Abstract

We theoretically propose a hybrid microresonator consisting of a metallic wedge ring and a silica ring and investigate the existing whispering-gallery-like hybrid wedge plasmon polariton modes. These tightly confined hybrid plasmon modes are found to possess ultrasmall mode volumes while maintaining relatively high quality factors simultaneously at room temperature; that is, high values of Q/V are obtained. For example, a Purcell factor of 70 is achieved at the telecommunication wavelength of 1550 nm. This plasmon microresonator shows great potential in low-threshold plasmonic microlasers and cavity quantum electrodynamics.

© 2012 Optical Society of America

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2011 (3)

2010 (10)

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, S. H. Kim, and A. Scherer, “Design of a surface-emitting, subwavelength metal-clad disk laser in the visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18, 19581–19591 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, Y. Xiao, Z. Han, C. Dong, X. Chen, J. Cui, G. Guo, and F. Sun, “High-Q nanoring surface plasmon microresonator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27, 2495 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip, ” J. Phys. Mol. At. Opt. Phys. 43, 035402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113(2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, R. B. Nielsen, E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 16, 5252–5260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D finite-element simulation of the whispering-gallery modes of axisymmetric electromagnetic resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55, 1209–1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and K. Nelson, “Toward full spatiotemporal control on the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 7, 3145–3149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 98, 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113(2010).
[CrossRef]

Bian, Y.

Boltasseva, A.

Bondarenko, O.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Boltasseva, V. S. Volkov, R. B. Nielsen, E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Triangular metal wedges for subwavelength plasmon-polariton guiding at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express 16, 5252–5260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Chen, X. D.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Colas des Francs, G.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cui, J.

Cui, J. M.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dereux, A.

J.-C. Weeber, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Submicrometer in-plane integrated surface plasmon cavities,” Nano Lett. 7, 1352–1359 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devaux, E.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, C.

Dong, C. H.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durach, M.

M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and K. Nelson, “Toward full spatiotemporal control on the nanoscale,” Nano Lett. 7, 3145–3149 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gayral, B.

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. F. P. Pile, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long range propagation,” Nat. Photon. 2, 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gérard, J. M.

Goh, K. W.

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

Y. F. Xiao, B. B. Li, X. Jiang, X. Y. Hu, Y. Li, and Q. H. Gong, “High quality factor, small mode volume, ring-type plasmonic microresonator on a silver chip, ” J. Phys. Mol. At. Opt. Phys. 43, 035402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, M. U.

F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photon. 4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104312 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Guo, G.

Guo, G. C.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Han, Z. F.

C. L. Zou, F. W. Sun, Y. F. Xiao, C. H. Dong, X. D. Chen, J. M. Cui, Q. Gong, Z. F. Han, and G. C. Guo, “Plasmon modes of silver nanowire on a silica substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 183102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Xiao, C. L. Zou, B. B. Li, Y. Li, C. H. Dong, Z. F. Han, and Q. Gong, “High-Q exterior whispering-gallery modes in a metal-coated microresonator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 153902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Hofer, F.

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F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
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M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photon. 4, 395–399 (2010).
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B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458(2009).
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V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Spotlight on plasmon lasers,” Science 333, 709–710 (2011).
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R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113(2010).
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B. Min, E. Ostby, V. Sorger, E. Ulin-Avila, L. Yang, X. Zhang, and K. Vahala, “High-Q surface-plasmon-polariton whispering-gallery microcavity,” Nature 457, 455–458(2009).
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S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
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K. C. Vernon, D. K. Gramotnev, and D. F. P. Pile, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by a sharp metal wedge on a dielectric substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 101, 104312 (2007).
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Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258403 (2005).
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F. López-Tejeira, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, E. Devaux, T. W. Ebbesen, J. R. Krenn, I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, M. U. Gonzalez, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Efficient unidirectional nanoslit couplers for surface plasmons,” Nat. Phys. 3, 324–328 (2007).
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S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
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V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Spotlight on plasmon lasers,” Science 333, 709–710 (2011).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

R.-M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Room-temperature sub-diffraction-limited plasmon laser by total internal reflection,” Nat. Mater. 10, 110–113(2010).
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Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. M. Spillane, T. J. Kippenberg, K. J. Vahala, K. W. Goh, E. Wilcut, and H. J. Kimble, “Ultrahigh-Q toroidal microresonators for cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Rev. A 71, 013817 (2005).
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[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311, 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Spotlight on plasmon lasers,” Science 333, 709–710 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings (Springer-Verlag, 1988).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids(Academic, 1998).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic illustration of wedge (truncated) ring-type hybrid WPP microresonator.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cavity mode dispersion, Q factor, mode volume, and effective mode index. Calculated from finite-element eigenfrequency analysis, for this calculation, the major radius of the ring is 5 μm, the nontruncated wedge angle is 20°, and the radius of curvature rc is 2 nm. (a) Cavity mode dispersion curves for plasmonic microresonator. Blue curve: SPP(flat) mode on a flat surface; red curve: hybrid WPP() mode supported by a nontruncated wedge; gray and black light lines correspond to vacuum and silica (silica dispersion has been taken into account). Field distributions of hybrid WPP() mode at wavelengths of 0.6 and 1.6 μm are shown in the insets. (b) Theoretical total Q factor and mode volume of hybrid WPP() mode as a function of λ. (c) Effective mode indices, nc, of hybrid WPP() and SPP(flat) modes as a function of λ.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Total, absorption-related, and radiation-related Q factors of WPP() mode (Q, Qabs, and Qrad), plotted as a function of major radius R. (b) Mode energy distribution fractions η1,2,3 in silica, vacuum, and metal, respectively. Here, the wedge angle is 20°.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Characteristics of hybrid WPP mode for different wedge height or angle when the major radius of the wedge ring is set to 5 μm. In (a) and (b), the height is varied and the angle is constant, θ=20°. In (c) and (d), the angle is varied and the wedge is nontruncated. (a) Q factor and mode volume of hybrid WPP mode. (b) Fp factor and mode index of hybrid WPP mode. (c) Q factor and mode volume of hybrid WPP() mode. (d) Fp factor and mode index of hybrid WPP() mode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) and (b) Normalized electromagnetic energy densities for different wedge angles along the r (z=0) and z (r=0) directions, respectively, with 2D coordinate denoted in (e). (c) through (g) show the field energy density distributions at a wavelength of around 1550 nm, focusing of the hybrid WPP() mode field as the wedge angle θ is decreased from 180° to 20°. Here the major radius of the wedge ring is 5 μm and the wedge is not truncated.

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