente.com .

C. Buil, CCD Astronomy: Construction and Use of an Astronomical CCD Camera (Willmann-Bell, 1991).

J. W. Percival, K. P. Jaehnig, and K. H. Nordsieck, “A low-cost star tracker for sounding rockets and class D satellites,” in Vol. 39 of Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (American Astronomical Society, 2007), p. 976.

The HST MultiDrizzle Handbook, http://www.stsci.edu/hst/HST_overview/documents/multidrizzle/ch42.html .

R. Samuele, J. Wallace, E. Schmidtlin, M. Shao, B. Levine, and S. Fregoso, “Experimental progress and results of a visible nulling coronagraph,” in Proceedings of IEEE Aerospace Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 1–7.

G. Schneider and O. Guyon, E. Science, Mission, and Technology Team, “The exoplanetary circumstellar disk environments and disk explorer,” presented at the 219th meeting of the American Astronomical Society, Austin, Texas, 8–12 January 2012.

M. Shao and B. M. Levine, “Dilute aperture visible nulling coronagraphic imager (DaViNCI),” in Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), p. 368.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

FPS diagram: the recollimated telescope beam reflects from the FSM to a dichroic beam splitter, which transmits light shortward of 600 nm into the angle tracker camera and reflects the red science light into the nuller. Stellar centroids are calculated by the FPS CPU and fed to a software PID controller. The PID control signals are sent to the FSM to stabilize the stellar image on the angle tracker. This stabilizes the input pointing to the nuller.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Timing diagrams for the PICTURE FPS. The flight mode (top) uses a 200 Hz system rate with full chip ( 80 × 80 ) readout. Flight centroids were calculated over a 41 × 41 pixel box to accommodate the large telescope PSF (see Section 5). The frame transfer nature of the angle tracker camera allows the slow analog-to-digital conversion to proceed while the next image is integrating. The data age at the time of each FSM update is 5.7 ms and the controller latency, defined as the sum of the readout and image processing time, is 3.2 ms. The image processing stage (shaded) includes centroiding and PID calculation. The FPS high-speed 1 kHz mode is diagrammed in the lower chart. This mode was also available in flight to prevent CCD saturation. The image processing time, which scales as the number of centroiding pixels, is dramatically reduced in the 1 kHz mode through the use of a 3 × 3 or 2 × 2 centroiding box. In either mode, the centroid box size can be adjusted on the fly to accommodate any spot size.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Modeled FPS centroid measurement sensitivity and noise as a function of centroid box size for two different Airy spots. A m v = 2 star is used with a 5 ms exposure time and typical angle tracker CCD noise values. In this simulation, the star is positioned at the center of a pixel, and the minimum box width is 3 px.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Body pointing time series data from the PICTURE flight: x axis (top), y axis (bottom). Payload attitude, as measured by the ACS (purple) and the FPS (red), is shown for a 30 s steady-state window of the PICTURE flight. The ACS attitude simulator result is shown in green. The ETA is calculated by mixing the FPS measurement below 2 Hz with the ACS simulator above 2 Hz (see Subsection 4.B).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Body pointing power spectra from the PICTURE flight: x axis (top), y axis (bottom). These power spectra are calculated directly from the time series data shown in Fig. 4. The dashed lines show the cumulative pointing error on the right axis. The FPS attitude measurement (red) supports the ACS simulator prediction of the high-frequency response (green) below the ACS sensor noise floor (purple). The ACS attitude measurements are recorded at 50 Hz. This sets the 25 Hz Nyquist cut-off frequency.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

2D distribution of 6,000 contiguous angle tracker centroids. These data points are concurrent with the body pointing time series data from Fig. 4. Total enclosed error contours are overlaid.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Angular distribution of centroids on the angle tracker camera: x axis (top), y axis (bottom). These are the same centroid measurements as shown in Fig. 6. Gaussian fits and total enclosed error intervals are overlaid.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Measured and simulated FPS stability: x axis (top), y axis (bottom). The ETA is plotted along the top of each panel. The time series of measured angle tracker centroids is plotted below. Simulated centroids are produced by running the ETA through the FPS simulator. The ETS is an additional output of the simulator. It represents the true pointing into the nuller (see Subsection 5.C).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Measured and simulated centroid power spectra from the PICTURE flight: x axis (top), y axis (bottom). These power spectra are calculated directly from the time series data shown in Fig. 8. The dashed lines show the cumulative pointing error on the right axis.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

In-flight x axis FPS transfer function. This is the quotient of the measured centroid PSD and the ETA PSD. These power spectra are taken directly from Fig. 9; the PSD values are shown on the right axis. The closed-loop bandwidth is defined as the frequency (vertical line), where the transfer function becomes larger than 1 / 2 (horizontal line). The 200 Hz FPS has a measured bandwidth of 5.5 Hz. Below the bandwidth frequency, the FPS transfer function follows a f 4 power law. Above the bandwidth frequency, the measured transfer function becomes invalid due to centroid measurement noise. Here the modeled ETS transfer function (dotted-line) gives the best estimate of the FPS response.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Model of the flight PSF (top) and the resulting centroid measurement sensitivity and noise curves (bottom).

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

FPS simulator constraints on the flight centroid measurement sensitivity. Ten FPS simulations are plotted from left-to-right, top-to-bottom in order of increasing centroid sensitivity. The x and y axes are stacked. The sensitivity is displayed for each X , Y pair. The simulated centroid PSD (thin line) is overplotted with the measured PSD (thick line). The transition across the 5.5 Hz bandwidth (vertical dashed line) is best fit by the simulation using a centroid sensitivity of 0.6.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Simulated, system-rate-optimized ETS for three different telescope spot sizes as a function of stellar brightness. These curves are generated using the FPS simulator, which is driven by the PICTURE flight ETA. The telescope PSF is modeled as an Airy function with the given width, and the centroid uncertainty is calculated using Eq. (2) with the CCD noise values from Table 1. The centroiding box size is set to achieve a minimum 95% sensitivity. The lower (solid) line represents the diffraction-limited performance of the PICTURE 0.5 m telescope. A 1 ms lower limit is imposed on the exposure rate to illustrate the effects of CCD full-well saturation, which occurs at 3 × 10 5 e - / px . The dotted lines below each curve show the theoretical photon-noise-limited pointing performance in the absence of CCD dark current and read noise. The 0.42 mas RMS FSM amplifier noise level sets a lower limit on the system performance.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. FPS Error Budget: In-flight FPS Performance on the Calibration Target, Rigel, Is Separated Into Component Sources of Errora

Equations (3)

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x = i N x i C i i N C i .
σ x 2 = i N σ C i 2 ( x C i ) 2 = i N σ C i 2 ( x i x ) 2 ( i N C i ) 2
σ C i 2 = σ R N 2 + G D i + G P i + 1 12 ,

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